Why do employees leave people and not the organisations? Many have said that the reason they resign, in many ways, is they weren’t satisfied with their work, inadequate staffing and mainly, a bad manager. Before we deal with a bad manager, we should know what a manager is and what they do.
Management is the process in which a manager organizes and control the business. A manager is a person who “takes responsibility in running the business organisation (Collins).”
To become a manager, there are a number of requirements which are their roles, functions and skills as well as managerial level, theory and competencies.
There are three types of managerial roles which are interpersonal, informational and decisional.
An interpersonal role is a role that allows managers to interact with their employees for the purpose of achieving organisational goals.
The key roles in this category are a figurehead, leader and liaison.
A figurehead performs “symbolic legal or social duties.” (zkjadoon, 2015)
A leader effectively communicates with their employees as well as motivating and mentoring them when it is needed. A leader can also accomplish staffing, training and other relative duties.
A liaison communicates with people outside the organisation in order to get useful information that is in favor of the organisation.
An informational role is role that involves gathering, sending and delivering information in and outside the organisation. The roles in this category are monitor, disseminator and spokesperson.
A monitor observes the environment around them and gathers information about the inside and outside of the workforce and passes on the information to others. It can be done by “reading reports, discussions and speculation.” (managementstudyhq)
A disseminator sends out the information inside the organisation and delivers them. It can be used in phone calls and group meetings.
A spokesperson delivers the information to the outsiders.
A decisional role involves a manager using the information to make decisions. The four decisional roles are entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator.
An entrepreneur acts as an initiator, designer and encourage to improve and innovate. (zeepdia)
A disturbance handler takes action when the organisation faces important, unexpected challenges.
A resource allocator distributes resources of all types, including time, funding equipment and human resources.
A negotiator represents the organisation in major negotiations affecting the manager’s areas of responsibility.
The four main functions of management are planning, organising, leading, coordinating and controlling.
Planning is setting an organisational goal and deciding what’s the best course of action to achieve the goals. Through planning, “management defines what the use of the organisation should be and how to get there” (iEduNote).
Organising is a process of creating an organisational structure and allocating human resources to ensure the objectives are completed. (Mlibraries)
Leading is the process of “motivating, influencing and directing others in the organisation to work productively in pursuit of organisation goals.” (W. Hill ; L. McShane, 2008) Leading also requires a clear strategic vision for the organisation and become determinate for that vision.
And lastly, Controlling, which is a process of tracking the activities as well as “measuring performance, comparing results to objectives, and making slight changes when needed.” (Lumen Learning) It is considered as the most important function because it provides the information that keeps track on the objectives. By controlling the organisations, managers can be informed of what is happening and what are the things that needed to be improved or whether it is working or not.
In the managerial level, there are three types which are first-line, middle and top.
First-line managers are responsible for “managing the work of non managerial employees who are involved with the development of the products or service for customers in an organisation (TheDefinition).” They are also known as supervisors and examples of first-line managers are department head, group leader and unit manager.
Middle managers are responsible for performing duties and assisting the top managers by “reporting and motivating them to achieve business goals”. (Schermerhorn, 2011)
And finally, top managers are at the highest level in the organisational level. They are responsible for the organisation’s performance and “establishing policies and procedures of an entity” (Studiousguy). Examples of top managers are Chief Executive Officer (CEO), President and Vice President. (Study)
Now that we know about the functions and managerial levels, we should combine them to see how much time is spent on both. According to Reference for Business, top managers do planning, organising and controlling more than managers at any other level. Top managers are least like to lead which is more suitable for first-line managers while middle managers have a balance of all four functions according to Lussier (2008).
There are three types of skills managers are required to partake in. Technical, human and conceptual.
Technical skills are the skills that managers assist the help of an expert with their knowledge to perform specific tasks using different “methods, techniques and procedures.” (L. Hill and McShane, 2008) It can be achieved through formal education and formal training. An example of managers using this skill are accountants, engineers and market researchers.
Human skills are skills managers required to communicate and collaborate with their employees and teams in the organisation. It is important for managers to work with other people because it will help them to become “leaders and motivate employees for better accomplishments as well as making use of human potential in the company effectively (Sutevski, no date).” This is considered as the most important skill for managers.
And lastly, conceptual skills are the ability to “visualise the organisation as a whole”, including the use of “analytical, creative and initiative skills.” (Akrani, 2011) They are also known as critical thinking and a foundation for strategising and organising. It will help the managers to think outside of the box and make decisions that will satisfy the overall objectives.
Management competencies are also essential of becoming an effective and efficient manager. It is defined as a “skill-based capability for high performance in a management job.” (R. Schermerhorn) The competencies include; communication, teamwork, self-management, leadership, critical thinking and professionalism.
There are four types of management theory. Classical, human relations, systems and contingency.
Classical management theory emphasizes on structure and the best way to perform and manage tasks. It is divided into three sub-categories; scientific, administrative and bureaucratic.
In scientific management, developer Frederick Taylor is one of the first people to study people’s behavior and performance at work. To improve production efficiency. Taylor tried to figure out the “one best way’ to perform a certain task.
His theory argued the following:
• Jobs should be designed according to scientific rules rather than rule of thumb methods
• Employers should collect data and determine what’s the best way to perform a task
• Employees should be selected in the most efficient methods to perform their jobs
• Provide incentive.
• The principles of scientific management should be explained to workers. These principles include;
• Replace working by “rule of thumb,” or simple habit and common sense, and instead use the scientific method to study work and determine the most efficient way to perform specific tasks.
• Rather than simply assign workers to just any job, match workers to their jobs based on capability and motivation, and train them to work at maximum efficiency.
• Monitor worker performance, and provide instructions and supervision to ensure that they’re using the most efficient ways of working.
• Allocate the work between managers and workers so that the managers spend their time planning and training, allowing the workers to perform their tasks efficiently. (Mind Tools)
In administrative management, developer Henry Fayol was concerned with how management was generalized and how the organisation is operated. His approach was analytical and focused attention on management as a function which were planning, organising, leading and controlling.
Fayol has developed 14 administrative principles of organisational management to improve the performance of an organisation.
These principles include
1. Division of labor – Specializing and making the workers more effective and efficient
2. Authority and responsibility – Give command and make decisions.
3. Discipline – An employee should be obedient and respectful to the managers and the established rules and regulation of the organisation
4. Unity of Command – An employee must get order from one supervisor only
5. Unity of Direction – There should be only one manager under the guidance and plan of which the groups are having the same goals and onnjectives hsould move forward.
6. Subordination of Individual Interest – Interest of individuals and organisational interest. There must be harmony between these two interests.
7. Remuneration – Must be monetary as well as non-monetary remuneration to the employees based on their performance level. It must be fair, reasonable and satisfactory.
8. Centralization – Top level of authority should be centralized to the top level management
9. Scalar Chain – Chain of superiors ranging from top level of management to lower level management based on the hierarchy level.
10. Order – Every material and manpower should provide proper place in the organisation.
11. Equity – All members of the organisation should be treated as equals.
12. Initiative – Level of freedom that an organisation should provide to the employee to carry out plans without forcing them.
13. Stability of a personal’s possession – An employee must be provided with job security which will help them become efficient.
14. Espirit de Corps – “Union is strength”. The organisation must integrate all its actions towards a single goal and objective.
Two of the key features of Administrative Theory are formalized administrative structure and division of labor.
In bureaucratic management, developer Max Weber has claimed that bureaucracy was the most efficient form of organisation. He advocated the essential structures of formal organisation with sets of rules and regulations. Organisations are required to have a well-defined hierarchical structure with detailed authority.
The features of Bureaucratic Organisation include
1. Clear Division of Labor and Specialization
2. Well defined Hierarchy of Authority
3. Rules and Regulations are written down and clearly stated
4. Interpersonal relations are based on positions and not on personalities
5. Selection and Promotion is based on technical qualifications
6. Salaries are tied to pay grade system.
Despite that, there are also criticisms of Bureaucratic Organisation.
1. Too much emphasis on rules and regulations. It is too rigid and inflexible.
2. No importance was given to informal groups
3. Bureaucracy involves a lot of paper worker
4. Bureaucracies are traditionalists and are unable to adapt to change
5. Micro managing
6. Red Tape
This theory may be suitable for government organisations. But it is not suitable for other businesses because they believe in quick decision making and flexibility in procedures.
In human relations theory, Elton Mayo introduces the Hawthorne experiment at the Western Electric Company in Chicago, USA between 1924 & 1932 by him and his co workers. It is considered as best known and most widely quoted piece of social research. Its initial studies were to determine the effects of changes in the environment and productivity.
The human relations movement have evolved from the Hawthorne experiment. Human relations approach has proposed that worker’s needs, feelings and emotions should be considered.
In systems, the organisation was regarded as a system of interrelated parts, a collection of subsystems. The theory that an organisation comprises various parts that must perform tasks necessary for the survival and proper functioning of the system.
There are four parts of System Management
3. Transformation Process
And lastly, contingency is based on the premise that managers’ actions should vary according to the individual, task to be performed, technology used and the external environment that the organisation is in. It encourages managers to stay flexible. There are no general principles of management that can be applicable to all situations, what is best will depend on variables.
These core concepts include
• What managers do depends on or is likely on the situation at hand, emphasizing an “if-then” relationship
• If a particular situational variable exists, then managers are likely to take a particular action.
• Successful managers must consider the realities of the specific organisational circumstances they face when applying management concepts, principles, tools and techniques.
A bad manager is seen as a manager “who plays favorites, didn’t give feedback to their employees, expect them to work 24/7, micromanaging, poorly communicates with employees, verbally abuse them, lack of vision and trust, didn’t cared about their employees and never wanting to admit their mistakes” (Zambas, 2017). A management theory for this situation would be Human Relations Theory because employees needed attention from managers to motivate them and to make them work harder.
If a manager wanted to avoid these signs, they should “get to know their employees” (thehumanresource, 2014), “letting them lead, show their appreciation, let them do they feel passionately about” (Schachter, 2015) and most importantly, “treat the employees as people” (Cox, 2017).