University of Dhaka
Department of International Relations
Course Name: Politics of Regional and International Institutions (201)
3rd semester, 2nd year
Topic: Term paper on the Geographical Significance of the United Kingdom
Mr. Md. Anwarul Azim
Department of International Relations, University of Dhaka
Profile of Members:
NAME Roll No.
RAJONI AKTER KM-21
JANNNATUL FERDOUSI FM-22
SHIS MD. ABU AYUB SM-26
FATEMA QULSUM RONI SN-36
MST. OISHEE AKTER KM-37
OBAYDUR RAHMAN BE-38
MD. ANOWAR HOSSAIN BE-39
Date of submission: 23-04-2018
Abstract Introduction Methodology Objective of this paper Area Location Economy Population Sea Access Political History Governmental System Environmental Concern Region Religion Culture Way of life Political importance The weakness and strongness Conclusion ABSTRACT
The United Kingdom(UK) is a European country, which is consisted of the diverse territorial estate remaining four major sections, England, Scotland, Wales including the Northern Ireland. Geographically, the United Kingdom has power position and natural resources to carry out its sovereignty. Its absolute location gives it advancement geographically. The United Kingdom surrounded by the sea is another chance to collect the natural resources, which helps the economic wheel of it. The UK belongs to comfortable weather due to having its position surrounded by the sea. The boundary of the UK also belongs to natural resources like oil, gas, coal and including iron ore. It plays a significant role in the country regarding population, management system, government system by practicing democracy that is known as good-governance. Because of having a market oriented economy and capitalization, the UK performs an outstanding role on economic power which remains economic growth and the socioeconomic development for the standard living life of the people in the UK.
The geographical position is a key factor in the economic and natural resource potential of the country. The United Kingdom is identified as an island state positioned on the British Isles, at the northwestern coast of continental Europe. All the parts of Great Britain, i.e. England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are differences in the national configuration of the population, have their own history and of course their own geographical features. Apartness of the UK from the continent is an important feature of its geographical location. Great Britain constantly took part in different European wars, but throughout already nine centuries it hasn’t experienced any foreign invasion (since 1066). The country safely uses all of the profitable advantages of the close location to the most developed countries of Western Europe, as well as opportunities of the World Ocean.
This term paper will examine the geographical significance of the United Kingdom. We will describe the geographical strategies such as area, location, sea access, history, government system, environmental concern, region, religion, culture, and other issues regarding United Kingdom such as security threat, position in global politics, acceptance, and penetration of international bodies in the decision making process.
The second half of the twentieth century has affected the country, and the economic – geographical position of the UK has changed. This work will show the benefits of the geographical position of Britain.
This paper on “the Geographical Significance of the United Kingdom” has been made with the help of secondary data, which includes journals, books by the Analyst, reports, the Journals, articles and reports, online PDF books also and others. The most of the data of this term paper have maintained on the basis of qualitative and descriptive method. This term paper has been made by the group works along with the help of every member of the group.
OBJECTIVE OF THIS PAPER
This paper explores the geographical significance of the United Kingdom regarding various categories such as the political importance, the governmental system and its population and their characters, area, location, economy, religion, sea access, cultures and others. This paper also shows the democratic practice in this country and its good-governance known as the model of the modern democratic governance, including present concerning issues regarding the global climate change all over the world.
AREA OF UNITED KINGDOM
Size: The United Kingdom is 78th world’s largest state with an area of 242,500 square kilometers (93,600 sq mi). It is also the 21st most populous country with an estimated 65.6 million population. The United Kingdom is combined a unitary sovereign state- Northern Ireland, Scotland, Principality of the Weal’s. They have gained a degree of autonomy.
Capital: The capital of the UK is London, that is situated near the Thames river. London is one of the oldest of world greatest cities. It is the economic, transportation, and cultural center of the UK. The size of London is 1,572 km2 (607 sq mi).
London is also the capital of England. Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland. Cardiff is the capital of Wales, and Belfast is the capital of Northern Ireland.
Climate: The United Kingdom has a temperate maritime climate, as the sea influence much of its weather. The available wind in the UK comes from the south west. The western part if the country is tending to be hottest, and high area such as Scotland, Weals, Lack district all are experiencing more rain. The southern and eastern part experience less rain. Temperature in UK are directed by latitude, and in the summer the difference between London and Edinburgh is often 4 or 5 degrees. West coast benefit from the prevailing wind across the Atlantic during winter.
Administrative geography: Overall England is segmented into 9 regimes and 48 ceremonial counties, though these have a limited influence on public policy. The UK is divided into Counties, District, and Parishe in working local government. In some areas, Counties and district form towfold administrative structure. Parishes cover only part of England. The present system is a result of the legislation statuted in 1965 and 1972. Jones, B., Kavanagh, D., Moran, M. ; Norton, P., Politics UK, (2004), Pearson Longman. Jones, B., Kavanagh, D., Moran, M. ; Norton, P., Politics UK, (2004), Pearson Longman. Jones, B., Kavanagh, D., Moran, M. ; Norton, P., Politics UK, (2004), Pearson Longman.3
The location of a country is divided by tow type – Absolute location and Relative location. We can see United kingdom in terms of Absolute location and Relative location. Absolute location is particularly related to climate. The United Kingdom’s absolute location or its latitude are following.
London: 51° 30′ N / 0° 7′ W, Edinburgh: 55° 57′ N / 3° 11′ W
Belfast: 54° 35′ N / 5° 55′ W
Liverpool: 53° 24′ N / 2° 58′ W
Cardiff: 51° 28′ N / 3° 10′ W
Falmouth: 50° 9′ N / 5° 4′ W
Lerwick: 60° 9′ N / 1° 9′ W
Scapa: 58° 58′ N / 2° 58′ W
Dover: 51° 7′ N / 1° 18′ E
Relative location is related to a state position in the globe. The United Kingdom is positioned in the eastern, western and northern hemisphere. It is the largest island of Europe. This country is bordered by Atlantic sea, Irish sea, North sea, Celtic sea, and the English channel. This give it a free access to sea power. It is located off the northwestern Coastline of continental Europe.
The neighboring countries of the UK are France, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, Ireland, and Fore island.
United kingdom believes in capitalism. In the mid 18th century to 19 th century United kingdom was one of the policymakers of the world. United kingdom had so many colonies in this time.Now, United kingdom is in only four islands and lost its colonial areas. In the 18 th century, free trade policy system was oriented. Industrial revolution had been occurred in United kingdom frist. So,from this time UK thought about market oriented economy and capitalist economic idea.United kingdom was much capitalist. They wanted to make new market for sailing products as well as they had made colonies to produce raw materials. In this time,United kingdom doesn’t concern about economy or colonial based market policy.
United Kingdom is one of the very prominent sovereign country in Western Europe. In this point, I will discuss about the population of the United Kingdom. United Kingdom is the 22nd. Most populous country with an estimated 66. 5million inhabitants in 2018, Based on the United Nations estimates. Its population is equivalent 0.87% of total world population. The population of the United Kingdom are very diversified.
The most recent Census in 2011 highlights that in England and Wales, 80 per cent of the population were the white British. Asian (Pakistani, Indian, Bangladeshi, other) made up 6.8 per cent of the population; black groups 3.4 percent; Chinese groups 0.7 percent, Arab groups 0.4 per cent and other groups 0.6 percent. And The United Kingdom has a well structured education system for these populations and boasts a 99% literacy rate among both men and women. The education system is divided into four distinct sections or stages. These are primary, secondary, further and higher education. Bur each country of the United Kingdom has a separate education system, with power over education matters in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland being developed. The UK had some top class Universities in the world like Oxford, Cambridge and Imperial College etc.
The standard of life in the United Kingdom is very developed. When compared to the OECD average level, the United Kingdom has a higher rate of employment, and a higher level of job security (assessed by the risk of becoming unemployed). However, between 2009 and 2013, average earnings in the United Kingdom decreased by 4.3%. During the same period, the share of employees routinely working very long hours increased by 0.8 percentage points to 12.7%, just above the OECD average level (12.5%).
The Housing affordability is comparatively low: the average household in the United Kingdom spends a higher proportion of its disposable income (22.5%) on housing costs, relative to the OECD average (20.4%). If we talk about the pattern of life and population, United Kingdom is one of the most urbanized country in the world. The increasing percentage of employees and offices and service industries ensure the continued urban growth. Of every 10 people in the United Kingdom, about 8 lives in town and more than 3 of them in one of the country’s 10 largest metropolitan area. The Total percentage of living in urban and rural areas are 82.3% and 17.7 according to the Encyclopedia Britannica. Now we need to look at the characteristics of the British people. English people are most perceived for their great behavior, comical inclination, love of alcohol, pride in their nation and unappetizing cooking. Some People complained in a survey of British council that the British are likewise uninformed of societies outside their own and are bigoted of non-British people. On the other hand, they are thought to be amicable, knowledgeable and well behaved. Additional negative and somewhat contradictory impressions are that British people are rude, unfriendly, lazy, pessimistic and too nationalistic.
As the United Kingdom is made up of some islands, it is blessed with precious opportunities to access the sea easily. It has its border with four seas. These are-the English Channel to the south, the North Sea to the east, the Irish Sea and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. With the resources of fish, salt etc.
United kingdom also obtains crude oil and natural gas from under the North Sea. According to a report on the discovery of the world’s deepest vents, a similarly high metal content is found in another target for seabed mining: hydrothermal vents, chimneys formed by extremely hot water, rich in minerals.
The UK’s seas are very effective for its trade as the sea can use for export- import easily. UK is also connected to continental Europe by the longest underwater tunnel in the world named “Channel Tunnel”.
The Uk has a great naval power named “Royal Navy”, founded in 472 years ago in 1546. The Royal Navy comes in at number 5 among the top naval forces in the world.
They were also used in wars, they are also used in terms of security issues. We know that the UK had used its sea from the past very effectively in the colonial period, Industrial Revolution, two World Wars etc.
HISTORY OF THE UK
The Geopolitical history of the United Kingdom as a unified state can be treated as beginning in 1707 with the political union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland, into a united kingdom called Great Britain. The origins of the United Kingdom can be traced to the time of the Anglo-Saxon king Athelstan, who in the early 10th century CE secured the allegiance of neighboring Celtic kingdoms and became “the first to rule what previously many kings shared between them,” in the words of a contemporary chronicle. In addition to the land border with the Irish republic, the United Kingdom is surrounded by sea. To the south of England and between the United Kingdom and France is the English Channel. The North Sea lies to the east. To the west of Wales and northern England and to the southeast of Northern Ireland, the Irish Sea separates Great Britain from Ireland, while southwestern England, the northwestern coast of Northern Ireland, and western Scotland face the Atlantic Ocean. At its widest the United Kingdom is 300 miles across. From the northern tip of Scotland to the southern coast of England, it is about 600 miles No part is more than 75 miles from the sea. The capital, London, is situated on the tidal River Thames in southeastern England.
The Act of Union 1800 added the Kingdom of Ireland to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The first decades were marked by Jacobite risings which ended with defeat for the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746. In 1763, victory in the Seven Years’ War led to the growth of the First British Empire. With the defeat by the United States, France and Spain in the War of American Independence, Britain lost its 13 American colonies and rebuilt a Second British Empire based in Asia and Africa. As a result, British culture, and its technological, political, constitutional, and linguistic influence, became worldwide.
After the Second World War, the landslide 1945 election returned the Labour Party to power and Clement Attlee became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
The Kingdom of Great Britain came into being on 1 May 1707, consequently of the political union of the Kingdom of England (which included Wales) and the Kingdom of Scotland, according to the Treaty of Union. When Britain emerged victorious from the Second World War, the Labor Party under Clement Attlee came to power and created a comprehensive welfare state, with the establishment of the National Health Service giving free healthcare to all British citizens, and other reforms to benefits.
Britain became a founding member of the United Nations during this time and of NATO in 1949. Under foreign minister Ernest Bevin, Britain took a strong anti-Soviet position in the emerging Cold War.
Great Britain is usually divided into a highland and a lowland zone. A line running from the mouth of the River Exe, in the southwest, to that of the Tees, in the northeast, is a crude expression of this division. The course of the 700-foot contour, or of the boundary separating the older rocks of the north and west from the younger southeastern strata, provides a more accurate indication of the extent of the highlands.
The government of UK is led by the Prime Minister, who have the responsibility to select all the remaining ministers. They togetherly take the supreme decision and they are known as the Cabinet. The government ministers all sit in Parliament, and are accountable to it. The government is dependent on Parliament and make primary legislation, and since the Fixed-terms Parliaments Act 2011, general elections are held every five years. Then they elect a new House of Commons, unless there is a successful vote of no confidence in the government or a two-thirds vote for a snap election in the House of Commons, in which case an election may be held sooner. After an election, the monarch selects as prime minister the leader of the party most likely to command the confidence of the House of Commons, usually by possessing a majority of MPs. Under the uncodified British constitution, executive authority lies with the monarch, and this authority is exercised by the prime minister and the cabinet. The Cabinet members have the right to advise the monarch as members of the Privy Council. They also have the power as directly lead the Government Departments.Up to three layers of elected local authorities such as County, District and Parish Councils exist throughout all parts of the United Kingdom, in some places merged into Unitary Authorities. They have limited local tax-raising powers. Many other authorities and agencies also have statutory powers, generally subject to some central government Supervision.
The Uk government’s agenda, goals and activities:
The UK Government’s long-term goal is to secure, maintain and stabilized the current situation , in order to achieve its objective of a fair society where there is security and equal opportunity for all. The Government wants to secure human life, ensure high growth of economy, higher standard of human life, basic needs and overall a healthy society surrounded by a healthy economy. The world economy was hit by a succession of shocks during 2007 and 2008, with the financial crisis of late 2008 leading to a steep and furnished global economic downturn which brought recessions in most of the world’s major advanced economies and the world economy is set to contract by 1¼ per cent in 2009, the first fall in the post-war period. The Government is delivering a comprehensive package to support economic recovery in the UK, while ensuring sound public finances. Budget 2009 provides further targeted support to households and businesses.
The UK has a mild and temperate climate with plentiful rain throughout the year, which is influenced by the North Atlantic Drift and the southwesterly winds. The temperature varies with the seasons seldom dropping below -11 C (12 F) or rising above 35 C (95 F). In 1993, it had forested 10%, pastures 46%, agricultural-cultivated 25%, the other 19%.
According to UK NEA, grazing, air pollution and the forces of climate change have significantly affected the mountainous regions and the country’s grassy lowlands of the UK. The inland quality of UK’s freshwater supply declined significantly after the WW2. On the other hand, for the demand for housing, tourism and industry facilities, marine and coastal habitats have declined significantly over the last 60 years.
According to UK NEA, not only has the quality of these ecosystems declined, but the disappearance of coastal marshes and soft cliffs has increased the risk for further erosion and coastal flooding. Rise of sea water temperatures and exploitation of marine resources have led to a serious loss in UK marine ecosystems. Coastal fisheries are declining now and its widespread trawling has disrupted the seabed of coast.
UK society is giving emphasis on environmental issues and people are also joining environment related organizations. The UK government is also taking many policies to lower carbon emission, water conservation, etc. UK government recently introduced higher penalties for environmental offences and the government is also supporting the use of green technologies in companies.
According to a report from PwC, UK investment in clean technology since 2010 has focused on 3 main components: electricity, heat and transportation.As environment and climate can not be captivated within any country, so environmental problems of any country can harm the whole climate. For that reason, the UK is trying to face these environmental issues, taking initiatives, policies, making awareness by themselves.
The United kingdom is made up of 4 different parts and these are: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The UK belongs to The Western European region in the world. The UK has a prominent and prestigious role to play in this region.
As this region leads the countries of it to take the goal to minimize the threat to international and domestic security, to promote their economic interest in an open and expanding global economy, to promote democracy, to increase their military strength.They set their agenda to promote their ideology too. These countries set the agenda to achieve these goals.
Christianity is the main religion of the UK. 30% of the population affiliate to the Church of England and 10% with Roman Catholic religion. 60% of adult have no belief in God. One-third have no religious affiliation. Scotland and Northern Ireland people follow Presbyterianism. The Western Isles of Scotland, part of Lancashire and Sussex people follow Roman Catholicism.
There are two main traditions of the Church:
High Church: It follows Catholicism and traditional forms of worship, and considered as the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Church.
Low Church: It is related to the Anglican movement.
Second largest Roman Catholic Christian lives in the UK. There are also Bapist, Methodist, and Pentecostal. It has also people from different religions. A survey found that more than half people have no religion. They claim themselves as atheist or secular. Some Churches accept LGBT Christians that alienated young generation. They are tolerant and multi-faith society. The British have many prayer rooms in public places and educational institutions
UK is famous for its historical culture. UK people experience a variety of cultures that are a little bit confusing.
Language: UK is multinational country. It has a lot of language like Polish, Punjabi, Bengali, Gujarati, Arabic, Chinese, and French. The Main language of the UK is English. It is spoken by 98% people. Accents vary from region to region and there are some dialects also. Scottish, Gaelic, Irish Gaelic and Welsh are widely spoken regional languages.
Celebration: The people of UK celebrate many days and festivals throughout the years. It enjoys the day of Queen’s birthday and Christmas Day from all regions of the county. It has Boxing Day, New year’s Day, Good Friday, Easter Sunday etc. It also celebrates May Day and different Bank Holidays. Hay festival is an annual literature festival that held in Wales. People also celebrate April Fool’s Day.
Social stratification: Like other the society of the UK has some diversity. It can be divided into three parts.
Upper class and aristocracy: They belong to the high ranking nobility. They have easy access to all kinds of opportunities.
Middle class: People belonging this class have been viewed as ‘white collar’. They have privately owned homes and access to higher education.
Working class: People are very hard working in this class. They get no special privilege and little access to higher education. They born into a family which depend on unskilled labor.
The Middle class and the working class are now becoming homogeneous. There is a local public house where people eat and drink. It is generally known as ‘The Pub’.
The Family: A great change occurred in the pattern of UK family. Single parent families are in the rise. Among the young people co-habit is popular now. Though they marry, the divorce rate is high. We can see same sex couple in this county and this is permitted by law. Single motherhood and marital breakdown are Normal in their society. Young people who are living distance from family keep good relation and communication with family and relatives. They are also committed to take care of elders.
Gender Roles: Before some decades, society was dominated by males. Men were the head in most of the sector. Things are different now. In this time women work in many sectors like military, police force, administration etc. In the UK, more than 50% women work outside the house. Women get equal respect and status like men. There is also a debate on the status of women, pay levels and responsibility of the family.
Food Habit: The people of the UK have some traditional food and drinks like beers,’meat and two veg’ etc. Curry is a favorite dish now. British hold fork in left hand and knife in right hand at the time of eating.
Art and Literature: Britain has many famous authors like Virginia Woolf, TS Eliot, JK Rowling, Agatha Cristie, Jane Austen, William Shakespeare, John Milton and Geoffrey Chaucer. Beatles, The Rolling Stone, Adele and many prominent artists are from the UK. It has a glorious part of theatres. The national anthem of this country is ‘God save the Queen’.
Social customs and Etiquette: The British people appear to be reserved. But they are very friendly. After marriage women take their husband’s name as surname. They shake hands in time of greeting and leaving. People use the last name to call someone. They take wine, flowers, or chocolates as a gift for the host in time of invitation. But they don’t exchange gifts in business communication. They don’t discuss about politics with strangers. British people are very punctual. They make a great effort to arrive on time. They avoid talking loudly in public places. Hugging, kissing and touching are reserved for family members and close friends. They wear wools and tweeds for casual occasions and blazer in a weekend. They prefer to be formal in theatre, cultural event and holiday dinner.
During the first half of the 20th century, most historians would have agreed with the maximum attributed to Sir John Seeley that: “History is past politics; and politics present history.”
The most important fact in the British political system is the fundamental continuity of that system. For almost 1000 years, British has not been invaded or occupied for any length of time or over any substantial territories as the last successful invasion of England.
According to the US Secretary the state Dean Acheson, United Kingdom as a nation which had lost an empire, but had yet to find a role. And also to say former Foreign Secretary Douglas Hurd, the United Kingdom “punches above its weight” in world affairs.
Because of the England’s relative size, the politics of the United Kingdom have usually been oriented around the political disagreements within England ” rather than those among the four countries of the United Kingdom.”
The important feature of British political history is that three parts of the United Kingdom – Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The British political system is headed by a monarchy, but essentially the powers of the monarch as head of state – current Queen Elizabeth 2 – are ceremonial. The idea of political parties first took form in Britain and the Conservative party in the world. In England, the most important are the Labor, Conservative and Liberal Democratic parties.
The United Kingdom Parliament in London is at the heart of the political system in Britain. It is often called Westminster. It is the legislative body for the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. It has two legislative parliamentary bodies, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. In the British political system, almost all legislative is proposed by the Government and much of it comes from promises made in the manifesto of the relevant political party at the last election. Margaret Thatcher and Tony Blair as big player on the international stage, standing shoulder to shoulder with the US on all the big questions of international policy.
United Kingdom can play very prominent role in the field of World Politics. United Kingdom is a founding member of the United Nations and one of the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. Another important factor is that the United Kingdom has been a member of the European Union (EU). The most important political power is that the United Kingdom is also one of the nuclear power. In 1949, Britain was also at the start of the creation of NATO. The main challenges of NATO is how to build cooperation with the new European Defense Force. The United Kingdom is also a member of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Another important political factor is that, United Kingdom member of the Group of 8 (G8). In 1949, Council of Europe was set up by the United Kingdom. It is a completely separate organisation from the European Union.
United Kingdom can play the most important role in the creation of the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth of nations which is an organization of 53 independent states made up mostly of former colonies that were part of the British Empire. It is headed by Her Majesty Queen
Elizabeth 2. Its main goal was to ease the process of British decolonization. The Commonwealth aims to create strong links between rich and poor countries, it has helped to create strong diplomatic ties between its oldest members.
THE LIVING WAY OF PEOPLE OF UK
The living way of the UK is quite different from other parts of the world. The UK people are in general very polite, soft, sociable and indigenious. The culture of the United Kingdom is influenced by the UK’s history, a liberal democracy and a great power; it’s predominantly Christian religious life; and its composition of four countries—England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland—each of which has distinct customs, cultures and symbolism. The culture of Europe has also influenced British culture, and Humanism, Protestantism and representative democracy developed from broader Western culture. British literature, music, cinema, art, theatre, comedy, media, television, philosophy, architecture and education are important aspects of British day to day life and culture. The United Kingdom is also prominent in science and technology, producing world-leading scientists such as Isaac Newton and Charles Darwinand inventions. Sport is an important part of British culture; numerous sports originated in this country, including football. The UK has been described as a “cultural superpower”, and London has been described as a world cultural capital. A global opinion poll for the BBC saw the UK ranked the third most positively viewed nation in the world.21st century Britain has a very diverse population in the UK . The UK has always welcomed people from other countries, but more preferable is former British Empire countries, and more recently from the European Union.
The UK is a very tolerant and polite society and most people live happily with each other. It is illegal to discriminate against people in the UK because of their race, gender, sexuality or disability, religion, social- status, life standard or other things. Traditional celebrations and cultural events take place throughout the year in different parts of the UK. The UK people celebrate the festival very excitingly. Transport links are good and it is possible to move one place to other places by plane, coach, bus and train. The most common transport is a train service, which is often the quickest and comfortable way to travel. Train travel can be very expensive, if one wants to cheaper rate then he should book in advance to get the best deals.The second popular service is Coach services which cover most of the UK and are very often the cheapest option for students and all. Eating out in the UK is often very good and popular as Britain now has some of the world’s top restaurants and an excellent range of cheaper ones. The most interesting part is that one can taste food from all over the world even in small towns. The UK is the home to some of the world’s top museums and art galleries, music venues and theatre companies which are very enriched and collection is outstanding. Outside the major cities there is beautiful countryside to walk in and many castles, historic houses, parks and gardens to be explored. The day to day life of UK’s people is very busy and hurried. But they enjoyed a lot in leisure.
THE WEAKNESS AND STRONGNESS OF THE Uk
The United kingdom has a rich historical background.In the 18th-19th century, Uk dominated whole world. It is said that “The sun of uk region did not set down”. In this period, UK had colony in Asia, Africa and America continent. Most of the nations of the world. so we find that historically Uk has a role on the nations of world.Commonwealth has been founded by the former dominated nations. Historically, Uk can play a prominent role on the other nations of the world. Uk has a great history of colonialism. Even now every former colony of Uk respect the decision of queen of United kingdom. This respect of former colonial country has positive and negative side.Positive side is Uk can give their political opinion independently and the negative side is Uk can’t take any kind of decision that bring negative impact on their former colonel counties.
UK is a medium sized state and it’s population is also medium in size. For this reason it can easily maintain all aspects and create pressure over others.Once States sized medium got more importance as it us very easy to monitor these countries and it helps to enrich militarily and economic power.During any natural disesters or conflict it may transfer it’s people to other parts. Bt as UK consists of four islands and divided by sea it is much more difficult to maintain better relations among these fours and it may also face problems at time of taking and decision and foreign policy and other internal affairs. It due to this division,it is more easy for other countries to influence and motivate these four parts and force against one another.
UK gets some advantagess due to its Absolute and relative location.As the climate of UK is moderate in nature due to its absolute location,the people of UK are more physically strong and this can help in their daily working power,but as it is moderate in nature people are lazy in UK and they can’t work more at a time.If we think from relative location perspective we may find that UK is surrounded by few sea and some powerful countries like France,Germany, Belgium, Ireland etc and for this reason UK can easily build up a better economic and militarily relations with these country.UK can make alliance, economic cooperation with these country as these countries are also developed like UK.It also face challenges due too relative location such as through these institutions other countries may easily reach UK’s information.It may also face security threat as all countries around it are much strong both in economy and military power.
Although economy of UK is highly developeed and it is market-oriented in nature and it is the 5th largest national economy and it comprised of 3.5% of world economy, it faces a number of challenges and problems besides it’s advantages.Now Brexit is a big challenge of UK.Because of this inflation is surging, consumer spending is decreasing, the level of price growth for every goods and services remains high,productivity remains mired in pre-crisis level.Therefore consumer purchasing power is diminishing. Again now the economic growth of UK is now very weak and looks to be slowing. This issue of Brexit has made a change in UK’s monetary policy and therefore weak policy planning. Thought it is facing a number of problems it has a great influence in world economy.It is members of a number of economic institutions such as G8,ADB,AIIB,WB,IMF etc and through these institutions it ensure it’s participation in economic dominace all over the world along with some other economically powerful countries like USA,Germany, China,France,Japan and others.
As UK consists of some islands and it has a very easy access to the sea, it can easily use it as a source of fishes,salt,as a source of natural resources such as crude oil,natural gas etc and it can use these sea as a strong navy power and a medium of better trade.UK also faces some problems too such as others powerful neighbouring may want to use this resourceful areas and fishing rights.During the time of any conflict others countries can take advantages of these sea areas.
About 0.87% of world’s total population live in UK…Most of the people of UK are highly educated and they can enrich the literature,culture or other aspets of UK.During the time of foreign policy or decision making these intellectuals can help the government of UK in taking proper decision and they may aslo develop social, political, educational and other sectors although these are developed now.As the nature of UK’s people are rude,unfriendly, lazy and nationalistic they may br multreated by people from overseas countries.Again as there is a scope of higher education in renowned university, students from other countries coming here for study may learn about the policy,political system of UK and use these knowledgeable and skills in their own country.Therefore they may counter UK and aslo develop their system more rapidly than UK
Culture and values:
The first industrial revolution had occurred in the United kingdom. This industrial revolution had brought some new culture and values. It is said that first modern county of the world is United kingdom. But we notice that United kingdom is country, but she has four other nation like….. This four nations have their own native culture and values. It is highly noticed that the cultural division among the nations of United kingdom plays vital role in political conflict. In 2016 ,Scotland arranged vote for remaining with United kingdom or not. Great Britain belongs with the aristocracy. In their culture, there has a touch of aristocracy. But the other 3 nations don’t give more importance in traditions or aristocracy. It is the main conflicting matter among the nations of United kingdom.
The environmental condition of United kingdom is not so bad. But we know that United kingdom’s nations are one of most carbon producing nations of the world. Now a days, air pollution, water pollution are become more concerning matter in United kingdom. We know that the nations of United kingdom are mostly industrially developed. The waste of this industries affected air and water.Nuclear energy using is also an another reason of environment concern.The northern part of Uk is Iceland, by increasing the temperature of world, ice is malting. It becomes a global concern in the world.
The United Kingdom as a European country plays a significant role around the whole world in consequence of having its location, area, resources, historical colonial period all over the world, and including good-governance, political history and others. The United Kingdom is known as the focal country of the modern democratic world, which is practiced as a transparent government for any country and welfare for its population. The economic condition of the UK, natural resources, and global leadership of the United Kingdom carry out the groundbreaking performance all over the world. Relations between the United Kingdom and other global countries is strong position, which concerns regarding geopolitical issues, global climate change. The United Kingdom also has taken initiative action against the rising terrorist with the help of other countries. As a democracy practiced country, the UK has role in encouraging democratic government system around the world.