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THE VISUAL INTERACTION BETWEEN CHILD AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE STORY BOOKS IN PRESCHOOL LIBRARY IN SRI LANKA

THE VISUAL INTERACTION BETWEEN CHILD AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE STORY BOOKS IN PRESCHOOL LIBRARY IN SRI LANKA
(WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO NORTHWESTERN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY)

Udayanganee Thushari Madurapperuma
( 102230V )

Honors Degree of Bachelor of Design

Department of Integrated Design
University of Moratuwa
Sri Lanka

July 2018

THE VISUAL INTERACTION BETWEEN CHILD AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE STORY BOOKS IN PRESCHOOL LIBRARY IN SRI LANKA
(WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO NORTHWESTERN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY)

Udayanganee Thushari Madurapperuma
( 102230V )

Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Honors Degree of Bachelor of Design

Department of Integrated Design
University of Moratuwa
Sri Lanka
July 2018

DECLARATION

I declare that this is my own work and this dissertation does not incorporate without acknowledgement any material previously submitted for a degree or diploma in any other university or institute of higher learning and to the best of my knowledge and belief it does not contain any material previously published or written by another person except where the acknowledgement is made in the text.
Also I hereby grant to the University of Moratuwa the non – exclusive right to reproduce and distribute my dissertation, in whole or in part in print, electronic or other medium. I retain the right to use this content in whole or part in future works (such as articles or books).

Signature: Date:

The supervisor should certify the dissertation with the following declaration. The above candidate has carried out research for the dissertation under my supervision.

Signature of the supervisor: Date:
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ABSTRACT
Story books is that an important study media which use for achieving learning objectives of children in preschool. The child is entertained the story books via illustrations, because those children do not have ability to reading letters. So that it is a must to have a more concentration on illustration’s function of the children’s story books.
This research examines how illustrations function in a story book and how often it affects on interaction between child and the book. Illustrations of the story book Pre School libraries govern by the Early Childhood Education Development Authority of the Sri Lanka are observed.
This research has been conducted by use of qualitative and quantitative data. Through which information, research has been analyzed. As a result of the research, I have mentioned what sort of deficits to be omitted from the story books of Sri Lanka in order to strengthening of the interaction between the child and the illustrations.
Same as it is mentioned here what sort of adjustments to be done for causes of those deficits.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Preparation of this kind of dissertation was a significant challenge for me. It couldn’t be able to complete ever this study without support of those.
My deepest gratitude Architect Sithumini Rathnamalala, Head of the Department of Integrated Design.
Mrs.Inoka Samarasekara,Senior lecture-coordinator year four.
Mr.Prabhath Jayarathna
Mrs.Sumanthri Samarawickrama
Mr.Dilina Janadith
Guided for this research.
And I like to thanks Mr.Udaya Chandra, officer in primary section of National Institute of Education. Mr.C.P Sumith Ssenarathne, Director of (North Western)Early Childhood Education Development Authority.
I am grateful to my Mother Brother and all of my Friends.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENT
DECLARATION
ABSTRACT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES

CHAPTER 1
1.1 RESEARCH TOPIC
1.2 INTRODUCTIONS
1.3 RESEARCH PROBLEMS
1.4 CONTEXT AND BACKGROUND
1.5 HYPOTHESIS
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.7 OBJECTIVES
1.8 RELEVANCE AND THE JUSTIFICATION
1.9 LIMITATIONS
1.10 APPROACH
1.11 METHODS AND METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER 2
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 PRESCHOOL STRUCTURE
2.2.1 PRESCHOOL OBJECTIVES
2.2.2 MEDIUMS TO ACCOMPLISH LEARNING OBJECTIVES IN PRESCHOOLS……….

2.3 IMPORTANCE OF STORY BOOKS IN PRESCHOOL EDUCATION
2.3.1 WHY STORY BOOKS?
2.3.2 HOW DOES IMPROVE PRESCHOOL LEARNING OBJECTIVES BY STORY BOOKS?…

2.4 HOW SHOULD BE THE ILLUSTRATIONS ON A STORY BOOK OF A PRE-SCHOOL AGE KID?
2.4.1 IMPOTENCE OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS ON THE STORY BOOKS.
2.4.2 VISUAL ELEMENTS OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS
2.4.3 FUNCTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN STORY BOOKS

2.5 GLOBAL SITUATION OF CHILDREN STORY BOOKS AND THE VISUAL ANALYSIS ON ILLUSTRATION.
2.5.1 EXAMPLE 1 – “THE DAY THE CRAYONS QUIT”
2.5.2 EXAMPLE 2 – “WOLVES”
2.5.3 EXAMPLE 3 – “NO, DAVID!”

2.6 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 3
3.1 INTRODUCTIONS

3.2 EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
3.2.2 NORTHWESTERN EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY AND OFFICERS DUTY

3.3 MANNER OF EDUCATION IN NORTHWESTERN PRE SCHOOLS

3.4 CURRENT PRACTICE OF THE USE OF BOOKS IN PRESCHOOL EDUCATION IN SRI LANKA
3.4.1 SAMPLE PRE SCHOOLS
3.4.2 LIBRARY USAGE AND SAMPLE BOOKS

3.5 CONCLUSIONS

CHAPTER 4
4.1 INTRODUCTIONS

4.2 VISUAL ANALYSIS OF THE ILLUTRATIONS OF THE SAMPLE STORY BOOKS
4.2.1 SAMPLE 1; BAMBI
4.2.2 SAMPLE 2; NARIYA HA MIDI WELA (FOX AND THE GRAPEVINE)
4.2.3 SAMPLE 3; WALAS PANCHATA WEDAKAMAK
4.2.4 SAMPLE 4; AMBALAME PINA
4.2.5 SAMPLE 5; SARUNGALAYA (THE KITE)

4.3 THE COMPOSITES TO EMANATE THE CHILD STORY BOOK IN PRESCHOOL LIBRARY
4.3.1 SAMPLE 01; BAMBI
4.3.2 SAMPLE 02; THE FOX AND THE GRAPES
4.3.3 SAMPLE 3; TREATMENT FOR BABY BEER
4.3.4 SAMPLE 4; AMBALAME PINA
4.3.5 SAMPLE 5; THE KITE

4.4 CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION

LIST OF FIGURES
CHAPTER 2
Figure 2. 1 – COLOUR CIRCLE
Figure 2.2 – 2.5.1. EXAMPLE 1 – “THE DAY THE CRAYONS QUIT”
Figure 2.3 – 2.5.1. EXAMPLE 1 – “THE DAY THE CRAYONS QUIT”
Figure 2.4 – 2.5.1. EXAMPLE 1 – “THE DAY THE CRAYONS QUIT”
Figure 2.5 – 2.5.1. EXAMPLE 1 – “THE DAY THE CRAYONS QUIT”
Figure 2.6 – 2.5.1. EXAMPLE 1 – “THE DAY THE CRAYONS QUIT”
Figure 2.7 – 2.5.1. EXAMPLE 1 – “THE DAY THE CRAYONS QUIT”
Figure 2.8 – 2.5.1. EXAMPLE 1 – “THE DAY THE CRAYONS QUIT”
Figure 2.9 – 2.5.1. EXAMPLE 1 – “THE DAY THE CRAYONS QUIT”
Figure 2.10 – 2.5.1. EXAMPLE 1 – “THE DAY THE CRAYONS QUIT”
Figure 2.11 – 2.5.2- EXAMPLE 2 – “WOLVES”
Figure 2.12 – 2.5.2- EXAMPLE 2 – “WOLVES”
Figure 2.13 – 2.5.2- EXAMPLE 2 – “WOLVES”
Figure 2.14 – 2.5.2- EXAMPLE 2 – “WOLVES”
Figure 2.15 – 2.5.2- EXAMPLE 2 – “WOLVES”
Figure 2.16 – 2.5.2- EXAMPLE 2 – “WOLVES”
Figure 2.17 – 2.5.3- EXAMPLE 3 – “NO, DAVID!”
Figure 2.18 – 2.5.3- EXAMPLE 3 – “NO, DAVID!”
Figure 2.19 – 2.5.3- EXAMPLE 3 – “NO, DAVID!”
Figure 2.20 – 2.5.3- EXAMPLE 3 – “NO, DAVID!”

CHAPTER 3
Figure 3.1 – IDENTIFICATION OF NUMBERS AND LETTERS
Figure 3.2 – IDENTIFICATION AND SORTING
Figure 3.3 – IDENTIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENT AND IMPORTANCE OF SOCIETY
Figure 3.4 – HAND WORKS
Figure 3.5 – GROUP WORKS

CHAPTER 4
Figure 4.1 – SAMPLE 1; BAMBI
Figure 4.2 – SAMPLE 1; BAMBI
Figure 4.3 – SAMPLE 1; BAMBI
Figure 4.4 – SAMPLE 1; BAMBI
Figure 4.5 – SAMPLE 1; BAMBI
Figure 4.6 – SAMPLE 1; BAMBI
Figure 4.7 – SAMPLE 2; NARIYA HA MIDI WELA (Fox and the grapevine)
Figure 4.8 – SAMPLE 2; NARIYA HA MIDI WELA (Fox and the grapevine)
Figure 4.9 – SAMPLE 2; NARIYA HA MIDI WELA (Fox and the grapevine)
Figure 4.10 – SAMPLE 3; WALAS PANCHATA WEDAKAMAK
Figure 4.11 – SAMPLE 3; WALAS PANCHATA WEDAKAMAK
Figure 4.12 – SAMPLE 3; WALAS PANCHATA WEDAKAMAK
Figure 4.13 – SAMPLE 3; WALAS PANCHATA WEDAKAMAK
Figure 4.14 – SAMPLE 4; AMBALAME PINA
Figure 4.15 – SAMPLE 4; AMBALAME PINA
Figure 4.16 – SAMPLE 4; AMBALAME PINA
Figure 4.17 – SAMPLE 4; AMBALAME PINA
Figure 4.18 – SAMPLE 4; AMBALAME PINA
Figure 4.19 – SAMPLE 5; SARUNGALAYA (THE KITE)
Figure 4.20 – SAMPLE 5; SARUNGALAYA (THE KITE)
Figure 4.21 – SAMPLE 5; SARUNGALAYA (THE KITE)
Figure 4.22 – SAMPLE 5; SARUNGALAYA (THE KITE)
Figure 4.23 – SAMPLE 01 – BAMBI

LIST OF TABLES
CHAPTER 3
Table 3.1 – NORTHWESTERN EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY OFFICERS
Table 3.2 – INSTITUTES AND OFFICERS SUPERVISED BY THE AUTHORITY
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CHAPTER 1

1.1 RESEARCH TOPIC
The visual interaction between Child and illustrations of the Story books in preschool library in Sri Lanka with special reference to Northwestern Early Childhood Education Development Authority.
1.2 INTRODUCTIONS
There is no age difference for entertaining of a story books. It can be spread to toddler to an adult. To achieve learning objectives, story books act as a study media. But concerning the design elements and way of illustration functions of story book is an important fact, when choosing a story book, because the illustrations play a major role on the accurate and clear information of the story book. Children at preschool age are closer to the illustrations other than the text. That is children do not know how to read.
Especially in preschools, there is lots of storytelling. Illustration should be functioned well in order to enjoy the story book properly.
1.3 RESEARCH PROBLEMS
Expertise view is that story book’s illustration should be used accurately to be a standard children’s story book. In this research, it was discussed. “How illustrations are functioned in story books of pre school libraries governed by Northwestern Early Childhood Education Development Authority”
1.4 CONTEXT AND BACKGROUND
Knowledge and good habits, telling stories are famous and practical theory. It should not be stopped since telling stories from story books. Telling stories by story books even after Pre School develops learning objectives of the Pre School. It is clear that child’s creativity develops while growing due to perfect story book. Preschool age child, who does not know to read, deals with illustration in story books.
By today, story book has become a friend of the child as well as at the home. There is lot of story book designers in Sri Lanka. But it is questionable whether they do story book designing responsibly when seen low quality story books in today market. It is proven that it has become way of income after seen books selling in trains, bus stations.
1.5 HYPOTHESIS
There is approved method of illustration function in children’s story books. But those are not available in story books in preschools. There are lots of imperfections on the children’s story books in Sri Lanka preschool libraries.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
01) How illustrations function in international children’s standard story book?
2) How illustrations function in pre school’s libraries under supervised by the Early Childhood Education Development Authority?
3) What should be done eliminate deficits in story books in pre school libraries?

1.7 OBJECTIVES
There are few basic objectives of this project.
• Main objective is that studying how child achieve learning objectives by illustrations of story book.
• Studying how long achieve learning objectives by illustrations in story books in Sri Lanka pre schools
• Examination whether the story books are appropriate to the child or not on Different types of story books available in pre schools.
• Examination of illustration functions for development of interaction between illustrations and the child.

1.8 RELEVANCE AND THE JUSTIFICATION
“According to Fang’s (1996) view on the role of illustrations in picture story books, preschoolers usually have short attention spans, and combined with their restricted vocabulary and syntax, they rely more heavily on pictures to comprehend the meaning of the written text than on the text itself”
(Yvet Diamante-Knteis, Children’s looking behavior at different visual elements in detailed illustrations of story books)
Illustration style in story books differ illustration functions on age. When designing a story book, it is a must to concentrate on illustrations on story book.
Story books are used as an educational tool to achieve learning objectives. If there is a deficit, child would not be able to absorb the content of the book. Therefore building of interaction between child and the illustration of the story book is the responsibility of the designer.
1.9 LIMITATIONS
Main effort on this research is for studying how learning objectives are achieved by illustrations of the story books in pre schools of Sri Lanka. For that, preschools governed by the northwestern Early Childhood Education Development Authority are taken as examples. Information taken from Interviewed Illustrators and publishers of common children’s books available in preschool is included. Almost all the books contain the Sinhala language in every preschool. At the selection of Pre School, government pre schools which are preparing children for grade one and children at age between 2-6 years old were selected.
1.10 APPROACH
Effect on achieving of learning objectives by illustration in pre schools was researched. Illustrations of standard story books in international market and illustrations of story books available in Sri Lanka preschool are compared. Captured the Common story books used in Sri Lanka preschools governed by the Northwestern Early Childhood Development Authority were researched. Information is taken by interviewing of illustrators and publishers of those story books.
Identification of any deficits in illustration in children’s story books available in Sri Lanka after being analyzed.
1.11 METHODS AND METHODOLOGY
First thing done was visiting of northwestern Early Childhood Education Development Authority to collection of details of the pre schools. After that, 20 pre schools which are functioning well were selected after having discussion with development officers of the Authority. Educations in those pre schools were studied. What sort of story books used was studied. Next job was selection of five common books used frequently within that chosen 20 pre schools. Causes for selection of those books for preschools libraries were discussed with preschool teachers. After that, more concentrated areas while printing were noted by interviewing those five publishers. Then 5 illustrators were visited. My target was to identification of special reason to incorporate illustrations in such way in those story books. How learning objective are achieved by illustrations in story books were studied. How far learning objectives are achieved by those 5 story books were analyzed. If there is any deficit, reasons for that were observed. After analyzing all the details, solution for that was implemented then.

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CHAPTER 2

2.1 INTRODUCTION
In this chapter, I would like to stress about preschools which are operate under Early Childhood Education Development Authority in Sri Lanka and further about the importance of a story book in preschool. Moreover chapter examines the significance of the standard story book in globally design stream. In addition to that the chapter also explains the way illustration should be in story books with examples.
2.2 PRESCHOOL STRUCTURE
Preschools are to development or improve compulsory skills and basics of children who wish to attend to grade 1 in schools. The Early Childhood Education Development Authority does a great a job by acting as a core center to conduct preschools for children age 2 to 6 in their native language. It also observes preschools in provincial wise and guides them to upgrade the quality of the preschool education.

2.2.1 PRESCHOOL OBJECTIVES
In preschools, programmes are conducted targeting five learning objectives in order to improve cognition, psychological movement skills, affective characteristics and social skills.
1. Physical skills development
2. Personal and social skills development
3. Communication skills development
4. Creative and aesthetic skills development
5. Analytical and problem solving skills development

1. PHYSICAL SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
This development is done by activities which gives exercises to muscles in order to improve motility and manipulate skills. Skills are needed to;
• Maintain balance in walking
• Throw towards a target.
• Catch
• Hit etc.
Moreover herewith develop the competence in pointing eye and hand simultaneously.
2. PERSONAL AND SOCIAL SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
It is important for a child to improve his or her self-understanding and skill to maintain relationships with the society around him or hers. It affects his or her future personality and the success in learning process.
• Give understandings on their own emotions.
• Improve positive attitudes on himself, environment and society.
• Act according to the situation.
• Live with others peace and harmony.
• Love, care and respect others.
• Identify core values and ethics respect by other members in the society.
• Treasure them.

3. COMMUNICATION SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
This development is done by exchanging their ideas and emotions through language.
• Communication skill is developed through improving language.
• Thinking ability is developed through improving language.
• Children are trained to speak as well as listen.
• Train to ask questions and express ideas.
• Improve languages ability of children up to a certain level which assist start writing and reading in formal school.

4. CREATIVE AND AESTHETIC SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
The objective is to allow children to express and communicate their ideas creatively.
• Improve sensitivity about the environment you live.
• Expand the vocabulary.
• Pay attention to the point.
• Search for ways to solve problems.
• Make necessary reactions to others’ actions.
• Do by heart.
• Memorize what learnt.
• Give opportunity to expand their talents by providing support to improve creativity skills.

5. ANALYTICAL AND PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
This makes fundamentals for special skills such as logical thinking and predicting by developing cognition of children. Foundation for subjects like mathematics, science, logic etc., is developed in this age by enhancing the environment awareness.
• Familiarize with comparing, classifying etc.
• Enable categorizing based on dimensions such as colour, size etc.
• Enable understanding concepts such as height, weight, up and down etc.
• Identify small patterns.
• Enable understanding consequences of actions what you have done based on social experiences gained from environment.
Preschools teachers evaluate contribution and success of children on above mentioned learning objectives in preschools.

2.2.2 MEDIUMS TO ACCOMPLISH LEARNING OBJECTIVES IN PRESCHOOLS.

1. PHYSICAL SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
Not only running, jumping, walking and climbing activities, but also activates which enabling growth of even smaller components in the body such as fingers are done in preschools. Make them holding pens and pencils right way, drawing different shapes, turning pages of books and papers, filling cans with water etc., are helpful to develop body muscles.

2. PERSONAL AND SOCIAL SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
Introducing parts of the body, raising awareness of usefulness of those body parts, enabling identify sensibilities such as smell, taste, touch etc., understanding on emotions such as anxiety, happiness, angry, and wonder, group activities are important here.
3. COMMUNICATION SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
Poems, stories, songs, tales, dialogues, role plays are used for this. Through phrases, time indicating verbs such as come, came, coming etc., adjectives such as fair, dark, beautiful, good etc., children are enabled to express ideas and information in simple manner. Group activities help to improve communication skills.

4. CREATIVE AND AESTHETIC SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
This allows to express their own ideas through mediums such as music, acting, drawings, tales etc. studies have shown that humans have a tendency to draw their own ideas in this age. Children always concern about colours, shapes and appearance of different things. Portrait drawings by chalks, crayons, felt pens, pencils, modeling different thing by clay, and collage designs are very important.

5. ANALYTICAL AND PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
Activities such as facing a simple problem and solving it on their own are important here. Studies say that perceptions of children mainly develop on what they see and have to see. This objective accomplish through important activities such as allowing children to observe different objects, items, materials, animals etc., allowing them to understand and observe what happen when something split in to small pieces, allowing them to rearrange the spited small pieces, letting them to count from one to ten etc.
There are different mediums for above mentioned activities in a preschool. Those can be categorized as follows.
6. Blocks
7. Dramatic plays
8. Art
9. Manipulative
10. Literacy/Books/Library
11. Science/Discovery
12. Music & Movements
13. Sand & Water
14. Drawing
15. Outdoor Area
Out of those mediums Literacy/Books/Library play an important role since story books are essential to achieve learning objectives of a preschool.

2.3 IMPORTANCE OF STORY BOOKS IN PRESCHOOL EDUCATION
DEFINITIONS OF STORY BOOKS
“Text, illustrations, total design; an item of manufacture and a commercial product; a social, cultural, historical document; and foremost an experience for a child”
(Macmillian, 1976)
“A picture book is a combination of both visual and verbal elements, specially created for young children.”
(Gokce Irten, 2016, Analyzing the components of children’s picture book)
“A collective unity of story –line, theme, or concept, through the series of picture of which the book developed is comprised.”
(The American library Association, 2008)

2.3.1 WHY STORY BOOKS?
“Children start to look picture books at the age of two or three and they may continue to enjoy with them several years. Picture books become big part of their perception. The genre of picture book actually designed to introduce little to the idea of book and reading if a child can make habit of reading that books; he/she will wants to read the other books when they grew” (Karaman, 2012)
Studies say that there are three theoretical stages which a child learns effectively.
1. Cognitive
2. Affective
3. Psychomotor
“The cognitive domain encompasses the thought processes used in learning; the affective domain, emotional development and feelings; and the psychomotor domain, the physical employment of the body during the learning process”
(Humanity Development Library 2.0, Teacher training: A reference manual, chapter 2 what a teacher needs to know, child and adolescent learning)

THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN
Jean Piaget (1936) has introduced two categories related to cognitive domain.
1. Pre logical stage
2. Logical stage
Pre logical stage

Sensory-motor operations stage Preoperational stage
(Birth to age one) (Age two to seven)
• Sensory – motor operations stage
“The child develops at the sensory-motor stage by acting or the environment and establishing patters for the effective acquisition of knowledge and sense of the world”
• Pre operational stage
“Child is able to conceptualize and use representation in thought; as opposed to the hands-on orientation in the sensory-motor stage”
Logical stage

Concrete operations stage Formal operations stage
(Age seven to eleven) (Age eleven to fifteen)
1. Concrete operations stage
“The child is reasoning processes become logical and logical thought processes are applied to problems”
2. Formal operations stage
“The child/adolescent begins solving problems and using complex reasoning skills”

THE AFFECTIVE DOMAIN
Piaget (1936) has related three cognitive development stages with effective development.
1. Pre operational (Age two to seven)
2. Concrete operational (Age seven to eleven)
3. Formal operational (Age eleven to fifteen)

1. Pre operations
“The child is just beginning to experience and develop moral reasoning, security and needs, and testing adult/peers”
(E.g. lying, guilt, concepts of punishment and justice, right and wrong etc.)

2. Concrete operations
“The child’s will and senses of autonomy are being developed. Judgments of right and wrong are being made. The child begins to challenge rules as they assert his/her opinions and distinguish between lies, deception and reality”

3. Formal operations
“The child develops personality, a concept of self and self-importance. He/she adopts to society and develops in areas of cooperation, trust, sexuality and finding an acceptable state of equilibrium within social/cultural norm and constraints”

THE PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN
“The psychomotor domain which involves the relationships of the child’s body to his/her world”
Accordingly cognitive domain learning methods take account of subjects like Science, Mathematics and Problem solving. Psychomotor domain includes teaching through physical activities.

The affective domain includes teaching through religion and environment. For example good habits, social and cultural behaviors. Story books are mostly related to the affective domain.
(Humanity development library 2.0 Teacher training: A reference manual, Chapter 2 what a teacher needs to know child and adolescent learning)

According to teachers more weight age is given to psychomotor domain and affective domain in preschools. When the child is growing eventually, psychomotor domain and affective domain decrease and cognitive domain learning methods become vital.

2.3.2 HOW DOES IMPROVE PRESCHOOL LEARNING OBJECTIVES BY STORY BOOKS?

1. PHYSICAL SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
“Children strengthen the small muscles in their hands when they turn pages in books they use their eye muscles as they follow the pictures and words in a book”
(Yvonne & Schuyler Moore, child development research center, university of South Carolina ‘Preschool Material’s guide’)

“The fact that the child develops his cognitive and physical abilities compared to the previous period, and that he gains hand-eye coordination and he has visual acuity,(Swim,2014,Piaget,2001,Meggitt,2006) have an influence on the design of the cover because the child focuses on the associations, similarities and differences of the visuals”
(Faculty of education, department of Turkish education Amasya University, Turkey, preparing book for children from birth to age six; the approach of appropriateness for the child)

2. COMMUNICATION SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
Studies say that the child, who is reading the story book, will feel what is felt by the character of the story. In communication most important thing is word. Reading books children learn new words and its meaning by which ability to understand will be broader.

“Children’s greatest growth in language comes during the preschool years.”
(Silvey, 1995)

“The rhythm and rhyme in many picture books make for great read- aloud and children learn words more easily when they hear them spoken often”
(Lori Calabrese, The children’s book review, 2010)

Study says that children are more concentrated to listen when teachers are reading the book loudly.

3. ANALYTICAL AND PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
Study says that story senses are improved by enjoying a story book. Child can understand beginning, middle and end of the story.
“Picture books can be a useful tool for teaching the concept of cause and effect”
(Lori Calabrese, The children’s book review, 2010)

“Students can learn to evaluate and analyze literature, as well as summarize and hypothesize about the topic”
(Marth crippen, The value of children’s literature)

Study says
“Picture books help children to develop critical thinking skills “and
“Picture books stimulate a state of mind in children that words alone can’t achieve,”
(J.Richard gentry, In psychology today)

“Books help children gain a better understanding of the world around them”
(Yvonne ; Schayler Moore, Child development research centre, University of South Corolina “Preschool materials guide”)
And more the children’s basic skills which are counting, number recognition, colour, shapes are also learnt from the story books.

“Contains numerous moments of crisis, when characters make moral decisions and contemplate the reasons for their decisions”
(Martha Crippen, The value of children’s literature)

4. PERSONAL AND SOCIAL SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
“From books, Children learnt about people who are like them and who are different. They feel comforted learning that others have had experiences of fears similar to their own and managed them”
(Yvonne ; Schayler Moore, Child development research centre, University of South Corolina “Preschool materials guide”)

“Children are very impressionable during the formative years, and children’s literature can help them develop in to caring, intelligent, and friendly people”
(Martha Crippen, The value of children’s literature)

There is effect on their mind as reading of books incorporated with other’s point of view and feeling at age of preschool.
“Children’s literature can also encourage students to develop relationships with people, encouraging social contact”
(Martha Crippen, The value of children’s literature)

5. CREATIVE AND AESTHETIC SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
Study says that children’s creativity and Imagination is expanded while reading a story book. Drawing skills and creative thinking and activities are more prongs to be developed resulting of story books sentiment. Children are making new stories out of a story which is being told by the teacher.

“A quality picture book has the power to unleash children’s creativity and imagination, as well as helping children to visualize new concepts”
(Boo-kyung Cho, Jeangjun Kim, Department of early Childhood education, Koria National University of education)
“They can test a new viewpoint by letting them escape from the confines of the physical world” (lee, 1998)

“Picture books can support creative problem solving and help children accept different lifestyles”
(Boo-Kyung Cho, Jeongjun Kim, Department of early Childhood education, Koria National University of education)

“Creativity involves divergent thinking, fluid production of ideas, flexibility, originality of ideas and elaboration” (Guilford, 1993)
In above point of view, that learning objectives of children at Pre School are improved is crystal clear.

2.4. HOW SHOULD BE THE ILLUSTRATIONS ON A STORY BOOK OF A PRE-SCHOOL AGE KID?
DEFINITION OF ILLUSTRATION
“Illustration is a depiction of a theme, idea, story, emotion or anything else visualized by the artist’s graphical representation.”
(Gokce Irten, Analyzing the components of a children’s picture book, submitted to the Graduate school of art and social sciences, Sabanci University, May 2016)

2.4.1 IMPOTENCE OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS ON THE STORY BOOKS.
“Picture books and their illustrations can look children in to a lifelong love of reading”
(Hena Haldikva, Children’s book illustration: visual language of picture books)

“Illustrations serve to expend, explain, interpret, or decorate a written text”
(Bodmer, 1992)

“The words need the pictures more the pictures need the words”
(Salisbury and styles, 2012)

From the above facts we know that the story book is one of the very important methods in Pre-school teaching. Although, they cannot read the words, but they enjoyed the story from the illustrations. When the pre-school teacher teaches from a story book, kids learn lot of things from the illustrations, in the story book. And also, to cover the five learning objectives, in pre-school teachings, illustrations can be a very important method. Let us look at point by point how it helps.

1. PHYSICAL SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
“Books with visual illustration encourage development of book- handling skills: learning to hold the book right side up, turning pages to view the pictures”
(Suzette Wright, Guide to designing tactile illustration for children’s books)

“The fact that the child develops his cognitive and physical abilities compared to the previous period and that he gains hand- eye coordination and he has visual acuity have an influence on the design…”
(Swim, 2014; Piget, 2001; Meggitt, 2006)

Children are getting attracted to the illustration of the story book when they look at the story book from their own eyes. His/hers, eyes are busy and active.The child wanted to go through the story book, because of the attraction of the illustrations in it. Because of that, Child’s finger tips, mussels, are getting stronger and healthy.

When they look at colors and shapes of the story book illustrations, they wanted to draw and paint, from that also, their skills will increase and mussels getting stronger. The child tempted to do various activities, when the teacher teaches by using illustrations in the story book. They wanted to do the facial emotions and actions in the story book character.

2. COMMUNICATION SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
“Although a broad public generally believes differently, a vocabulary of picture books is usually very rich, evocative and engaging according to the pierce (2010)
(Hena Hladikva, Children’s book illustration: visual language of picture books)

In the pre-school, the story is taught by the teacher, while looking at the illustrations, the child asks various questions from the teacher. From that child’s oral language skills will develop. The words, and their meanings, which are not familiar to the child, will come to know.

“And at a later stage, when a child is truly beginning to the read, pictures continue to support his learning by providing clues that allow him to fill in gaps between what he is able to read and words he does not yet know”
(Suzette Wright, Guide to designing tactile illustrations for children’s books)

Most of the time, when children watch the illustration in the story book they wanted to communicate with each other. From that also their communication skill will develop.

“There is a strong relationship between fixation behavior when listing to the story and word learning since children are more likely to learn new words when they focus more on the details in the illustration that depicts the word.” (Evans & saint- Aubin, 2005)

3. ANALYTICAL AND PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
“Even when words are used in books for pre-school children and beginning readers, these children understand the language and the message better when there are many pictures. Illustration accentuates the cognitive function.”
(Mabel Segun, The importance of illustration in children’s books)

From the illustrations they learn about the environment, basic shapes, colors and sizes. They will be able to divide and separate them as well.In a story book a simple incident is mentioned, from the story book illustrations a child will be able to understand when he/she does something what will be the outcome of it. This understanding comes to a child’s mind through the illustrations. The illustration method stays in a child’s memory. The illustration of the story stays in child’s mind for a long time.

When the teacher is telling a story, the child begins to build a relationship with the illustration of the story, from that child’s mind is able to compare and analyze.
According to Zhihul’s 1996 theory, “from the story book, children’s judging quality increases.”

“Children often associate pitchers with their life experience of familiar images, construct meaning based on their existing schemas or schemata.”
(Goke Irten, Analyzing the components of a children’s picture book, 2016)

Children are able to identify the value of aesthetic from picture story books.
According to Broudy 1977 he has mentioned that the analytical development of a child is as follows:
“It is (aesthetic) a primary source of experience on which all cognition, judgment, and action depend. It furnishes the raw material for concepts and ideas, for creating a world of possibility.
“A child of this period examines each and every fine details of visuals and images reflected by visuals (Neaum, 2010), since he wants to know, how, why and where everything happens.”
(Erkan Cer, Preparing books for children from birth to age six the approach of appropriateness for the child)

When the teacher is telling a story, children begin to understand the real meaning of the words through the illustrations.
“He learns concepts like inside, outside, under and over. Also, the child can classify objects according to certain traits (Lindon, 2012; Meggiti, 2006; Piaget, 2001)
(Erkan Cer, Preparing books for children from birth to age six; the approach of appropriateness for the child)

4. PERSONAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
“Firstly, its picture introduces and explains the world to children in a comprehensive way even before they are able to read”
(Hana Hladikava, Children’s book illustration: visual language of picture books)

Children are able to identify the differences in the society and to respect them as well. For an example, children can understand the difference between various nations, about their dress code, religions and various belief systems from the illustrations of the story book. But the child will be able to understand the diversity of the society.
“Picture books also broaden general knowledge and enable children to get a better understanding of them-selves and their integration within a society”
(Reading is Fundamental, 2010)

“It is the duty of the illustration, working closely with the author and the editor, to endear our too give children more positive images and uplift them emotionally, spiritually, and intellectually. For the best picture books are those that coalesce to convey a distinct message”
“Illustrations can give children a sense of personal identity and an awareness of their cultural heritage”
(Mable Seagun, The importance of illustrations in children’s book)

When the child looks at various characters in the story book, the way they dress, the way they talk and behave, he/she may try to build their identity through the illustrations. Because of that, pre-school teachers are trying their best to get good books where good feelings and good habits are mentioned.

“Fables mostly consist of animals that talk, in order to give moral lessons to the listener.”
(Gokce Ieten, Analyzing the components of a children’s picture book, 2016)

5. CREATIVE AND AESTHETIC SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
“Picture books often trigger children’s imaginations, which aid children to think of new ideas and bring new possibilities in to their lives, both immediate and up-coming.”
(Hana Hladikava, Children’s book illustration: visual language of picture books)

Sometimes, by looking at a story book illustration, a child will be able to create a different story rather than what is mentioned in the story book. “Picture books require a certain amount of interaction from children; at the very least they have to turn the pages. This trains the child’s concentration and can prolong its attention span.” Pre-school age kids do not know the letters but he/she attracted to the illustrations. They look at the illustrations and eagerly wanting to turn to the next page because of the illustrations.
“Another benefit is the development of the child’s memory.”
(Hena Haldikva, Children’s book illustrations: visual language of picture books)

They were drawn to drown and to create new things because of the impression they get while looking at the illustrations of the book.
“The illustrations are marking the abstract language of the story more specific and understandable by depicting the verbal information in a way that may contribute to the verbal information in a way that may contribute to the setting up to more powerful, more complicated and better organized memory traces (Levin ; Mayer, 1993)

According to Anderson and Pearson 1984 the child what is already known will be able to gather more information because of illustrations in the book.

2.4.2. VISUAL ELEMENTS OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS
“Children are generally more visually aware and alert than most adult” (McDermott, 1974)
“To get the full measure of meaning and fulfillment from a good picture book, the reader must attend carefully to both” (Kiefer1995)

According to the explanations of different experts mentioned in the studies, it is revealed that the way of illustrations designed in a story book varies depending on the age limit. But however there are several specific key visual elements which need careful consideration in designing illustrations in a story book.These visual elements need to be applied accurately and meaningfully in the children’s’ story books because more than the elders, children are more keen on analyzing the visual elements.

“The older we get, the more our visual awareness is likely to be dulled by overload or by the real or imagined expectations our educational systems have imposed on us that alter the way we view images”
(James Jacobs, Michael Tunnel, Pearson, Children’s Literature briefly, 2004: 35-45)

Accordingly these key visual elements are namely as line, shape, colour, texture, composition.

LINE
“Lines should be able to reveal the depth created by feeling and ideas and show the character’s action’s and kinesis.”
(Erkan Cer, Preparing books for children from birth to age six: the approach of appropriateness for the child)

There are several sorts and types of lines available. They can be categorized as thick, thin, curvy, straight lines. For these the colour of plane black or any other colour in colour range can be used.
As per the findings of studies carried it reveals that “illustrations sometimes use line to direct a reader’s eye across the page, or “point” to a specific part of the art work”
“Artists use line to suggest direction, motion, energy and mood”

• Vertical lines – suggest or represent lack of movement
• Horizontal lines – suggest calm, sleep, stability and an obscene of strife
• Vertical lines and horizontal lines at right angles – depict artificial elements
• Two vertical lines connected by a horizontal line – give the feeling of a solid, safe and secured place
• Diagonal lines – suggest the loss of balance and uncontrolled motion
• Triangles on a horizontal base – suggest the safety
• Jagged lines – suggest danger
• Curved lines and circles – seem less define and less predictability than straight lines
• Thin lines – suggest being delicate and ephemeral
• Thick lines – suggest boldness and strength ”
(Norton, Donna E. and Saundra E. Norton, Through the eyes of a child: An Introduction to Children’s Literature, 6thed, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall, 2003)

According to the explanations in the studies carried it reveals, “line is an element that’s more interesting than people first think.”

SHAPE
“The bigger a shape is in the picture, the more important it is”
(Chi- Fen Emily Chen, Children Literature)

“Shapes should be presented in a way that will not make it difficult for children to comprehend.”
(Erkan Cer, Preparing books for children from birth to age six: the approach of appropriateness for the child)

“Lines join and intersect to suggest shapes and areas of colour meet to produce shapes. Different shapes have different connotation depending upon lines and colours used. Shapes are another way to emphasize the mood of a picture and story”

• Organic shapes-
Irregular and curved shapes are common in nature and mostly present in hand made objects
May be used to convey anything from receptivity and imagination for frightening unpredictability.

• Geometric shapes-
Exact, rigid and often rectangular usually have mechanical origins. May be used to connote complexity, stability, assertion or severity.”
(Norton, Donna E. and Saundra E. Norton, Through the eyes of a child: An Introduction to Children’s Literature, 6thed, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall, 2003)

COLOUR
“The examinations through educational psychology confirm that young readers are sensitive to colour and they can analyze the significance naturally.”
(Salisbury and styles, 2012)

“Colours used in this period should be able to reflect the character’s feeling and ideas; show effect of the plot and make this effect more impressive with light dark contrast”
(Erkan Cer, Preparing books for children from birth to age six: the approach of appropriateness for the child)

Colour is visible in each and every image or figure that anybody comes across with. As per the research it reveals that a colour express certain specific features such as hue, lightness, saturation (intense or pale).
Colours have been clarified into various categories as stated below
• “Analogous: Next to each other on the colour wheel ( ex:red and orange)
• Complementary: opposite one another on the colour wheel (ex: red and green)
• Monochromatic: A palette in which the artist only uses one colour , varying the intensity (ex: shades of dark, medium and light gray)
• Neutrals: Black , white ,gray and shades of Brown
• Primary colours: Red, Yellow and blue
• Secondary colours: These colours are made by combining or mixing primary colours together
(Ex: Green is made by mixing blue and yellow)
• Gradation: the transition of light to dark or dark to light
• Value: the relative lightness or darkness of a colour
(Evaluating Kid Lit, Understanding art in picture books)

Figure 2.1 (source file – https://gdblogs.shu.ac.uk/b3008772/wp-content/uploads/sites/36/2015/12/color-wheel.jpg

“Colour is an extremely important element in book illustration. Combining line and colour is perhaps the most common way in which artists convey mood and emotion in picture books”
• Red, yellow and orange – associated with fire, sun and blood. Usually have warm or hot connotations: friendliness, high energy or anger.
• Blues, greens and some violets – most associated with air, water, and plant life and their coolness or coolness can suggest moods and emotions ranging from tranquility to melancholy.
• Primary and bright colours- suggest excitement, happiness and action.
• Pastel and muted colours- Calm and quiet mood.
• Dark colours and shadows – may suggest fear and danger
• Natural colours (Brown, Green, Yellow, and Orange suggest nature and are calming.
(Norton, Donna E. and Saundra E. Norton, Through the eyes of a child: An Introduction to Children’s Literature, 6thed, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall, 2003)

TEXTURE
“Illustrations use line, colour , shape and artistic media to create textual imagery”
(Norton, Donna E. and Saundra E. Norton, Through the eyes of a child: An Introduction to Children’s Literature, 6thed, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall, 2003)

The texture is being represented and judged by the nature of surface and its medium.
According to the theoretical survey conducted, it reveals that there are two types of textures available.
• Implied texture which is used visually to communicate the way an object would feel, such as rough pencil to represent stone or smooth brush strokes to look like silk.
• Tactile texture is the finish on a real object , such as a spiky sculpture or a smooth piece of pottery ”
The impression felt at the moment you touch and feel any picture object is known as the texture.
This texture could be rough, slick, firm, spongy, hard, soft, jagged or else smooth. Therefore due to the texture, a feeling or a sense can be generated in the student mind who looked into the picture. Due to a texture which is deviated from realty, the visual experience of the viewer could be enhanced. Meanwhile this will contribute in uplifting the power of imagination of the viewer.
(Chi-Fen Emily Chen, Children’s literature)

COMPOSITION
“Composition: The way various elements are arranged on the page”
(Evaluating Kid Lit, Understanding art in picture books)

“In arranging the elements on each page, including the printed type, the artist tries to obtain an effective balance between unity and variety and creates visual patterns that may be carried on from page to page”
(Kiefer 1995, p.129)

“A very important concern of composition is the organization of the shapes”
(Chi- Fen Emily Chen, Children’s Literature)
Based on the way the visual elements are handled, the composition can be categorized into several sectors.
• Balance:
The elements are arranged equally around the surface of the page, creating a visual sense of equilibrium.
• Asymmetrical
The elements are arranged in such a way as to suggest a visual imbalance.
• Contrast
Elements create juxtaposition (Ex: jagged, thick black lines intersecting a softly rounded pastel shape)
• Dominance
One element or aspect is emphasized over the others.
• Symmetry
A type of balanced composition in which both sides of the page or spread are designed exactly alike.
(Evaluating Kid Lit, Understanding –Art in picture Books)

According to the above explanations there are several key visual elements that should be thoroughly considered when applying illustrations to a story book. They also varied depending on the way/method of applying these illustrations within a story book.

2.4.3. FUNCTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN STORY BOOKS
“The function of art is to clarify, intensify or otherwise enlarge our experience of life” (Canady 1980)
According to the above made explanations it is very clear that in story books used by preschool children the main attention should be paid on illustrations. As per the theoretical survey it reveals that there are several key modes of functioning of illustrations that appear in story books. They can be stated as below.
1. Establish setting
2. Define and develop characters
3. Extend or develop plot
4. Provide a different viewpoint
5. Contribute to textual coherence
6. Reinforce text
(Zhihui Fang, Illustrations, text and the child reader: what are pictures in Children’s story books for?, 1996)

1. ESTABLISH SETTING
“In picture books, as in all Literature, setting is used to establish a story’s location in time and place, create a mood, clarify historical background if necessary, provide an antagonist, or emphasize symbolic meaning.”
(Norton, 1987)

Sometimes the illustrations appeared in story books strongly fulfills this function. An example for this kind of illustration appearing in story books is mentioned below. In a story book which depicts a story regarding a historical scenario, a clear idea regarding the relative era can be gained by looking at the illustrations that appear in the book. Sometimes in such a story book no idea will be conveyed through the words. But, through the illustrations the reader can imagine and visualize the conditions prevailed in certain specific activities that have been appeared in that era by looking into the illustrations. Illustrations also have a larger impact on the mood of the story book also. Especially through the colours, illustrations in a story book become successful in generating different moods.

2. DEFINE AND DEVELOP CHARACTERS
“The characters in picture books must have specific traits that make them appealing to the child reader and that meet the demands of the short format.”
(Zhihui Fang, Illustrations, Text and the child reader: What are pictures in Children’s story books for?, 1996)

Illustrations can successfully depict the situation raised at the moment along with the emotion generated in the characters facing that situation. If an animal is considered as the character which appears in the story book, then through the illustrations the reader can gain a clear understanding or at least some glimpses about the specific characteristics of that character such as its species, its special features.etc. All related things can be known.

“Moreover, by making and adhering to general lists of physical appearance, personalities, abilities and habits of their characters, illustrators safeguard the continuity of visual appearance of characters through the book”
(Hana Hladikova, Children’s Book illustrations: Visual Language of picture Books)

“In picture story books, illustrations can supplement characterization in the text by showing the characters’ actions and reactions to one another or giving characters an extra fleshing out.”
(Zhihui Fang, Illustrations, Text and the child reader: What are pictures in Children’s story books for?, 1996)

Through the illustrations, certain details regarding the lifestyle of the characters appearing in that time period can also be imagined in the reader’s mind.

3. EXTEND OR DEVELOP PLOT
“The brevity of text in picture books often severely constrains the development of story plot. Thus, the plot of a story is often advanced by illustrations.”
(Zhihui Fang, Illustrations, Text and the child reader: What are pictures in Children’s story books for?, 1996)
The study reveals the fact that the unclear characters, eyes glimmering in darkness, empty spaces/ rooms, busy sceneries can be made into much more powerful and strong than the general sceneries appear in story books. Even the errors misunderstandings made by the letters could be recovered by illustrations because they conveyed more details to the reader. Sometimes illustrations express an in-depth meaning which is beyond the explanation made through the text.Illustrations have a good possibility in making a great impact on reader’s mind while arousing curiosity to enjoy reading the story continuously by turning next page. Sometimes it is the illustrations that contribute the reader mostly to experience the climax of the story as it is.

4. PROVIDE A DIFFERENT VIEWPOINT
“Whether intended or not, illustrations sometimes tell a slightly different or even contradictory story than the text.”
(Zhihui Fang, Illustrations, Text and the child reader: What are pictures in Children’s story books for?, 1996)

Sometimes by the facial expressions conveyed through illustrations build up completely a different story than the idea conveyed through the text. The point of view of this can be varied from one person to another. So that one who reads the story book can built up a different story than another’s opinion. Therefore sometimes the illustrator can make the illustration in a different viewpoint as example it may be indicated as a criticism or sarcasm or else in a point of entertaining. By compromising different sort of expressions and opening up more opportunities for the reader to make imaginations will ultimately end up in upgrading the value of story hidden behind.

5. CONTRIBUTE TO TEXTUAL COHERENCE
“Coherence refers to the extent to which the sequencing or ordering of ideas in a text makes Sense to its implied readers and the extent to which the language used in discussing those ideas make the nature of ideas and their relationships apparent” (Tannen, 1984)

The story built up through the text from the beginning can be continued till the end due to the presence and the contribution made by illustrations. So that the qualities mentioned at the beginning related to a specific character or else a context could be brought till the end due to the illustrations made in between the story.
Generally small children are able to understand certain occasions in the story book only when supporting illustrations appear simultaneously. Moreover if the leading character in the story is mentioned as “I”, the reader could identify the meaning of “I” easily only through illustrations developed. So ultimately through these illustrations, a child who reads the book can easily understand the story built up from beginning till the end.

6. REINFORCE TEXT
“In certain instances, the primary function of picture book illustrations is to reinforce rather than to extend or amplify the text.”
(Zhihui Fang, Illustrations, Text and the child reader: What are pictures in Children’s story books for?, 1996)

Illustrations make sharpen the idea conveyed throughout the text as example in the story book writer has mentioned as ” enjoyed a lot”, but through the illustrations the writer can visualize up to which extent the enjoyment or the happiness is made, and also the feeling generated along with the enjoyment. So all these could be easily felt by the reader when illustrations are made properly. The glamour in eyes, palpitations in cheeks, activities like clapping ….all these symbolize and express more detailed feeling of enjoyment and happiness other than the idea conveyed through the text alone.

If the story explains a scenario related to a cultural event, through illustrations the writer can give more details or the information about their costumes, jewelry, behaviors, traditions, colours, patterns etc.Furthermore it elaborates the way the background is prepared to suits the cultural event, and how the celebrity is achieved. So this make a strong base or the foundation to the idea generated for the cultural even through the text appeared in the story.

Accordingly it is very clear that there are several key modes of appearing illustrations in story books and they are very much important to maintain the continuity and smooth flow of the story.

2.5 GLOBAL SITUATION OF CHILDREN STORY BOOKS AND THE VISUAL ANALYSIS ON ILLUSTRATION.
2.5.1. EXAMPLE 1 – “THE DAY THE CRAYONS QUIT”
This book is all about a Crayon making complains against the child who owns it and suitable for three years and above kids. It is in world standards.
• Author: Drew Daywalt
• Illustrator: Oliver Jeffers
• Book type: Fiction
• Publisher: Philomel
• Publication date: June 27, 2013
• Publisher’s recommended ages: 3-2
• Awards:
? ALA Best and Notable Books
? Good reads 2013 picture book of the year
? Amazon’s best picture book of the year
? A barnes & Noble best book of the 2013
? Winner of the E.B Write Read – Aloud Award
• List price: US$17.99

When the child called Doncan was searching his crayons to do some paint work. He saw lots of complains against him by the crayons. This story book is full of childish drawings. They are very simple and we can see that some of them have been painted out of the shape line. Character’s basic details have been shown by using simple shapes. Because of that, the illustration which is in the book feels familiar to the child.

The characters have been valued by using white background cover photo and inside pages as well. Character is getting more attention because the characters can be clearly seen. In this story book a life has been given to the Crayons along with two hands, two feet and a face. From that, when the Teacher is telling the story, the child begins to think and imagine that the Crayons can talk.

The expressions of the crayons are very strong because of the facial expressions and body movements which have been given to them.

Red Color is complaining that he is very tired of working the whole year, also says that, he has painted fire engines, apples, and strawberries, not only that ” I even work on holidays”, when mentioned in the story book we can see from the illustrations that how much he has been tired.

Beige color’s complaining that, he was not able to do much more work than he could be. He has to do only to color wheat, further, He has described his disappointment that “tired of being second place to Mr. brown Crayon.

Various complains of the Crayons has been mentioned like this. The ways that the Black colour is requesting few things and the more used Blue colour shares his ideas were presented in the illustrations attractively.

As well as, because of the Peach colors complain, add amusing to the story that is because of the removal of his wrappings he was embarrassed and peaks from inside the color box.

In this Story book, twelve characters have been given to the twelve Crayons and have mentioned their specialties separately. Hence, it is said that, equality must have to be given to them all. When the child is looking at the story book, the child will be able to understand basic colour of various objects and various acceptances in the society. Rose color is a girlish color theory and the Red colour for various things mostly used in the Christmas times. When the teacher is telling the story, the child who is looking at the illustrations, these theories will stay in their memory.

The concept known as “Think outside of the box” is highlighted in this book. From this story book, thought we were able to identify about the social identity, hence we don’t have to stay stuck in that place is also mentioned here. From the cover photo one can able to get an idea about the full story but you may have to go through the book in order what to strike. Curiosity feels from the cover photo. The story book ends with happiness. Doncan has fulfilled of his crayon friend’s requests. We can see a creative, colorful drawing at the end of the story book. It is with an Orange, whale, a black rainbow, pink airplane, yellow sky with a colorful drawing. The story ends by saying that, Doncan received a “good work” sicker and a gold star from the teacher.

We can be a creative person when we think outside of the frame is another message which is presenting to us from this book. The child who has gone through this book, when he becomes an adult, the story of the book stays in his memory. In order to stay in the memory illustrations had been helpful widely.
{Drew Daywalt, The Day the Crayons Quit (souse; https://www.nyjournalofbooks.com/book-review/day-crayons-quit)
(Sally Donovan and Tristan Leigh , Guidelines for Philosophical Discussion(source; https://www.teachingchildrenphilosophy.org/BookModule/TheDayTheCrayonsQuit )}

2.5.2- EXAMPLE 2 – “WOLVES”
• Author / illustrator: Emily Gravett
• Publisher: Simon ; Schuster Books for young Readers, 2006
• Publication date: 19 August 2005
• Recommended age: 3-5
• Awards:
? 2005 Greenaway Medal – illustration (winner).
? 2006 Cybils – Fiction picture book (finalist).
? 2006 School Library Journal – Starred Review
? 2008 North Corolina children’s Book Award – Picture Book (Nominee)
? 2007 Boston Globe – Horn Book Award – Picture Book (Honor Book)
? 2006 Kirkus Review – Children – Starred Review
? 2009 Virginia Readers Choice Award – Primary (Nominee)
• List price: US $ 13.49.

There are two characters in it and that is a Rabbit and a wolf. Rabbit’s gentleness and Wolf’s cunningness has been shown to us very clearly. There are lots of theories that the rabbit’s long ears show its concentration.

Rosie is the Rabbit, from her walk techniques the story goes forward. Rosie started to read a book about wolves which she took from a library. While she was reading the book suddenly the wolf shows up.

Little by little the wolf began to get closer to Rosie and she was frightened. The wolf came closer to Rosie. It is an extreme close up behind Rosie. Eyebrows have been drawn to the character of Rosie. Facial expressions have been more successful because of the eyebrows. From the illustrations, it shows that Rosie is reading the book by walking through the Wolf’s body. “They have sharp claws, bushy tails, and dense fur, which harbor fleas and ticks.” “An adult wolf has 42 teeth. Its jaws are twice as powerful as those of a large dog.”

When the teacher is telling the story, the child who sees the illustrations, begins to understand that, how dangerous appearance animal wolf will be and also where it says that the Wolves are very fond of having a Rabbit for a meal.

The child might think that this Rabbit also will eaten by a Wolf. In this story book, there are few incidents where we get imaginary thoughts. Ideational figures at the end of the story, few mails had been arrived to the Rabbit. The book has been overdue which borrowed from the library. The child might think that the “Rabbit haven’t been able to return home.

In the beginning of the story where it shows us a shadow of an accident about the rabbit, who took a red book from the library, that is from the illustrations.

Because of the white spaced background, we see that a special attention has been given to the character. Red, Blue and White were the mostly used colors.It is said that, the illustrations made out from basic colors and shapes will be more suitable for pre-school aged kids. The main characters, the Wolf and the Rabbit have been created as such. All the details have been given very clearly, the wolf’s hair, pointed sharp nails and teeth will be a wonderful example for that. The using of the Collage in this book is very important. Children do lot of craft works in the pre-school to develop their creativity. Creating of collage is one of them. While reading the story one may think that, at any moment the Rabbit will be eaten by the Wolf. But at the end of the story, from few “mails” and by showing a torn book feels that it has happened, we see two beginnings and two endings. This story book has been created for the children, Emily Designer of the book might think to give a happy end by creating Wolf and the Rabbit from collage having a meal together is because of that. From the creating of collage shows that there is no fictional end has happen. The child when he is in childish age might understand or may be not regarding this but after he becomes an adult this story book will be understandable to him. I say like this, a child keep the story in his memory if it is an interesting book.

The child gains the knowledge about many things when the teacher explains the story to them. Such as:
• How are the wolves like be?
• The places wolves live
• What kind of food they prefer to eat
• The way they live and behave

The child will be able to know not only about the wolves but also, what is a library? The information that we don’t know can be found from a library. Not only that, if a child does not know about a snow man from this book he may be able to get an idea of him. Unknown words alone with their true meanings can be learned as well. Furthermore, the child will be able to use and handle a library book and about the leaflets, mails as well.
{Lynley,wolves by emily gravett picture book
January 7, 2015 (soorce; http://www.slaphappylarry.com/picturebook-study-wolves-by-emily-gravett/)}
{Stephanie fod, wolves – by Emily gravett , november 03, 2006 (saurse; http://childlitbookclub.blogspot.com/2006/11/wolves-by-emily-gravett.html )}
{SANDIE MOURÃO, Passionate about picturebooks, Emily Gravett’s wolf
JANUARY 30, 2011 (source; http://picturebooksinelt.blogspot.com/2011/01/emily-gravetts-wolf.html)}

2.5.3- EXAMPLE 3 – “NO, DAVID!”

• Author / illustrator: David Shannon
• Publisher: The Blue Sky Press
• Publication date: 1998 September 1st
• Recommended age: 2-6
• Awards:
? 1998 Capitol Choices: Noteworthy Books for children and teens – up to 7 year (recommended)
? 1998 School library Journal- Started Review
? 1999 New York Time Best illustrated children’s Book
? 1999 Caldecott Medal –picture Book (Honor Book)
? 2000 Georgia Children’s Book Award – Picture Storybook (Winner)
? 2001 Buckaroo Book Award – Children’s (Winner)
? 2001 Pennsylvania Young Reader’s choice Award
• List price: US $ 19.95

This book is all about a naughty kid’s home and about the inconveniences which will occur in that place. His name is David and he is a stubborn kid. All the children who see David from the illustrations will be interested in him because he feels that there is a David lives within himself. Every child has their own experiences of the naughty things which they have done before; from this book their memory about their naughty character will be renewed. Because of that, this book has been introduced as a timeless story book by the various connoisseurs. When we discuss about the appearance of the character of David, From His Big head, a body like a puppet made out of wood, sharp pointed teeth is identical. The story had become hilarious because of the appearance of David, he always trying his best to be a joyful and funny guy. From this we can see, a mother always giving advices to a small child. In all the pages we see only the responses of the mother. David had responded only from his emotions. From David’s facial expressions and actions he was able to get the readers attraction to himself.

David’s playfulness, funness, sadness, repentance when mother punishes him and how a child would embraced his mother’s love, is very well displayed in this book. Turn one page and going to another page wondering to see what kind of a naughty thing David had done. Illustrations had been a great help to continue to read the rest of the story. What is written in the text will come to know when we look at the illustrations. The arguments and the quarrels between the two characters, the mother and the little boy have been displayed very well. Various connoisseurs had mentioned, that, when David’s character displays highly David is challenging his mother. When David’s character displays in a low mode, illustrations shows to us that he gets low power.

The illustrations which has been used to show the back ground, we will be able to get an idea from where is he doing his naughty act. By changing of the back ground page by page, we feel the changing of the place of the child. The story becomes more interest because of that. By using of the diagonal lines for the illustrations creating a visual sense about the movements and motions, an effect has been given to maintain a peaceful environment within the house because of the horizontal lines in the background. The vertical line of the wall base provides us to get an idea about the height. By using of the bright lights gives us an emotional sense. The illustrator had been trying to provide us warmth, caution and a calming environment by using yellow and green colors. In every page, illustrations have been used in a simple way, gutters, empty spaces, have not being used. There is no space which has not been used. Framing has not been used. We don’t feel that there are no unnecessary things around.

I must tell about the way the book ends. mother keeps loving the her children no matter how naughty they are, when David got punished because of his bad behavior and while he is sad and repenting , his mother embraces him by wiping his tears then the little David gets the feeling of “protection.” The story ends with a sensitive happy mode.

{Elizabeth bird, top 100 picture books #88: no, david! by david shannon, May 18, 2012 (Source; http://blogs.slj.com/afuse8production/2012/05/18/top-100-picture-books-88-no-david-by-david-shannon/)
Rosemary Kiladitis, Book Review: No, David! by David Shannon (Blue Sky Press, 1998), June 10, 2013 (source; https://momreadit.wordpress.com/2013/06/10/book-review-no-david-by-david-shannon-blue-sky-press-1998/)
STEVEN, BEYOND THE BOOK STORYTIME, April 20, 2014
(source; http://btbstorytimes.blogspot.com/2014/04/moving-with-no-david.html)}

2.6 CONCLUSION
When we look at the facts, that a pre-school is a very important place where the small kids are in a very important turning place in life. In a pre-school ethics and good values are taught in order them to become a good citizen in the country. From the story books pre-school expects one very important thing in life and that is to help them to develop their good habits. The story book provides them to have mentally, socially and physical improvement in their lives. There is lots of world standards story books which have been published to help pre-school kids. There are not enough words to explain that how much helpful the story books are to the pre-school kids. From a story book a pre-school kid gains a broad and vast knowledge. There is a successful and suitable way when one designs a story book to the pre-school kids. Although the child didn’t have the ability to read words, but he puts more attention to the illustrations in the book.

CHAPTER 3

3.1 INTRODUCTIONS
Importance of the early childhood education development authority is explained by this chapter. It is discussed how pre-school under guidance of the early childhood development are conducted. Use of story books and illustration, in pre-school of northwestern province, is explained in this chapter. The way of section of 20 pre-schools from northwestern province for this research is discussed. It was mentioned here how common 5 story books from those pre-school libraries were selected.

3.2 EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
Main tasks done by the Early Childhood Education Development Authority
• Giving guidance and support to enhance the preschool education in provinces.
• Registration, regulation and inspection of preschools.
• Establishing educational and professional qualifications of preschool teachers.
• Conducting training programmes for preschool teachers.
• Maintaining teacher training institutes for preschool teachers and issuing certificates for those who completing the training.
• Conducting in-service sessions related to early childhood care and development.
• Establishing standards for early childhood care and development centers which are carried out by local government institutions and other organizations.
• Take necessary actions to improve early childhood care within the province.
• Build up a mutual interrelation between preschools and grade 1 in schools.
(Early Childhood Education Development Authority / 6th Provincial Council, 3rd Budget / 2016)

National policy and standards are implemented for the process of education done by the early childhood development authority with the help of Government and non government organizations.

3.2.1 NORTHWESTERN THE EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
VIEW
Pre developed seniors To Phosphorus Northwestern.
MISSION
acting as a provincial center for providing programs, coordinating, handling for the sake of Personality Development of northwestern children at early childhood and development of education in coordination with central government, provincial council and non government organizations according to the No 04 2003 charter.

THE PURPOSE
Early childhood education is developed via managing and supervision of early childhood education in Northwestern province.

ONSET AND EVOLUTION
Early childhood education development authority is established under central ministry of Northwestern province in 2004.proficiency and orders of this authority are found in following gazettes of Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, no 1336,08/04/2004,no 1395/25 03/06/2005,no 1322/13,07/12/2005.this charter are defined as the charter of Northwestern Early childhood development authority, 2003 no 03.

31 Graduates, whom were recruited under central ministry of Northwestern province in 2005, were allocated to divisional educational office for supervision and monitoring. In 2011, on a special order of the secretary of central ministry of northwestern province with the letter of 19/05/2011, allocated development officers were assigned for above purposed service. Those were supervised by the chairman or secretary of related provincial administrations.

The first early childhood development authority in Sri Lanka was established in northwestern province. Same as development officers are supervising activities on the field only in northwestern province. They are directly keeping contact with the early childhood development authority. Other provinces have project officers. They are dealing with ministry of education and northwestern early childhood education development authority.
See – Appendix 1
INSTITUTES UNDER SUPERVISED BY NORTHWESTERN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
Northwestern preschool teacher’s training school
First preschool teacher’s training school was established under northwestern early childhood education development authority. Even by this time preschool teachers from Northwestern and other provinces, are trained by the pre school teacher’s training school. Government organizations and non government organization and institutes from local and overseas who are in this field are visiting the training school. 2792 teachers had been trained by the training school so far (2005) with a diploma certificate.

The pre school teacher’s training school is acting as the head quarters for all the pre schools built by the early childhood development authority.

Sakura standard preschool and day care centre
This preschool is considered as the first standard preschool by the early childhood development authority. It was built in 1994 as an example for preschool field under government organization.

Sakura standard preschool later was assigned under early childhood development authority in order to proper maintenance. This preschool contains 5 class rooms with beautiful environment. By now, nearly 163 children are learning in this preschool. Education is continued by 12 diplomas in these pre school.36 children of government officers in Kurunegala and surroundings are looked after in day time.

Kuliyapitiya standard preschool and day care centre
The second standard preschool and day care centre supervised by northwestern early childhood development authority is located in Kuliyapitiya, Dandagamuwa. 140 preschool children are learning with the guidance of 5 diplomas and annual Japanese volunteers from Japan international cooperation agency.

It is a specialty of this institute which develops aesthetic and creativity of early childhood education.35 children of government officers of Kuliyapitiya are looked after. In this point of view, northwestern early childhood development authority of Sri Lanka is important compared to other early childhood development authority. Main centre for early childhood development is northwestern early childhood development authority. Any changes of a preschool in Sri Lanka are being performed under supervision of northwestern early childhood development authority.

None government organizations connected with northwestern early childhood development authority
• Children secretary office
• Monetary commission
• World vision Lanka institute
• Japan international cooperation agency (Jica)
• Rotary club
• Child friend(choice) institute

3.2.2 NORTHWESTERN EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY AND OFFICERS DUTY
Staff of authority

Development officers supervise preschool activities. Development officers can be defined as an intermediate in between preschool and early childhood development authority.

Institutes and officers supervised by the authority

Provincial institutes to which Northwestern early childhood education development authority Field officers assigned.
See – Appendix 2

Field duties of officers working in provincial councils.
• Inspection of standards whether maintaining standards of early childhood development authority.
• Forwarding qualified applications after being recommended to director of early childhood development authority.
• Giving instruction to maintain the standards
• Organizing of awareness programs of importance of early childhood education development in provincial level.
• Conducting of meeting for early childhood education development institute’s instructors every month.
• Organizing of subjective matter sessions for instructors of early childhood education development institutes.
• Getting information from institutes of government and non government organization related to early childhood education development and distribution of information related area.
• Supervision of early childhood education development institutes
• Establish methods of distribution of publications and public them.
• Properly aware instructors about decisions taken by the management of authority and the director.
• Properly distribution of aids and updating.
(Early Childhood Education Development Authority / 6th Provincial Council, 3rd Budget / 2016)

3.3 MANNER OF EDUCATION IN NORTHWESTERN PRE SCHOOLS
Learning objectives are achieved mostly by illustrations in pre schools. Lets looks around what children are studied.
Identification of numbers and letters
Children are trained to read and write number 1 to 10.shape of the number was introduced first.

After that child was taught how much is that number contains. Teacher tries to teach all with the help of shapes lines and colors addictive manner .when teaching a letter, teacher teach them basic shapes .by shaping up a letter out of dotted lines, coloring within a shape, numbers and letters are taught. Even English letters are taught, Sinhala letters are taught only shapes. Sinhala complete letters are not taught in preschool class room.
Identification and sorting
Children are learning sorting shapes and colors against similarities and differentiation .illustrations give big help for everything. Illustrations help to study and memorize.

Identification of environment and importance of society

Identification of cultural valued symbols, looking consciously about environment is trained with the help of illustrations.

Pasting of pictures, coloring and drawing are the main activities of home work of preschool. It mostly contains different events and social activities. Due to this, children are exposed to the world.
Hand works
Creativity is developed due to this in Pre School. Same as muscle of the hands and fingers are strengthened. This creative skill is polished by what they have heard, seen and experienced. it helps to memorize Identified basic shapes.

Group works
By group works, it develops communication skills and respecting other’s opinions. Same as it develops knowledge by exchanging the ideas each other on what they have seen or heard.

3.4 CURRENT PRACTICE OF THE USE OF BOOKS IN PRESCHOOL EDUCATION IN SRI LANKA
20 out of 33 Pre schools that were selected by officers of Northwestern early childhood education development authority were explored. These 20 schools were selected based on maintaining of standard and higher number of children.

3.4.1 SAMPLE PRE SCHOOLS
There is development officer’s view that these 20 are much more development compare to other.
See – Appendix 3
3.4.2 LIBRARY USAGE AND SAMPLE BOOKS
Books in Selected 20 Preschool’s library are as follows
See – Appendix 4
There were similar books within that selected pre school’s libraries.It was repeated several times within lists of books in pre schools.Which means there should be some special on these books. One who purchase books to the preschool’s library. To purchase this book must be a reason. On this matter it will be discussed in next chapter.

3.5 CONCLUSIONS
In this point of view, it is crystal clear that Northwestern early childhood development authority is doing a great job regarding early childhood development .under supervision of this authority; there is lot of pre schools, if there is a change to be done in early childhood education, that should be move forward via Northwestern early childhood development authority is clear.
Studies are performed mostly by illustrations in pre schools. it is justified to be more attention towards illustration of story books. Because story book is a most important study media in preschool as I mentioned above.

?
CHAPTER 4

4.1 INTRODUCTIONS
In this chapter, will be discussed about five story books each one separately which are mostly used in preschool and also going to discuss, the way the illustrations has been functioned, the way it has been designed and how suitable them to the children. In order to flow to the story, the using of the illustrations has been observed here. As story book composites, the writer, illustrator, publisher and buyer, all of them have been interviewed and their comments had been included here as well. Through this composites how far the illustrations has been affected will also be discussed in this chapter. Are there any recession in the Sri Lankan standard three to five aged story books rather than world standard three to five aged story books? If so, those facts also have been discuses here as well.

4.2 VISUAL ANALYSIS OF THE ILLUTRATIONS OF THE SAMPLE STORY BOOKS

4.2.1 SAMPLE 1 ; BAMBI
• Author / Illustrator : Thilaksiri Jayarathne
• Publisher : Susara Publications
• Price : Rs 70/=

This story is about a small puppy Bear. I guess it is a bear because of his face, small tail, hair all over the body and circle shape ears.

Nevertheless, there is only one emotion of “Bambi” and that is happiness. I think it is good if there was a change. For an example when Bambi’s grandfather saying: “playing is not enough, must have to do something which will benefit to you and for others” a situation when Bambi is paying attention will be suitable. The text of the story book has already mentioned that “Bambi thought”.

In the story book, this incident is happening in a hill side jungle. It has been shown clearly from the illustrations. It is clear that this incident has happened in the day time because of the bright sun shine. When Bambi is wearing different clothes feels that, this has not happened just in one day rather in several days.

Bright colors have been used. Everybody is wearing attractive costumes. Yet, Bambi’s figure has changed in each page. Bambi’s facial features have been changed even to think that, not only a one person but different persons.

The illustrations have been slightly affected from the texts. It is because the texts have been placed on the illustrations.

Nevertheless, movements of the characters have been presented successfully in this story book. Holding of the bunch of mangoes from the hand, movements of their fingers when blowing trumpet and of playing the guitar were very well presented here. It is fascinating when Bambi is swinging in the swing and the way he holds a small mango plant.

At the end of the story, when Bambi’s father says: “you are a hero” is a way of a father appreciating a small child. If in those characters the emotions of them had been clearly presented, there is no doubt that story will be much more valuable.

Yet, we have to admire that a concept which is suitable to teach for a preschool age child has been included here. Planting a small plant, later on receiving a huge harvest, because of that, by doing a good work will gain a good result is what the child will come to know and he will be enjoyed at the end of the book.

I think that, it will be very good and appropriate if illustrations such as Bambi watering and fertilizing them should have been added to the pages.

4.2.2 SAMPLE 2; NARIYA HA MIDI WELA (Fox and the grapevine)

• Author / Illustrator : Dilan Prageeth
• Publisher : Masitha Publications
• Price : Rs 125/=

A famous story called the fox and the grapevine, I have seen that many preschools have been using as a story book. The illustrator of the book had tried to present the main character by using simple illustrations. He had been trying to show Fox’s body, actions and emotions according to the situation. The way when the fox got excited, when he saw the grapevine, he was disappointed when was not able to pluck them and walking away from the grapevine would be an ideal example.

The child will be able to get an idea from this book that fox is a four footed animal, the way he walks as well as the way he sits.
It is clear that this had been happening with in a jungle. Yet, we can see details of the trees and also simple shapes of trees as well. Because of that I feel there is an unbalance in the background.

No damage has happened to the illustrations because of the text. In the background white section has been used for the texts.

Grapes has been highlighted because of the huge grape bunches. When the child looks at the illustrations in this book, he may be able to understand that grapes do not grow in trees rather in a grape vine.

When we talk about how the book ends, it is not a happy end. When one fails to achieve something most of them were making complains about that and that is the lesson one can learn from that. This will be a very important lesson which the child can get from the society.

Although the story book is small, illustrations have been displayed clearly and hugely because two pages have been used for one incident.

4.2.3 SAMPLE 3; WALAS PANCHATA WEDAKAMAK
(Treatment for the puppy bear)

• Author / Illustrator : Nilupa Dias
• Publishers : T.K Publications
• Price : Rs 60/=
When we talk about the cover page “treatment for the puppy bear” the red color pattern behind the text we feel that shouldn’t be there and also it is not clear that the red color pattern stands for what? Sometimes it can be used to highlight the topic of the story book. I feel that it is not appropriate and damaged the cover photo mood.

A conversation along with an incident between few animals has been displayed here. It is fascinating that the simple shapes have been used to show the details of the background and the characters. Nails of the puppy elephant’s legs, dots in the puppy deer’s skin and white color under the rabbit’s belly were the examples for that.

Yet, it is a huge fault that different emotions and actions of the characters have not mentioned page by page. For an example, the puppy bear that is in the cover page can be seen inside the book in various places as the way he used to be. The other characters were the same. The body shapes have not been organized suitable to the situation.

The child was unable to enjoy the illustrations of the story rather from the text because from one emotion characters can be seen in different places. “What shall I eat?” when the puppy bear thinks, the puppy bear scroll on the floor because of a fish is hanging in his thought. If these incidents have been presented well, where I think it is better.

There will be much more life in the characters if they are looking at each other when they talk to each other from the illustrations. The background has been created according to the situation. We can feel that this had been happening in the middle of the jungle close to a river.The lessons that the child will be able to learn from this book is: helping each other is good and bears eat fish and honey as their food. But, overall the illustrations in this story book have not been able to meet the standard.

4.2.4 SAMPLE 4; AMBALAME PINA

• Author / Illustrator : Somabandu Karunarathna
• Publisher : Shan Publications
• Price : Rs 100/=

“Ambalme Pina Pina
Who brought a utensil?
The bull that broke it
I am happy and happy”

This poem is very famous among the people; there is no one who does not know this. There are lots of ideas belted to this poem. One of the idea of this poem is that Buddha gave up his luxury life from the incident that when the bull broke the utensils. From this poem a story has been created and I have seen this book has been using in several preschools.

A pot merchant gave a job to sell pots to a Pina who was seeking for an employment. Here the Pina goes to sell pots wearing a hamper in his shoulders. When the teacher is telling the story by showing the book, the child who sees the illustrations will come to realize that what a hamper is, and also how to use a hamper, the way how the pots have been kept in the hamper. Sometimes the child will ask other things which comes to his mind from the teacher.

Also the child will get an idea about a shelter and also when the teaching the child who sees the illustrations will come to know what is “Pin Thaliya” means.

From the illustrations of the story book the child will able to know that this has happened long time back. Hair tight, handkerchief on the shoulder, stays in a shelter for rest; those customs are cultural but doing business holding a hamper on the shoulder can be seen today as well.

The diversification of the illustration had been increased because even the small details can be seen of the Pina, his mother and the merchant’s costumes.

And also the coconut trees and the banana trees can be seen clearly in the story book.

The presentations of the emotions were bit good. It has been presented well when the Pina falls in to a deep sleep and he was sad after bull breaks the pots.

The story book had been fascinating because of the way the Pina is sleeping with him mouth wide open and the bull smiling after he breaks the pots.

Overall, this book can be introduced as with suitable illustrations for a preschool age kid.

4.2.5 SAMPLE 5; SARUNGALAYA (THE KITE)

• Author / Illustrator : Kumudu Tharaka
• Publisher : Wasana Publications
• Price : Rs 120/=

This story book is all about two children who made a kite together and began to fight each other because of the kite. Later on an adult interferes and settle the matter.

Anura and Piyal were the two main characters here. The illustrations show that this particular incident has happened in a few hours of a day. The cover page and also in the inside pages shows that Anura and Piyal were both wearing the same costume and to the end of the story.We may able to see a village house and a village environment from the illustrations. Jack trees, coconut trees, banana trees can be clearly seen from the illustrations. Wooden fences, paddy fields, cattles, dry coconut branches can be seen in the background. From the above details the story becomes much more natural.

Bright colors have been used here. The illustrator had been trying his best to show us the small details of the costumes of the characters. The costume of Piyal’s mother and the design of the table cloth will be a good example for that.

Even the dog and the cat who are in the house, their details can be seen also. The pot which is hanging in Anur’s wall for the birds can also be seen clearly from the illustrations. The child who sees from the illustrations of the story book will be able to identify them all. The “Sinhala tiles” has been used for Anuran’s house roof. From the above details the beauty of the village has been increased.

According to my observation, the emotions of the characters have been presented very well.
Anura scolded the cat when he came to embrace him while he was making the kite. Little by little when they are about to finish the making of the kite the way the joy coming out from their faces, the anger of their faces while they were fighting because of the kite, at the end the emotions and the actions of their disappointments which the illustrator had been trying his best to present.

The illustrator had tried to get the attention to the kite by giving eyes and a mouth to the kite. I feel that from that a small damage has been done to the natural beauty of the story.

Yet, making of a kite and the things which require for it, the child who is looking at the illustrations of the story book will be able to gain a certain amount of knowledge. As well as when we lose unity and generosity bad things will come to our way. Finally, the kite which was made by Anura and Piyal were losing to them because of their quarrel.

Overall, this story book can be introduced to a preschool aged child that he will be able to gain knowledge, lesions and enjoyment as well.

4.3. THE COMPOSITES TO EMANATE THE CHILD STORY BOOK IN PRESCHOOL LIBRARY
A child is being able to use a story book with the involvement of three personals namely;

1. Author and Illustrator
2. Publisher
3. Buyer

As my research is based on the illustrations that appear on story books, here the interviews carried were limited only among the categories; illustrator, publisher, buyer. In certain story books it is the same person who has handled both the roles of the author as well as the illustrator. However in order to interview all these parties, separate questionnaires were prepared and presented.
See – Appendix 5

4.3.1. SAMPLE 01 – BAMBI
Illustrator
The author and the illustrator of your story book is the same person. That is Mr. Thilaksiri Jayarathna. Generally the illustration style used in story books of him is found to be almost same. Most commonly he has used mainly the colours such as brown, yellow, blue, etc.

• When asked from him, the reason for using such colours is that majority of children are attracted to bright colours. Because of this reason he always prefers to use bright colours in his creations. And also he has used different animals as the characters in order to make the story much closer to the child who reads this book.
• He said that in these days he is preparing more books which explain the good habits that needed to be maintained by children in a preschool and school.
• He also stated that the illustration style he has practiced for previous books will be continued in his future works too.
• It is his idea that by using illustrations along with well detailed background, it will definitely contribute in uplifting the beauty of the story book.
• Further he mentioned that he has used the characters like “bambi” , a small beer and other characters as simple and very cute which are away from the realty because small children prefer mostly these kind of cute illustrations than the actual images.
• By illustrating these characters with usual clothing he is trying to bring these characters more closer to general people.

Publisher
The publisher of your story book is “Susara publishers”
• When a script is being received, initially it is being discussed with an inspection committee. Along with their concerns it is essential to get their confirmation. After that sign to the agreement with book owner.
• If the owner himself prints the books by his own money, a quotation is given at the beginning. Any number of books can be printed. If the number of books that are going to be printed is quite less, then the price of the book is high. Because the initial implementation cost is high.
• If the printing job is also carried out by the publisher, then it is essential to print minimum 1000 number of copies.
• 10% of the profit is given to the owner of the book as royalty.
This is how the publishing work is carried at “Susara publishers.”The selling price of your book is Rs.70/=. It is much lower than the general market price of a child story book.
Buyer
It is the teacher who teaches in a preschool that brings story books to a preschool. As this story book was seen at majority of the preschools, facts were gathered for using this story books by teachers who teach at preschools. The reasons for this are mentioned below.
1. The price of the story book is relatively low.
2. The story is developed around a good habit that children should develop.
3. The story is carried in short with minimum number of words.
4. So many things can be explained and discusses further by referring to the illustrations.
5. Animals have been used as the characters that appear in the story book.
6. The use of bright colours.

4.3.2. SAMPLE 02- THE FOX AND THE GRAPES
Illustrator
Here the author and the illustrator of this story book is the same person. That is Mr.DilanPrageeth. The illustrations made in this story book are mainly based on a folklore and the main character of this book is a fox.
• It was Mr. Dilan Prageeth’s idea to represent the character of fox as a very simple Illustration in order to bring much more attractiveness to the story.
• He has maintained a white colour gap in between text and illustrations in order to prevent the harm made to the story narration. Moreover he mentioned that he has represented the bunch of grapes in a bright colour and in large scale in order to capture the attention of the reader.
• It was his idea to consider the age limit of the user when designing story books for the children.
• He further analyzed that by applying more illustrations, the children learning at preschool and in primary schools can learn much more things through these visually illustrated images.As example if the child hasn’t seen a fox, these illustrations will convey a good idea and visualizes the nature and the appearance of a fox. Meanwhile it also contributes the child to imagine the nature of grapes, its colour and all.
• As the size of the story book is limited to A5 size, he has used two pages together in order to represent one incident. By this he has tried to make the illustrations quite larger. It was his idea that normally the children in this age mostly prefer larger illustrations.
Publisher
“Masitha publishers” is the publisher of this story book which has now suspended the publishing work due to the higher printing charges and the cost for papers today.
• Publications will not be given to books that are gained externally. Masitha Pvt Ltd only prints the books published by them.
• 10% of the price of the story book is granted for the author. They stated that generally they print 500-1000 books at once.
• In order to increase the profit gained when compared to the printing cost and paper cost, they have reduced the size of the book.
• The selling price of this book is Rs.125/=
Buyer
This book has been selected by several preschool teachers to be used for their libraries. The reasons for them to select this book are listed below.
1. Being a folk story
2. Even without reading the text the story can be expressed by analyzing the illustrations.
3. At the end of the story a life statement is given for the reader.
4. Illustrations have been applied in a very clear format.
5. Being a simple and short story.

4.3.3. SAMPLE 3- TREATMENT FOR BABY BEER
Illustrator
In this story book, both the author and the illustrator is the same person. That is Mrs.Nilupa Dias. As a family business she is engaged in writing story books and these books are now available in book shops and the street markets.
• She has developed the story around a baby beer by using bright colours and on a simple concept. Because she always keep in believe that such concepts are suitable and mostly preferred by small children.
• Further she stated that when designing illustrations she always get inspired from the images that are viewed from the internet.
• As the number of pages of the story book is eight and among them the story limited only to seven pages, she has used illustrations only to elaborate the main incident of the story.
• She also stated that by using simple concept instead of using very large and complex concepts it is easier to make the story much closer to the reader. And also by using animals as characters has also made the book much attractive to the children.
• The target of her is to earn a profit by selling a larger number of books including illustrations as the price of book is relatively low. It was her idea that spending more time to make an illustration on a story book is not profitable.
Publisher
The publisher of this story book is “T.K.Publication”. They have suspended their publishing work due to the continuous raise in market price of printing papers.
• Since the price of printing paper is high, the total number of books was limited to eight pages.
• According to the information gained from T.K.Publications, to gain a larger profit more number of books need to be sold. As a result five set of books were sold at a price of Rs.100/=. But the selling price of one individual book is Rs.60/=.
Buyer
In preschools this story book and other story books of the same publisher were seen. The reasons for selecting this story book by majority of preschool teachers for their library are mentioned below.
1. Ability to buy one whole set of books at a lower price.
2. Use of bright colours
3. The animals used for characters are illustrated as very clear and attractive figures.
4. Being a simple story.
5. The story is developed on the theme of “friendship” which finally depicts a good conclusion to the readers.
4.3.4. SAMPLE 4 – “AMBALAME PINA”
Illustrator
It is Mr.Somabandu Karunarathna who is the author and the illustrator of this story book.
• As per his clarifications, the initial thing he does is preparing the texts and illustrations in a layout.
• As conveyed by him, by referring to the illustrations used in international story books, the most applicable illustration typology is selected. Furthermore he considers the age limit of child using these story books. It is his idea to design the illustrations and the concept in a best way it suits to the age of the child.
• Finally he said that he fine-tuned and lighten the illustrations used in the story book through the software of Photoshop. Even the backgrounds details appear in the illustrations are much useful in a story book.
Publisher
The publisher of this book is “Shan Publications”.
• If they are satisfied with the script, then decided to publish the book.
• When considering the printing cost and the paper cost, it is good to increase the number of books printed in order to raise the profit gained.
• If the number of books published is less, then it is beneficial to increase the book price. Accordingly the manager of Shan publications further notes that it is much beneficial and practical to increase the number of books printed at a considerable rate per book.
• So the selling price of ambalame pina story book is Rs.100/=
Buyer
The reasons for preschool teachers to select this book for their libraries are listed below. They are;
1. The story is developed around a folk story.
2. Being a story that conveys an idea about the social background we had in the past.
3. Anybody can experience its story even only by referring to the illustrations.
4. Even the child can express much more details by referring to the illustrations appeared in story books.
5. Use of bright colours.

4.3.5. SAMPLE 5- THE KITE
Illustrator
The author and the illustrator of this book is Mr.KumuduTharaka. According to his idea, if the children are able to predict the story by referring to the illustrations used, then it proves that the way illustrations are used in the story book is successful.
• Preschool children and grade one students getting primary education who cannot even read texts tend to pay much attention on realizing illustrations. Therefore he further mentioned that illustrations have now become a major component and it is essential to apply them in a story books in correct and attractive format.
• Children more prefer to see bright colours. Therefore, it is essential to select colours by artist as appropriate to the child interests.
• It is his idea to create story books that evolve explanatory guidelines to the children is more beneficial for this age category.
• He further mentioned that if another script writer hires him to do the illustrations in that book, he will first analyze the sample typology of the illustrations required by him/ her and will provide the needful. He further said that if he is the author and illustrator of the books then he will tend to use a same illustration style in every book to establish his own identity.
Publisher
The publisher of this story book is Wasana publications. After checking the script, if it is being finalized and confirmed, then the publication decided to publish this.
• Printing process is taken on the assumption of agreeing to print minimum 1000 Number of books.
• 10% of the value of story book is granted to the Author of the story book as a Royalty. If the owner of the book bears the printing cost, any preferred number of books can be printed.
• When considered in macro scale it is essential to print larger number of books, if not it is essential to increase the unit price of a story book.
• The selling price of this story book is Rs.120/=
Buyer
The reasons for preschool teachers to select this story book are listed below.
1. Providing an antitype or exemplary at the end of the story.
2. Consists of attractive illustrations.
3. Possibility for the child to express the story by referring to illustrations.
4. The story is based around a general incident.
5. The story is related to the theme “friendship”.
4.4. CONCLUSION
By analyzing all these gathered data it is very clear that majority of teachers teaching in preschools conducted by early childhood education development authority are using story books as a medium of learning.
When buying story books there are so many factors considered by these teachers, among them the illustrations appear in the books are considered as a special factor. The illustrator who designs the illustrations in these kind of story books has a knowledge of how to relate the illustrations as suitable and appropriate for children age limit up to certain extent. But they face so many troubles due to the higher costs required in publishing these books.

CONCLUSION
It is clear that early childhood education development authority in Sri Lanka is providing an immense contribution to preschool education. In this task, pre child education development authority at Northwestern province occupies a significant place since it was the first pre child education development authority established in Sri Lanka. If any amendment need to be done in the education process conducted in preschools, due to the above mentioned reason it should be initiated from pre child education development authority at Northwestern province.
The main concern of my research was to identify whether the illustrations appeared in story books used as a medium of learning in preschools have respond or made in order to address the minds of small children between age limits of 3-5 years. In doing this, I have selected twenty preschools conducted by pre child education development authority and they all were shortlisted by the selection procedure carried out by a thorough investigation by thirty three development officers. Subsequently for my further analysis I have selected five story books that are used more often by majority of teachers from libraries of preschools. As per the information gained regarding the illustrator, publisher, buyer through interviews, I have arrived into the following conclusions.
In creating story books, the major issue faced by the book owner is the high costs that has to be afforded for printing and paper costs. Due to this situation, the owner is not successful in getting a fair selling price to the story books. This has impact even to the qualitative standards of the final output.
As a remedy some publishers print a larger number of copies such as 500 -1000 number of copies of the story book at once. If any lesser number of copies are printed, it is essential to increase the selling price of the book. This can obstruct and limit the possibility of selling the book. Likewise from all these aspects it is the owner of the story book who suffer and bear the loss.
From the investigation carried, it was identified that there are people who design and sell story books as a family business. They designed them at once and sell for lower rates. But in such story books the way they have applied illustrations are in a weak status. As they sell them to lower prices it is their idea that spending more time on developing illustrations is unprofitable and not effective. However depending on today’s higher paper and printing costs, even the ones who have engaged in this industry have left or suspended their work.
Any how the price of the story books impact on the buyers, who buy these story books, is the teachers. It is fair and considerable for the teachers to consider their total cost when buying so many books together. In selected preschools, it is the parents belonging to general families who spend money for the education of children. It is essential to keep in mind that other than spending money to buy story books to the library, there are so many other things that have to be paid for.
As per the ideas gained from publishers it was revealed that if the paper costs and printing costs could be brought down to a negotiable rate, then they will be able to sell the books at lower rates. If not an alternative paper should be introduced to the market for printing story books in order to cut down higher expenditure. Even for the printing it would be much more profitable to introduce different printing pigments with lower rates. With the consumption of these alternatives, the major issues raised currently could be reduced to a certain extent.
From the findings of my research it was noted that the some illustrations appear in story books which are used in preschools conducted under early childhood education development authority are not up to the expected standards. This was very well proven when analyzing the current local scenario with other countries in the world specially on the standard of illustrations appear in their story books and how they contribute to its functionality . So for majority of issues identified in current decline is the higher paper costs and printing costs available today.

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REFERENCE
• Gokce Irten, 2016, Analyzing the components of children’s picture book)
• The American library Association, 2008
• Humanity Development Library 2.0, Teacher training: A reference manual, chapter 2 what a teacher needs to know, child and adolescent learning
• Yvonne ; Schuyler Moore, child development research center, university of South Carolina ‘Preschool Material’s guide’
• Faculty of education, department of Turkish education Amasya University, Turkey, preparing book for children from birth to age six; the approach of appropriateness for the child
• Lori Calabrese, The children’s book review, 06 November, 2010 (source; https://www.thechildrensbookreview.com/weblog/2010/11/how-picture-books-play-a-role-in-a-child’s-development.html)
• Marth crippen, The value of children’s literature (source; https://www.luther.edu/oneota-reading-journal/archive/2012/the-value-of-childrens-literature)
• J.Richard gentry, In psychology today(source; https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/raising-readers-writers-and-spellers/201802/the-reading-brain-s-food-chain-and-failing-schools )
• Boo-kyung Cho, Jeangjun Kim, Department of early Childhood education, Koria National University of education
• Gokce Irten, Analyzing the components of a children’s picture book, submitted to the Graduate school of art and social sciences, Sabanci University, May 2016
• Hena Haldikva, Children’s book illustration: visual language of picture books
• Suzette Wright, Guide to designing tactile illustrations for children’s books
• Mabel Segun, The importance of illustration in children’s books
• Erkan Cer, Preparing books for children from birth to age six the approach of appropriateness for the child
• Jim Taylor, Reading is Fundamental, 2010 (source; https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-power-prime/201004/education-reading-is-fundamental)
• James Jacobs, Michael Tunnel, Pearson, Children’s Literature briefly, 2004: 35-45
• Norton, Donna E. and Saundra E. Norton, Through the eyes of a child: An Introduction to Children’s Literature, 6thed, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall, 2003
• Early Childhood Education Development Authority / 6th Provincial Council, 3rd Budget / 2016
• Chi- Fen Emily Chen, Children Literature
• Evaluating Kid Lit, Understanding –Art in picture Books (source; https://contributors.slj.com/2015/04/understanding-art-in-picture-book-art/)
• Zhihui Fang, Illustrations, text and the child reader: what are pictures in Children’s story books for?, 1996
• Drew Daywalt, The Day the Crayons Quit (souse; https://www.nyjournalofbooks.com/book-review/day-crayons-quit)
• Sally Donovan and Tristan Leigh , Guidelines for Philosophical Discussion(source; https://www.teachingchildrenphilosophy.org/BookModule/TheDayTheCrayonsQuit )
• Elizabeth bird, top 100 picture books #88: no, david! by david shannon, May 18, 2012 (Source; http://blogs.slj.com/afuse8production/2012/05/18/top-100-picture-books-88-no-david-by-david-shannon/)
• Rosemary Kiladitis, Book Review: No, David! by David Shannon (Blue Sky Press, 1998), June 10, 2013 (source; https://momreadit.wordpress.com/2013/06/10/book-review-no-david-by-david-shannon-blue-sky-press-1998/)
• STEVEN, BEYOND THE BOOK STORYTIME, April 20, 2014 (source; http://btbstorytimes.blogspot.com/2014/04/moving-with-no-david.html)
• Lynley,wolves by emily gravett picture book, January 7, 2015 (soorce; http://www.slaphappylarry.com/picturebook-study-wolves-by-emily-gravett/)
• Stephanie fod, wolves – by Emily gravett , november 03, 2006 (saurse; http://childlitbookclub.blogspot.com/2006/11/wolves-by-emily-gravett.html )
• SANDIE MOURÃO, Passionate about picturebooks, Emily Gravett’s wolf, JANUARY 30, 2011 (source; http://picturebooksinelt.blogspot.com/2011/01/emily-gravetts-wolf.html)

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
• KIRKUS REVIEW(Source; https://www.kirkusreviews.com/book-reviews/david-shannon/no-david/)
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• THE BLACK LION, Emily Gravett’s Wolves: A Postmodern Picture book for all ages | TBL Pt. 2, October 22, 2014 (source; https://theblacklionjournal.wordpress.com/2014/10/22/emily-gravetts-wolves-a-postmodern-picture-book-for-all-ages-tbl-pt-2/)
• Gokce Irten, 2016, Analyzing the components of children’s picture book
• The American library Association, 2008
• Humanity Development Library 2.0, Teacher training: A reference manual, chapter 2 what a teacher needs to know, child and adolescent learning
• Yvonne & Schuyler Moore, child development research center, university of South Carolina ‘Preschool Material’s guide’
• Faculty of education, department of Turkish education Amasya University, Turkey, preparing book for children from birth to age six; the approach of appropriateness for the child
• Lori Calabrese, The children’s book review, November 6, 2010 (source; https://www.thechildrensbookreview.com/weblog/2010/11/how-picture-books-play-a-role-in-a-child’s-development.html)
• Marth crippen, The value of children’s literature (source; https://www.luther.edu/oneota-reading-journal/archive/2012/the-value-of-childrens-literature)
• J.Richard gentry, In psychology today(https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/raising-readers-writers-and-spellers/201802/the-reading-brain-s-food-chain-and-failing-schools)
• Boo-kyung Cho, Jeangjun Kim, Department of early Childhood education, Koria National University of education
• Gokce Irten, Analyzing the components of a children’s picture book, submitted to the Graduate school of art and social sciences, Sabanci University, May 2016
• Hena Haldikva, Children’s book illustration: visual language of picture books
• Suzette Wright, Guide to designing tactile illustrations for children’s books
• Mabel Segun, The importance of illustration in children’s books
• Erkan Cer, Preparing books for children from birth to age six the approach of appropriateness for the child
• Jim Taylor, Reading is Fundamental, 2010 (source; https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-power-prime/201004/education-reading-is-fundamental)
• James Jacobs, Michael Tunnel, Pearson, Children’s Literature briefly, 2004: 35-45
• Norton, Donna E. and Saundra E. Norton, Through the eyes of a child: An Introduction to Children’s Literature, 6thed, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall, 2003
• Early Childhood Education Development Authority / 6th Provincial Council, 3rd Budget / 2016
• Chi- Fen Emily Chen, Children Literature
• Evaluating Kid Lit, Understanding –Art in picture Books(source; https://contributors.slj.com/2015/04/understanding-art-in-picture-book-art/)
• Zhihui Fang, Illustrations, text and the child reader: what are pictures in Children’s story books for?, 1996
• Drew Daywalt, The Day the Crayons Quit (souse; https://www.nyjournalofbooks.com/book-review/day-crayons-quit)
• Sally Donovan and Tristan Leigh , Guidelines for Philosophical Discussion(source; https://www.teachingchildrenphilosophy.org/BookModule/TheDayTheCrayonsQuit )
• Elizabeth bird, top 100 picture books #88: no, david! by david shannon, May 18, 2012 (Source; http://blogs.slj.com/afuse8production/2012/05/18/top-100-picture-books-88-no-david-by-david-shannon/)
• Rosemary Kiladitis, Book Review: No, David! by David Shannon (Blue Sky Press, 1998), June 10, 2013 (source; https://momreadit.wordpress.com/2013/06/10/book-review-no-david-by-david-shannon-blue-sky-press-1998/)
• STEVEN, BEYOND THE BOOK STORYTIME, April 20, 2014 (source; http://btbstorytimes.blogspot.com/2014/04/moving-with-no-david.html)
• Lynley,wolves by emily gravett picture book, January 7, 2015 (sorce; http://www.slaphappylarry.com/picturebook-study-wolves-by-emily-gravett/)
• Stephanie fod, wolves – by Emily gravett , november 03, 2006 (saurse; http://childlitbookclub.blogspot.com/2006/11/wolves-by-emily-gravett.html )
• SANDIE MOURÃO, Passionate about picturebooks, Emily Gravett’s wolf, JANUARY 30, 2011 (source; http://picturebooksinelt.blogspot.com/2011/01/emily-gravetts-wolf.html)
• Katherine Margaret Nicholson Thomson, READING THE VISUAL: THE ROLE OF PICTUREBOOKS IN FACILITATING YOUNG ADULT LITERACY, B. Arts, University of British Columbia, October 2011
• Aylin Karaman, The Analysis of Visual Storytelling On Children’s Books, Izmir University of Economics, Faculty of Fine Arts And Design, Department of Visual Communication Design
• Lynn Chua Raneetha Rajaratnam, What Makes A Good Picture Book
• Emily E. Gerrard, PICTUREBOOKS AS VISUAL LITERACY: THE INFLUENCE OF ILLUSTRATIONS ON SECOND-GRADERS’ COMPREHENSION OF NARRATIVE TEXT ,2008
• Mary Renck Jalongo, Young Children and Picture Books, Second Edition, National Association for the Education of Young Children Washington
• The Curriculum Development Council, Guide to the Guide to the Pre-primary Curriculum ,Recommended for Use in Pre-primary Institutions by The Education Bureau HKSAR, 2006