The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland have three distinct jurisdictions, each has its own juridic system: England and Wales, Escotland and Northen Ireland. The United kingdom was created in 1801, when Great Britain and Ireland joined. However, the United Kingdom only establsih its present state in 1922 with the division of the Northen Ireland and the South Ireland, and after that the independence of the republic of Ireland.
There are four principal sources of english law, these are, Common law, Statute law, European law and the Europian Convention on human rights.The
common Law tradition, is a system of “Judge made” law , where the Judge has powers to develop principles of case Law.They have an unwritten constitution, witch makes it more flexible and easyer to adapt if necessary. The lack of Roman Law influence, witch dominate the legal systems in other Europian countries. The doctrine of biding precedent, English judges are bound to apply any previous decision of a sênior court, and Adversarial nature, witch states that a case in the court is a contest before the judge,that has to see if the rules of evidence are obeyed and choose a winner. The Statute law, diferently from the common law, is a written law made by the Parliament, and is created based on decisions made in other courts and the country’s written constitution. It is the highest type of law which passes Acts onto the Houses of Parliament where they debate whether the Act should exist or not.
The Europian Union (EU) is an economic block created in 1992 to establish a economic and political relation between Europian countries. It is one of the most sucessfull economic blocks in the world presenting a political, social and economic integration, as well as a comon coin (Euro) and the free movement of people. Now a days the economic block hás 28 members, including the United Kingdom, that joined the EU in 1973, and consequently, had to incorporate the Europian legislation on its legal system. The EU law is a combination of court judgments, treaties and law which acts together with other legal systems in the European Union member states. The law is extremily respected in the associate countries and in case of desagriment if economic, political or those involving human rights, the law is given priority over the national law in the associate countries. The union Laws has not competencies over the UK in economic and social areas. The primary EU treaties and the rulings of the European court of justice also have reasonable effect on English law.