The study of neurochemical and molecular mechanisms of neurological memory has been conducted in recent decades with great intensity

The study of neurochemical and molecular mechanisms of neurological memory has been conducted in recent decades with great intensity. However, despite the huge amount of experimental material, the constant improvement of experimental equipment and the undoubted successes achieved by various researchers, a wide range of questions remains unclear and attempts to create a single harmonious theory that exhaustively and consistently explain all aspects of this most complicated phenomenon face significant difficulties.
It is known that almost all, or at least the vast majority of animal species, are capable, one way or another, of adapting to the circumstances they have to face during their lifetime. The reaction of the animal’s organism to the same circumstances during their repeated manifestation often turns out to be quite different than that which occurs when they first collide with them. This is due to the ability of living systems to learn, i.e. the presence of such a specific feature as memory, the existence of which largely determines the individuality of the behavior of each animal and man, conditioned by his personal experience.
Types of biological memory:
1. Genetic;
2. Epigenetic;
3. Immunological;
4. Neurological (it is sometimes called mental or individual).
At present, neurological memory is divided into three stages:
1. Short-term memory (duration from several milliseconds to several minutes).
2. Intermediate (from a few seconds to several hours).
3. Long-term memory (years, decades and throughout life).
Neurological memory has a complex system organization and does not have strict localization in certain areas of the brain. According to modern ideas, traces of memory (engrams) are fixed in the brain in the form of changes in the state of the synaptic apparatus, as a result of which the preferential excitation of certain neural pathways arises.
After the perception of information, in the process of its capture and fixation, a series of successively changing neurochemical processes occur in the brain. At the first stages, in the stage of short-term memory, there are changes in the “fast” synapse functions associated with the release and shift of the concentration of “classical” and peptide mediators. In the future, for a period of several seconds to several days, a wide range of neurochemical processes involving changes in the composition and structure of neurospecific proteins, in particular changes in the degree of their phosphorylation, and modification of the synthesis of RNA are involved.
For the formation of lifelong long-term memory, a constant synthesis of new biopolymers is necessary, which can be implemented in the case of stable rearrangements in the functioning of the genome sites. The latter can occur as a result of either structural changes in DNA, or the formation of stable cycles for the continuous synthesis of repressors or derepressors of transcripts. It is also possible that immunological mechanisms are involved in the formation of long-term memory, thanks to which antibody-like compounds are synthesized in the brain that can for a long time modify the activity of synapses in certain nerve pathways. In the mechanisms of memory formation, both “classical” mediators and a large number of neuropeptides that function as mediators and neuromodulators participate.


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