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The numerical scheme in the flow solver used in this study is based on a finite volume method

The numerical scheme in the flow solver used in this study is based on a finite volume method. The continuum formulation based on the classical mixture theory 15-17 is adopted for modelling the solidification in the droplet.. A cell may consist of both droplet material and air. Material properties in different cell is based on Volume-fraction-averaged, that is given asIn a single pressure system as considered in the VOF method 18, the normal component of the pressure gradient at a stationary inclined solid wall must be different for each phase. To simplify the problem of boundary condition, a modified pressure is defined asWhere Fvol is continuum surface tension force (CSF) model (Brackbill et al., 1992) which has been discussed in section 2.4 and