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The integration of Sentinel satellite data for applications in the agricultural sector in Austria Master’s thesis composed to obtain the academic degree Master of Arts in Business at the University of Applied Sciences Burgenland GmbH submitted by Klara Antonia Wuketich

The integration of Sentinel satellite data for applications in the agricultural sector in Austria
Master’s thesis
composed to obtain the academic degree
Master of Arts in Business
at the University of Applied Sciences Burgenland GmbH
submitted by
Klara Antonia Wuketich
(PKZ 1610402003)
at the University of Applied Sciences Burgenland
Master´s Degree ProgrammeEuropean Studies – Management of EU-Projects
Tutors: Dr. Daniela ANDRATSCH
Dr. Stefan ZOTTI
Eisenstadt, 26th of July, 2018
University of Applied Sciences Master’s ProgrammeEuropean Studies – Management of EU Projects
DECLARATION OF AuthorshipThesis online
Name: Klara Antonia Wuketich
Address: Gußriegelstraße 17/5/2 , 1100 Vienna
E-mail address: [email protected]
Title of the thesis: The integration of Sentinel satellite data for applications in the agricultural sector in Austria
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Executive summaryThe master thesis circles around the central question of the extent to which Sentinel satellite data is made available and beneficial for intended end users (farmers) in the agricultural sector in Austria.
Hereby the objective of the Master thesis is to shed light on the use of Sentinel satellite data for value-added products and services in the agricultural domain as envisioned in the European Union Copernicus programme. The aim is to discover the extent to which Sentinel satellite-based products and services are present on the Austrian agricultural product- and service market, and whether the intended end users utilize and benefit from existing applications.
The results have shown that while the Copernicus programme offers free and openly available Sentinel satellite data meant to reinforce applications in the downstream value chain, there is a discrepancy between the envisioned benefits as proposed by the European Union Copernicus Market Report and the realities of these in the Austrian agricultural sector. From the intermediary perspective, currently there are only three service providers of Sentinel satellite based agricultural applications in Austria. Hereby Sentinel applications are associated with and belong to the precision agriculture technology market. At this point however, these technologies do not find widespread use in the agricultural population for a number of reasons. On the one hand, the usefulness of Sentinel satellite data applications is largely limited by the lacking cost-effectiveness of applications given the Austrian farm structures. In addition, the usefulness of services also depends on whether farmers personally identify an added-value of the applications. The arguments brought forward by farmers highlight the need for (Sentinel) satellite based (precision farming) applications that adapt to the requirements of the end users. As such, there is a gap between the supply and demand side of (Sentinel) satellite based (precision farming) applications. Moving towards an eventually competitive downstream service market thus requires the joint involvement of all stakeholders implicated in developing beneficial and functioning Sentinel satellite-based products and services.

I would like to express gratitude to the involved supervisors Dr. Daniela Andratsch and Dr. Stefan Zotti, who showed great patience, interest and support. Gratitude is also directed at the Master course programme director Dr. Irena Zavrl and programme manager Gabriele König for providing support and giving special attention to the topic. The time and resources provided by Dr. Francesco Vuolo, Dipl. Ing. Johann Fank and Dipl. Ing. Detlef Walter have proved of invaluable assets to the thesis. A special word of thanks goes to friends and family for their active support and words of encouragement.
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u DECLARATION OF Authorship PAGEREF _Toc519355206 h 2Executive summary PAGEREF _Toc519355207 h 3Table of Figures PAGEREF _Toc519355208 h 5Abbreviations and acronyms PAGEREF _Toc519355209 h 6Introduction PAGEREF _Toc519355210 h 71.Introduction on the emergence of space economy as a concept PAGEREF _Toc519355211 h 111.1.EU space industrial policy market uptake PAGEREF _Toc519355212 h 142.Copernicus Programme PAGEREF _Toc519355213 h 152.1.Regulation No. 377/2014 establishing the Copernicus Programme PAGEREF _Toc519355214 h 152.2.The Copernicus Market Report – creating a user-driven market for products and services PAGEREF _Toc519355215 h 183.Austria PAGEREF _Toc519355216 h 213.1.Legal provision and implementation PAGEREF _Toc519355217 h 224.Agriculture PAGEREF _Toc519355218 h 254.1.History of SEOs in agriculture PAGEREF _Toc519355219 h 264.2.Sentinel satellites PAGEREF _Toc519355220 h 274.3.The (significance of) free & open policy of Copernicus in agriculture PAGEREF _Toc519355221 h 304.4.Link of Sentinel satellite data to precision farming and the concept of digitalized agriculture PAGEREF _Toc519355222 h 314.5.Value chain structures in agriculture PAGEREF _Toc519355223 h 335.Practical examples of intermediary – end user interaction in the Austrian agricultural sector PAGEREF _Toc519355224 h 365.1.A brief profile of the Austrian agricultural sector PAGEREF _Toc519355225 h 365.2.Understanding the needs and decision logic of the end user PAGEREF _Toc519355226 h 375.3.EO4Water PAGEREF _Toc519355227 h 395.4.Hagelversicherung PAGEREF _Toc519355228 h 515.5.Perspectives of various stakeholders PAGEREF _Toc519355229 h 555.6.Survey PAGEREF _Toc519355230 h 606.Results PAGEREF _Toc519355231 h 697.Works Cited PAGEREF _Toc519355232 h 768.Appendix PAGEREF _Toc519355233 h 858.1.Glossary PAGEREF _Toc519355234 h 858.2.Interview Transcripts PAGEREF _Toc519355235 h 909.Curriculum vitae PAGEREF _Toc519355236 h 99
Table of Figures TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 01: Space budgets in USD millions (PPP), 2013 (OECD, 2014) PAGEREF _Toc520402530 h 13Figure 02: Copernicus services according to thematic areas (ESA, 2016) PAGEREF _Toc520402531 h 17Figure 03: Depiction of the Copernicus EO downstream value chain (Netherlands Space Office, 2017) (EC, 2016b) PAGEREF _Toc520402532 h 34Figure 04: Farm and forestry holdings in Austria from 1951 to 2016 (bmnt, 2016) PAGEREF _Toc520402533 h 37Figure 05 : Factor dependent decision making of a farmer (Tobin and Allred, 2017) (FAO, no date) (Schönhart, 2018) PAGEREF _Toc520402534 h 38Figure 06: Precipitation deficit 1st of March to 21st of July 2017 (Marchfeld region) circled (Hagelversicherung, 2017) PAGEREF _Toc520402535 h 41Figure 07: The application shows field details (crop type, irrigation method) and the temporal series of crop ET, e?ective rainfall, and irrigation requirements (Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015) PAGEREF _Toc520402536 h 43Figure 08: CWU for sugar beet, soya, potatoes, onion, maize and other crops; red bars indicating over-watering and blank bars indicating under-watering (Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015) PAGEREF _Toc520402537 h 45Figure 09: Overview of the data processing steps from the raw images to making end user ready data PAGEREF _Toc520402538 h 48Figure 011: The Hagelversicherung value chain PAGEREF _Toc520402539 h 52Figure 012: Map showing the plant growth for two separate parcels (Österreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a) PAGEREF _Toc520402540 h 53Figure 013: The distribution of the respective home provinces PAGEREF _Toc520402541 h 62Figure 014: The distribution of farm areas in categories PAGEREF _Toc520402542 h 62Figure 015: The familiarity with satellite-supported agriculture PAGEREF _Toc520402543 h 63Figure 016: The familiarity with different agricultural application technologies PAGEREF _Toc520402544 h 64Figure 017: Associations of satellite data for applications in agriculture PAGEREF _Toc520402545 h 64Figure 018: The source of information on satellite-supported agriculture PAGEREF _Toc520402546 h 65Figure 019: Point of view on the use of satellite data for the monitoring of crop plants PAGEREF _Toc520402547 h 65Figure 020: Familiarity with providers of satellite-supported agricultural technologies PAGEREF _Toc520402548 h 66Figure 021: Providers of Sentinel-2 based applications PAGEREF _Toc520402549 h 67Figure 022: Advantages of satellite-supported agricultural technologies PAGEREF _Toc520402550 h 67Figure 023: Disadvantages of satellite-supported agricultural technologies PAGEREF _Toc520402551 h 68Figure 024: Potential acquirement of satellite-based applications PAGEREF _Toc520402552 h 69
Abbreviations and acronyms ASAP – Austrian Space Applications Programme
Bmvit- Regulation of the Austrian Federal Minister for Transport, Innovation and Technology
BOA – Bottom of the Atmosphere
BOKU – Institute of Surveying, Remote Sensing and Land Information at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences
CAP – Common Agricultural Policy
CWR – Crop Water Requirements
CNES – French Centre national d’études spatiales
EARSC – Association of Remote Sensing Companies
EEA – European Environment Agency
EGNOS – European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service
EO – Earth observation
EODC – Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring
EOS – Earth Observation Satellites
ESA – European Space Agency
EUMETSAT – European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites
FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 
FFG – Austrian Research Promotion Agency
GEOGLAM – Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring Initiative
GMES – Global Monitoring for Environment and Security
GNSS – Global Navigation Satellite System
GPS – Global Positioning System
HDRF – broadband hemispherical-directional reflectance factor
HRSD – High-Resolution Satellite Data
IVFL – Institute of Surveying, Remote Sensing and Land Information
JECAM – Joint Experiment of Crop Assessment and Monitoring
LAI – Leaf area index
LISA – Land Information System Austria
NASA – National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NDVI – Normalized Difference Vegetation Index
NIR – near – infrared
OECD –  Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
PA – Precision Agriculture
R;D – research ; development
SAR – Synthetic Aperture Radar
SMEs – Small or Medium Enterprise Business 
TOA – Top of the Atmosphere
UAV – unmanned air vehicle
VAS – Value-Added Services
ZAMG – Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik
Introduction One of the most pressing global issues is that of food security; currently and even more so in the future years to come. Considering the rapid population growth, coupled with the implications of climate change, measures and solutions will be required to safeguard the supply of food on a global but also European and national level. At the same time, the agricultural sector is one of the greatest emitters of greenhouse gas emissions, concomitant with the consumption and depletion of vital natural resources including soil, water and biodiversity. As such, a balance has to be struck to safeguard the supply of sustenance, while at the same time curb the harmful contributions of agriculture to climate change. In recent years the technological developments and research in Earth Observation (EO) technologies have shown that EO satellites (EOS) are able to be employed in agriculture for more than mere surveillance of the land’s physical surface. The European Union has recognized this opportunity and developed space infrastructure within the framework of the Copernicus programme, bringing forward a series of Sentinel satellites. Given their properties, under the ‘right’ configuration, various parameters are able to be retrieved revealing phenological properties to the extent that resource input optimisation or the prevention of natural damages to crops are possible. Ideally, applications like these would have the desired effects of saving natural resources and minimize damage to the environment, while increasing the efficiency of resource use and optimize crop yield, and finally ease the farmer’s physical and mental workload. With this in mind, the aim of the master thesis is to explore the possible applications that can be developed on the basis of Sentinel satellite data in the agricultural domain, and the extent to which they are effectively available and useful to the intended end users, in this case the farmers. This also implies the exploration of the intermediary to end user constellation as part of value chains that result from integrating Sentinel satellite data, for the use of farmers, into existing national agricultural product- and service markets.
In effect, the research question which is designed to highlight as many relevant aspects to this topic as possible, is as follows; To what extent is Sentinel satellite data made available and beneficial for intended end users (farmers) in the agricultural sector in Austria?
The strategy of means to acquire information and resources for this thesis were manifold. On the one hand, theoretical material including EU regulations, national strategy papers, scientific literature and official websites of organisations helped to establish the direction of the thesis and close knowledge gaps and missing links to answer the research questions. The EU Space Industrial Policy COM(2013) 108 final based on the Article 189 TFEU provision and the Regulation (EU) No 377/2014 European Parliament and of the Council of 3 April 2014 establishing the Copernicus Programme and repealing Regulation (EU) No 911/2010, lay the European legal foundation for the topic of the thesis, and were used as such. The Copernicus Market Report published by the European Commission from 2016 was the culprit to the formulation of the focus of the thesis and set the direction of the content. Regarding information on national structures in relation to space matters and Copernicus programme implementation, there was a primary reliance on the webpages of ministries, mostly the Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (bmvit) which is responsible for the implementation of Copernicus into national structures having published the Austrian Space Applications Programme (ASAP), and the websites of organizations largely in the ownership of the public hand, including Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG), Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring (EODC), or the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG). For the theoretical aspects concerning the technical specifics of Sentinel satellite-based data and the practical and value chain driven application in agriculture, both scientific literature and official websites of organisations were used to derive information.
With that in mind, a practical approach to information gathering was inescapable to close knowledge gaps and missing links in answering the research question. Thus, to get specifically targeted information on the thesis topic two extended interviews were conducted with representatives of different intermediaries of Sentinel satellite-based services in the agricultural domain. To find out the awareness, perception and attitude of farmers as the end users directly, an online survey was set up and distributed along with a forum thread on a commonly used online platform, ‘Landwirt’, to induce discussions on Sentinel satellite-based applications in agriculture.
The findings of the master thesis show that the Copernicus programme allows the access of Sentinel satellite data on an unlimited basis and without restrictions per say. Having said this, the practical usability and realisation of the potential applications and benefits in the area of agriculture are not reached at this point. The results of various interviews, forum discussions and a survey have led to the following conclusions; the farmers as end users can be put into two categories in terms of using and benefiting from Sentinel satellite data applications. The farmers that do use Sentinel satellite data applications in their everyday activities and are aware of the technological implications and benefits, are in a clear minority. The majority of farmers are generally familiar with various precision farming (PA) technologies, but are either not specifically familiar with the connection of possible applications and services to Sentinel satellite data, or do know the connection but do not recognize the use and benefit of the applications and the data derived from these. The results raise the issue of a lack of acceptability on the one hand, and on the other the justified, ‘in-their-own-right’ claims made by the farmers on the limited usability of the available services based on to Sentinel satellite data. Consequently, at this point there is an impeding wedge between the supply and demand side of (Sentinel) satellite based (precision farming) applications. In conclusion, at present a competitive and value-added Sentinel satellite data-based product and service value chain, from data source to end user, does not effectively exist from an economic and commercial perspective in the Austrian agricultural sector. The current limited disseminative use of Sentinel satellite data cannot, however, be contributed to the failing of one group of stakeholders. Rather, a change in the present state of things requires the involvement of all stakeholders implicated in developing beneficial and functioning Sentinel satellite-based products and services.

Introduction on the emergence of space economy as a conceptIn order to fully appreciate the technical innovations accompanying the Earth Observation Satellites (EOS), a brief introduction into the history of (commercial) space technology is given. The launch of the first artificial earth satellite Sputnik I in 1957 marked the beginning of the exploitation of the commercial benefits associated with satellite technology ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://history.nasa.gov/satcomhistory.html”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Whalen”, “given” : “David”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Communications Satellites: Making the Global Village Possible”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=20212a26-2d44-3dad-aa58-4553d1c8ab6a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Whalen, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Whalen, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Whalen, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Whalen, no date). 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This term was coined by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), to describe activities in space manufacturing, satellite operations and the consumer activities that derive from these ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “This study, provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE committee, aims to shed light on the potential applicability of data acquired from the EU Galileo and Copernicus satellite systems in both the public and private sector, and on the reasons why such potential still remains largely underutilized. The regulatory framework, market characteristics and policy actions that are being taken to make use of space data, are comprehensively analysed. 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Government agencies including the American National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Roskomos, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the French Centre national d’études spatiales (CNES), along with military organisations (e.g. Ministries of Defence, Air Forces, Defence Acquisition Agencies) held the upper hand in constructing national space infrastructures with its ground stations, launchers and satellite facilities ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3917/jie.020.0009”, “ISBN” : “9782807390041”, “ISSN” : “2032-5355”, “abstract” : “This article investigates the evolution of space industries from 2000 to 2013. 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It is undisputable that the exploitation and development of space technology has been a considerable driver in the development of modern society, notably of which communication technologies including satellite television, phone services and Global Positioning System (GPS) are the most obvious examples ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lania”, “given” : “Gabriele”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Government of South Austalia”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “June”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-59”, “title” : “An International Comparison of Space History, Policy, and Industrial Capability Government of South Australia”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9116d66a-602a-4037-9ba0-9a4ea7567635” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Lania, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Lania, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Lania, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Lania, 2016). With the years since, the role of the space technology and space economy in areas including navigation, communications, meteorology and earth observation has seen to the development of applications in areas including air traffic control, transport, natural resource management, agriculture, environmental- and climate change monitoring, entertainment, etc. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1787/9789264217294-en”, “ISBN” : “9789264210998”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “OECD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014”, “10”, “23” }, “publisher” : “OECD Publishing”, “title” : “The Space Economy at a Glance 2014”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=cd1c0138-1546-3e5d-89ca-da6a413c147a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(OECD, 2014). These in turn set off the development of new value chains next to the upgrade of existing ones for downstream uses and markets ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1787/9789264217294-en”, “ISBN” : “9789264210998”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “OECD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014”, “10”, “23” }, “publisher” : “OECD Publishing”, “title” : “The Space Economy at a Glance 2014”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=cd1c0138-1546-3e5d-89ca-da6a413c147a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(OECD, 2014).
In commercial terms, the space sector’s revenue has grown faster than that of the global GDP over the last 40 years ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lania”, “given” : “Gabriele”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Government of South Austalia”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “June”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-59”, “title” : “An International Comparison of Space History, Policy, and Industrial Capability Government of South Australia”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9116d66a-602a-4037-9ba0-9a4ea7567635” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Lania, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Lania, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Lania, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Lania, 2016). Today, next to the few already mentioned areas of applications, the demand for remote sensing technologies continues to grow. In fact, there are far more overarching interests underlying the increased demand of satellite-based services, by both public and private stakeholders. One of them is the global demand for food security. Given the most recent United Nations projection estimates, the global population will reach 9.73 billion in 2050 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Alexandratos”, “given” : “N”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bruinsma”, “given” : “J”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “ESA Working Paper No. 12u201303. Rome, FAO”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “title” : “No TitleWorld agriculture towards 2030/2050: the 2012 revision.”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=900871a8-2a97-4e9c-a5ea-472b2ae1f1a5” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Alexandratos and Bruinsma, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Alexandratos and Bruinsma, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Alexandratos and Bruinsma, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Alexandratos and Bruinsma, 2012). In line with this figure, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimates that agricultural produce will need to at least increase by 50% compared to the food, feed and biofuel produced in 2012 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789251095515”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “FAO”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “The future of food and agriculture Trends and challenges”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b6e532c8-1362-428e-8b0b-81764f131755” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(FAO, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(FAO, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(FAO, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(FAO, 2017). This being said, the agricultural sector next to contributing one third of all human-caused greenhouse gas emissions, is also responsible for biodiversity loss, soil degradation, and water depletion and pollution ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3390/rs5020949”, “ISBN” : “2072-4292”, “ISSN” : “20724292”, “abstract” : “Many remote sensing applications are devoted to the agricultural sector. Representative case studies are presented in the special issue u201cAdvances in Remote Sensing of Agricultureu201d. To complement the examples published within the special issue, a few main applications with regional to global focus were selected for this review, where remote sensing contributions are traditionally strong. The selected applications are put in the context of the global challenges the agricultural sector is facing: minimizing the environmental impact, while increasing production and productivity. Five different applications have been selected, which are illustrated and described: (1) biomass and yield estimation, (2) vegetation vigor and drought stress monitoring, (3) assessment of crop phenological development, (4) crop acreage estimation and cropland mapping and (5) mapping of disturbances and land use/land cover (LULC) changes. Many other applications exist, such as precision agriculture and irrigation management (see other special issues of this journal), but were not included to keep the paper concise. The paper starts with an overview of the main agricultural challenges. This section is followed by a brief overview of existing operational monitoring systems. Finally, in the main part of the paper, the mentioned applications are described and illustrated. The review concludes with some key recommendations.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Remote Sensing”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “949-981”, “title” : “Advances in remote sensing of agriculture: Context description, existing operational monitoring systems and major information needs”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “5” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ee87272a-c645-47d3-bbd7-9ab8642dcf91” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Atzberger, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Atzberger, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Atzberger, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Atzberger, 2013) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1038/nature.2012.11708”, “ISSN” : “1476-4687”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gilbert”, “given” : “Natasha”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Nature”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012”, “10”, “31” }, “title” : “One-third of our greenhouse gas emissions come from agriculture”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d76c5776-34f0-396a-b08f-69c3ba02f17c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gilbert, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gilbert, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gilbert, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Gilbert, 2012). In the face of climate change where temperature and precipitation patterns will change and resource scarcity is foreseen, unprecedented transformational adaptations to agricultural practices are unavoidable. The contribution of EOS to tackle agricultural challenges increasingly pricks up the ears across nations; to develop solutions across the agricultural scene however, the space economy needs to create commercially viable downstream markets that is able to reach public and private agricultural stakeholders alike.
At present, the international industrial space economy scene is seeing dynamic developments. Activities are becoming ever more commercialised as a result of the involvement of the private sector contributing to increasing competition. The leading technological transformations reduce the costs of accessing and using space, resulting in the disruption of traditional industrial and commercial business models (COM(2016) 705 final). Indeed, according to Forecast International Inc., a US company providing market intelligence and analysis in the areas of aerospace, defence, power systems and military electronics, the demand for remote sensing services from private and institutional customers, will be driving satellite production up to 200 units in the next 10 years ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “This study, provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE committee, aims to shed light on the potential applicability of data acquired from the EU Galileo and Copernicus satellite systems in both the public and private sector, and on the reasons why such potential still remains largely underutilized. The regulatory framework, market characteristics and policy actions that are being taken to make use of space data, are comprehensively analysed. The study also addresses recommendations for different policy levels.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Delponte”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pellegrini”, “given” : “Julie”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gianinetto”, “given” : “Marco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Boschetti”, “given” : “Luigi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “DIRECTORATE GENERAL FOR INTERNAL POLICIES POLICY DEPARTMENT A: ECONOMIC AND SCIENTIFIC POLICY Space”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Space Market Uptake in Europe”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=99a54733-bde8-49f2-a40d-ca18431e667c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Delponte <i>et al.</i>, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Delponte et al., 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Delponte <i>et al.</i>, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Delponte et al., 2016).
Nevertheless, at this point in time the global commercial space industry, worth around USD 420 billion, is still highly subsidized ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.ft.com/content/3c3d963a-67a6-11e7-8526-7b38dcaef614”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Feng”, “given” : “Emily”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Chinau2019s satellite start-ups vie for private contracts”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0fc2823d-1a3c-3cdd-bae1-f8a2beb6c6e5” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Feng, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Feng, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Feng, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Feng, 2017) (COM(2013) 108 final). National institutional programmes finance research ; development (R;D) programmes and purchase space products and services (COM(2013) 108 final). Indeed the ‘rules of the commercial world’ often do not apply in the space sector ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.5721/EuJRS20144703”, “ISSN” : “22797254”, “abstract” : “Despite successful technological developments, COPERNICUS, the European Earth Observation flagship program, has been showing a weak regional involvement with regards to the wide capacities and benefits it provides for the Environment and Security domains at public and private level. During the project, a methodology was successfully implemented to raise regional awareness on COPERNICUS potential with the concept of a Regional Contact Offices (RCO) Network. This paper aims to describe the process of RCO’s creation and certification. It also presents both benefits and challenges of management and sustainability faced by RCO in order to reach their operational goals. Finally, the paper explores the potential regional impact of RCO.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gil”, “given” : “Artur”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bosc”, “given” : “Christelle”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Basoni”, “given” : “Anna”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Clavu00e9e”, “given” : “Magali”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bacai”, “given” : “Hina”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pergola”, “given” : “Nicola”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Monbet”, “given” : “Philippe”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zolotikova”, “given” : “Svetlana”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zepeda-Juarez”, “given” : “Jesus”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Antoninetti”, “given” : “Massimo”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tramutoli”, “given” : “Valerio”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wells”, “given” : “Alan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Carrara”, “given” : “Paola”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “European Journal of Remote Sensing”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “29-43”, “title” : “DORIS_Net: Enhancing the regional impact of COPERNICUS program by setting up the European Network of Regional Contact Offices”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “47” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ce7cc0fe-9b05-4074-a810-f37c7ab1e8d0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gil <i>et al.</i>, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gil et al., 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gil <i>et al.</i>, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Gil et al., 2014). The US is the largest investor into space technologies having allocated USD 42.96 billion solely in 2014 to this very cause ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lania”, “given” : “Gabriele”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Government of South Austalia”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “June”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-59”, “title” : “An International Comparison of Space History, Policy, and Industrial Capability Government of South Australia”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9116d66a-602a-4037-9ba0-9a4ea7567635” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Lania, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Lania, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Lania, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Lania, 2016). Indeed, the US far outgrows any other country in terms of spending, however other countries including China, Russia, India and Japan follow suit (see figure 0-1).

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 1: Space budgets in USD millions (PPP), 2013 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1787/9789264217294-en”, “ISBN” : “9789264210998”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “OECD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014”, “10”, “23” }, “publisher” : “OECD Publishing”, “title” : “The Space Economy at a Glance 2014”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=cd1c0138-1546-3e5d-89ca-da6a413c147a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(OECD, 2014)
In comparison, Europe’s ESA budget was EUR 2.3 billion in 2013, which currently however stands at EUR 5.8 billion for the year 2018 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2018/01/ESA_budget_2018”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Space in Images – 2018 – 01 – ESA budget 2018”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=df274830-3505-3420-a9c5-9c853c69c9c5” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2018b)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2018b)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2018b)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, 2018b) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.esa.int/About_Us/Welcome_to_ESA/Budget_as_presented_during_DG_press_conference_24_January_2013”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “title” : “Budget as presented during DG press conference 24 January 2013 / Welcome to ESA / About Us / ESA”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0e518dc3-c892-3510-ac2e-d1d2efe9c2c4” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, 2013). Highlighting these figures from a few years back serves to demonstrate the global economic importance of the space industry and the discrepancy of proportional spending between countries. More importantly, these numbers show that Europe in its pursuit to create a competitive space industry within the global market, is up against significant competition. Emerging space industry players such as China and India have long recognized the commercial implications of a space industry (COM(2013) 108 final). The India National Satellite System (INSAT) has one of the world’s most developed communication satellite constellations ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lania”, “given” : “Gabriele”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Government of South Austalia”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “June”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-59”, “title” : “An International Comparison of Space History, Policy, and Industrial Capability Government of South Australia”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9116d66a-602a-4037-9ba0-9a4ea7567635” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Lania, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Lania, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Lania, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Lania, 2016). China has seen a dozen of private space-related companies emerge over the last three years that plan to launch over 20 satellites in each of the next two years ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.ft.com/content/3c3d963a-67a6-11e7-8526-7b38dcaef614”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Feng”, “given” : “Emily”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Chinau2019s satellite start-ups vie for private contracts”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0fc2823d-1a3c-3cdd-bae1-f8a2beb6c6e5” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Feng, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Feng, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Feng, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Feng, 2017). These examples are symbolic of the global space economy landscape, predominant in countries that have the means to devote resources to this sector. It follows that countries with smaller economies cannot afford comparable endeavours. In the EU, smaller member states thus profit from an open and freely accessible space infrastructure under a common policy framework. As such, the European industrial space policy is the prerequisite tool in securing a budget for programmes like Copernicus that aim exploit the commercial benefits of space technology in different areas of application such as agriculture.
EU space industrial policy market uptake Before anything else, a legal provision lays the foundation for defining a common framework to pursue the intended goal. The acknowledgement of the importance of a European space policy by the European Commission dates back to the early 2000s, but before the Lisbon Treaty there was no explicit reference to space in the European Union’s constitutive documents ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://earthzine.org/2016/01/30/looking-ahead-geoglam-in-2016/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “13” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Whitcraft”, “given” : “Alyssa”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “30th January”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Looking Ahead: GEOGLAM in 2016 | Earthzine”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ebe0d8a2-c836-3636-a004-1ce940b509ce” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Whitcraft, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Whitcraft, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Whitcraft, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Whitcraft, 2016) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “This study, provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE committee, aims to shed light on the potential applicability of data acquired from the EU Galileo and Copernicus satellite systems in both the public and private sector, and on the reasons why such potential still remains largely underutilized. The regulatory framework, market characteristics and policy actions that are being taken to make use of space data, are comprehensively analysed. The study also addresses recommendations for different policy levels.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Delponte”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pellegrini”, “given” : “Julie”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gianinetto”, “given” : “Marco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Boschetti”, “given” : “Luigi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “DIRECTORATE GENERAL FOR INTERNAL POLICIES POLICY DEPARTMENT A: ECONOMIC AND SCIENTIFIC POLICY Space”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Space Market Uptake in Europe”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=99a54733-bde8-49f2-a40d-ca18431e667c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Delponte <i>et al.</i>, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Delponte et al., 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Delponte <i>et al.</i>, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Delponte et al., 2016) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9782365671989”, “abstract” : “a The long road to Lisbon Until the adoption of the Lisbon treaty in December 2007, there was no explicit reference to space in the EU’s constitutive documents. While the European Space Agency has been active in space since the mid-1970s, the Union’s policy remained without a legal basis for space activities 1. Parallel to the treaties’ evolution however, the EU’s competences never stopped expanding to new fields, bringing it ever closer to space and its various applications. Creativity and dynamic uses of these existing competences have allowed the EU to progressively interfere with the space sector and to get closer to ESA. In 2004, a Framework Agreement between the EU and ESA formalized the cooperation between the two institutions with the ambition to ” link demand for services and applications using space systems in support of the Community policies with the supply of space systems and infrastructure necessary to meet this demand ” 2. According to this division of roles, the EU would work on the demand side for space-related services and applications, while ESA would work on the supply side3. One can clearly point out some kind of ” implicit agreement ” in which the EU would see the scope of its responsibility in the European space governance directly linked to its ability to increase funding for space related programmes4. 1 BECLARD Julien, ” With the head in the air and the feet on the ground: The EU’s actorness in international space governance ” , Global Governance, 19, 2013, pp.466-467. 2 Article 1, Framework Agreement Between the European Community and the European Space Agency, CE/ESA/en, October 2003. 3 SIGALAS Emmanuel, ” The role of the European parliament in the development of a European space policy ” , Space Policy, 28, 2012, p.111. 4 BECLARD Julien, Politique spatiale europu00e9enne. Vers une deuxiu00e8me europu00e9anisation?, Thu00e8se de doctorat, Universitu00e9 Libre de Bruxelles, mars 2013.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bu00e9clard”, “given” : “Julien”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Actuelles de lu2019Ifri”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October 2003”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “title” : “The Lisbon Treaty and the Evolution of European Space Governance”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4831cf32-c69a-46fb-8a89-3295b326cd6c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Bu00e9clard, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Bu00e9clard, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Bu00e9clard, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Béclard, 2013). With the new agreement a whole article has been dedicated to space matters. Hereby the first paragraph of Article 189 TFEU demands the drawing up of a European space policy to promote scientific and technical progress, industrial competitiveness and the implementation of its policies (Art.189(1) TFEU).
On the 22nd of May 2007, the European Space Policy was presented, laying out for the first time a common political framework for space activities in Europe ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.esa.int/About_Us/Welcome_to_ESA/European_Space_Policy”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “12” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “European Space Policy”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=aad9eabb-f56a-3e49-a15c-81e87a9d564a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date a)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date a)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, no date a). Drafted by the European Commission and ESA’s Director General, Jean Jacques Dordain, a vision, strategy and a commitment to stronger cooperation and coordination between the EU, ESA and Member states in the study and exploration of space was established ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.esa.int/About_Us/Welcome_to_ESA/European_Space_Policy”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “12” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “European Space Policy”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=aad9eabb-f56a-3e49-a15c-81e87a9d564a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date a)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date a)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, no date a). The Commission has since then continually brought forward communications with various proposals. Noteworthy is the 2013 EU space industrial policy which has put its focus on releasing the potential for economic growth in the space sector (COM(2013) 108 final) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “title” : “COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS EU SPACE INDUSTRIAL POLICY RELEASING THE POTENTIAL FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE SPACE SECTOR EN COM(2013)”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9d2bd5a4-2f9f-4aa0-8c90-68f428b63501” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2013). The objectives largely focus on the economic exploitation of the EU space industry through a regulatory framework aiming at involving Small or Medium Enterprise Business  (SMEs) and developing an industrial base (COM(2013) 108 final) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “title” : “COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS EU SPACE INDUSTRIAL POLICY RELEASING THE POTENTIAL FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE SPACE SECTOR EN COM(2013)”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9d2bd5a4-2f9f-4aa0-8c90-68f428b63501” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2013). This should lead to a more cost-efficient sector along value chains and develop markets for space applications and services so as to facilitate the global competitiveness of the EU space industry (COM(2013) 108 final). Finally, the technological non-dependence and independent access to space is to be safeguarded (COM(2013) 108 final).
The most recent Commission Communication is the Space Strategy of Europe released in 2016 (COM(2016) 705 final) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “COM(2016)705 final”, “abstract” : “Europe u2014 the Member States, the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and the EU u2014 has achieved many successes in space with breakthrough technologies and exploration missions, such as ESA’s Rosetta mission, unique Earth observation and meteorology capabilities, such as Meteosat, and world-leading commercial telecommunications and launch systems with the Ariane family and Vega. Europe represents today the second largest public space budget in the world 1 with programmes and facilities spanning different European countries. Between 2014-2020, the EU alone will invest over EUR 12 billion in space activities. It owns world-class space systems with Copernicus 2 for Earth observation, EGNOS 3 and Galileo 4 for satellite navigation and geo-positioning. With 18 satellites currently in orbit and over 30 planned in the next 10-15 years, the EU is the largest institutional customer for launch services in Europe. Space technologies, data and services have become indispensable in the daily lives of European citizens: when using mobile phones and car navigation systems, watching satellite TV or withdrawing cash. Satellites provide immediate information when disasters, such as earthquakes, forest fires or floods strike, allowing emergency and rescue teams to better coordinate their efforts. Agriculture benefits from improved land use. Transportation and energy infrastructure is safer and can be more efficiently managed thanks to satellite technologies. Global challenges due to growing populations, increased demand for resources and climate change require information about our planet which space based solution can provide more easily. Space technologies, data and services can support numerous EU policies and key political priorities, including the competitiveness of our economy, migration, climate change, the Digital Single Market and sustainable management of natural resources. Space is also of strategic importance for Europe. It reinforces Europe’s role as a stronger global player and is an asset for its security and defence. Space policy can help boost jobs, growth and investments in Europe. Investing in space pushes the boundaries of science and research. Europe has a world-class space sector, with a strong satellite manufacturing industry, which captures around 33 % of the open world markets, and a dynamic downstream services sector with a large number of SMEs. The European space economu2026”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “February”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “10-11”, “title” : “COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS Space Strategy for Europe COM(2016) 705 final COMMUNICATION”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b6723403-6b39-419f-b4c9-bf83c0ab922b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016a)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016a)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016a). The strategy takes into account the development and status of the European space industry since 2013 and describes the measures to be taken in order to maximise the potential and benefits of the space sector in alignment with the different EU space programmes (COM(2016) 705 final). These include the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS), Galileo and Copernicus (COM(2016) 705 final). The advancement of programmes like Copernicus through maximisation of socio-economic benefits, competition and innovation driven aspects is a major ambition (COM(2016) 705 final). The launch of enabling platform services offering access to datasets and online processing capabilities, the introduction of an ‘industry test’ to check the ability of downstream suppliers that provide reliable and affordable services and upgrade user consultation processes and the setup of dedicated user platforms are some of the proposed measures by the Commission (COM(2016) 705 final). In its business efforts the Commission plans to support ‘space entrepreneurs’ and start-ups. EU funding programmes including the European Structural Investment Funds (ESIF), European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI) and the European Investment Bank (EIB) are to be involved in facilitating investments into the space sector as part of the Investment Plan for Europe (COM(2016) 705 final). Finally the emergence of space hubs and clusters in Europe is also envisioned (COM(2016) 705 final) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “COM(2014) 344 final”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “European Commission”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “System”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “title” : “IMPACT ASSESSMENT Accompanying the document – Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the dissemination of Earth observation satellite data for commercial purposes”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=43614435-c20b-4cd6-81af-bc5704748c33” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(European Commission, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(European Commission, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(European Commission, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(European Commission, 2014)ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “COM(2016)705 final”, “abstract” : “Europe u2014 the Member States, the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and the EU u2014 has achieved many successes in space with breakthrough technologies and exploration missions, such as ESA’s Rosetta mission, unique Earth observation and meteorology capabilities, such as Meteosat, and world-leading commercial telecommunications and launch systems with the Ariane family and Vega. Europe represents today the second largest public space budget in the world 1 with programmes and facilities spanning different European countries. Between 2014-2020, the EU alone will invest over EUR 12 billion in space activities. It owns world-class space systems with Copernicus 2 for Earth observation, EGNOS 3 and Galileo 4 for satellite navigation and geo-positioning. With 18 satellites currently in orbit and over 30 planned in the next 10-15 years, the EU is the largest institutional customer for launch services in Europe. Space technologies, data and services have become indispensable in the daily lives of European citizens: when using mobile phones and car navigation systems, watching satellite TV or withdrawing cash. Satellites provide immediate information when disasters, such as earthquakes, forest fires or floods strike, allowing emergency and rescue teams to better coordinate their efforts. Agriculture benefits from improved land use. Transportation and energy infrastructure is safer and can be more efficiently managed thanks to satellite technologies. Global challenges due to growing populations, increased demand for resources and climate change require information about our planet which space based solution can provide more easily. Space technologies, data and services can support numerous EU policies and key political priorities, including the competitiveness of our economy, migration, climate change, the Digital Single Market and sustainable management of natural resources. Space is also of strategic importance for Europe. It reinforces Europe’s role as a stronger global player and is an asset for its security and defence. Space policy can help boost jobs, growth and investments in Europe. Investing in space pushes the boundaries of science and research. Europe has a world-class space sector, with a strong satellite manufacturing industry, which captures around 33 % of the open world markets, and a dynamic downstream services sector with a large number of SMEs. 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While the discussed strategy defines the general direction the European space sector should pursue, it does not focus on the Copernicus programme explicitly. Rather, the Regulation No. 377/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council is the legal basis establishing the Copernicus programme and is the document which defines all relevant aspects of it, including the role of member states, the importance of the downstream sector and its areas of application including agriculture.
Copernicus Programme Regulation No. 377/2014 establishing the Copernicus ProgrammeThe Regulation (EU) No. 377/2014 European Parliament and of the Council of 3 April 2014 establishing the Copernicus Programme and repealing Regulation (EU) No 911/2010, is the legal basis establishing the Copernicus programme as a civil, user-driven programme which builds upon the previous European Earth Observation Programme, GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) as well as on existing related national and European capacities. 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Since 2008, the land monitoring service, the marine environment monitoring service, the atmospheric monitoring service and the emergency response service have gradually been developing ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.5721/EuJRS20144703”, “ISSN” : “22797254”, “abstract” : “Despite successful technological developments, COPERNICUS, the European Earth Observation flagship program, has been showing a weak regional involvement with regards to the wide capacities and benefits it provides for the Environment and Security domains at public and private level. During the project, a methodology was successfully implemented to raise regional awareness on COPERNICUS potential with the concept of a Regional Contact Offices (RCO) Network. This paper aims to describe the process of RCO’s creation and certification. It also presents both benefits and challenges of management and sustainability faced by RCO in order to reach their operational goals. 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The new phase began in 2010 when the Regulation No. 911/2010 on GMES and its Initial Operations set out a preliminary operational governance framework and funds of EUR 107 million ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.eea.europa.eu/about-us/what/seis-initiatives/copernicus”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EEA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Copernicus u2014 European Environment Agency”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a26ab55b-1160-3700-91bd-a32da8acb288” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EEA, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EEA, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EEA, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EEA, 2016). As such, the regulation posed as a forerunner to make way for the development of a fully operational Copernicus programme by 2014 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.eea.europa.eu/about-us/what/seis-initiatives/copernicus”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EEA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Copernicus u2014 European Environment Agency”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a26ab55b-1160-3700-91bd-a32da8acb288” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EEA, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EEA, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EEA, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EEA, 2016). EUR 2.4 billion went into the development of the Copernicus space infrastructure, of which ESA contributed EUR 1.68 billion (70% of the total amount) while the EU provided EUR 720 million (30% of the total amount) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “This study, provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE committee, aims to shed light on the potential applicability of data acquired from the EU Galileo and Copernicus satellite systems in both the public and private sector, and on the reasons why such potential still remains largely underutilized. The regulatory framework, market characteristics and policy actions that are being taken to make use of space data, are comprehensively analysed. 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In 2014 the current regulation No. 377/2014 was established, repealing regulation No. 911/2010 and changing the name of the programme from GMES to Copernicus. The same year, the first Copernicus satellite was launched and since then over 1.7 million Sentinel-1A product data have been downloaded ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “This study, provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE committee, aims to shed light on the potential applicability of data acquired from the EU Galileo and Copernicus satellite systems in both the public and private sector, and on the reasons why such potential still remains largely underutilized. The regulatory framework, market characteristics and policy actions that are being taken to make use of space data, are comprehensively analysed. 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This period offset the further launching of satellites including Sentinel-1B, -2A, -2B, -3A and -3B ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “This study, provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE committee, aims to shed light on the potential applicability of data acquired from the EU Galileo and Copernicus satellite systems in both the public and private sector, and on the reasons why such potential still remains largely underutilized. The regulatory framework, market characteristics and policy actions that are being taken to make use of space data, are comprehensively analysed. 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The latest Sentinel satellite mission, 3B has just launched this year on the 25th of April, 2018 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.reuters.com/article/us-space-europe/europe-launches-seventh-sentinel-earth-observation-satellite-idUSKBN1HW2M6”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sheahan”, “given” : “Maria”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Europe launches seventh Sentinel Earth observation satellite | Reuters”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d8264f97-368f-3828-a6b7-1d254f685c69” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Sheahan, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Sheahan, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Sheahan, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sheahan, 2018).
The regulation lays out a number of objectives of which both technical and economic are addressed. On the one hand Copernicus signifies “Europe’s independent access to environmental knowledge and key observation and geo-information gathering technologies” and includes the physical EO infrastructure to monitor the earth for the purpose of supporting the protection of the environment, efforts of civil protection and civil security (Reg. No 377/2014). 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These in turn should create and offset the market for space data uptake and bring forth EU strategy based impacts including growth, jobs and industrial competitiveness and socio-economic and environmental benefits ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “This study, provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE committee, aims to shed light on the potential applicability of data acquired from the EU Galileo and Copernicus satellite systems in both the public and private sector, and on the reasons why such potential still remains largely underutilized. The regulatory framework, market characteristics and policy actions that are being taken to make use of space data, are comprehensively analysed. 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The resulting benefits are predicted to be around EUR 35 billion by 2030 (COM(2014) 344 final) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “title” : “Proposal for a DIRECTIVE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on the dissemination of Earth observation satellite data for commercial purposes COM(2014) 344 final”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “0176” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=48af7973-2d39-4377-a83a-a915b00d097f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2014b)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2014b)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2014b)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2014b).
At the heart of the programme lies the space component, which refers to the actual Sentinel satellite missions that observe the earth to capture land, atmospheric- and oceanographic High-Resolution Satellite Data (HRSD) and ground infrastructure ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279590115”, “abstract” : “Following the assessment of the Copernicus programmeu2019s impacts on the upstream segment, this study aims at characterising the benefits of and the barriers to the Earth Observation (EO) downstream and end user markets in Europe, in order to identify the levers that can support the development of economic activity exploiting Copernicus. After a review of the existing literature, the EO downstream market is characterised by using the US Landsat programme as a benchmark, by the role of large ICT players, the flourishing of platforms and cloud computing, and the overall Big Data trend. The European market is then investigated in detail for 8 promising value chains through consultation with a wide panel of stakeholders, to characterise the current impact of Copernicus according to economic, social, environmental and strategic perspectives, and to forecast the evolution of its contribution to growth and employment up to 2020. Based on the identified strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, recommendations are provided globally and specifically for each value chain, to foster market uptake by European companies. Though still rather low, the penetration of Copernicus data in the EO market is expected to grow in the future, with substantial benefits for both intermediate and end users.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “360”, “title” : “Study to examine the socio- economic impact of Copernicus in the EU Report on the Copernicus downstream sector and”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1b4ad822-6f91-4a72-92d7-f202680f1d6d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016f)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016f)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016f)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016f).
HRSD derived from Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 are openly and freely available on the Copernicus Open Access Hub , which is managed by ESA ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://scihub.copernicus.eu/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “17” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Copernicus Open Access Hub”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=eda0ea3d-c0b2-3c25-9246-a7210cc7f728” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2018a)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2018a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2018a)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, 2018a) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “This study, provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE committee, aims to shed light on the potential applicability of data acquired from the EU Galileo and Copernicus satellite systems in both the public and private sector, and on the reasons why such potential still remains largely underutilized. The regulatory framework, market characteristics and policy actions that are being taken to make use of space data, are comprehensively analysed. The study also addresses recommendations for different policy levels.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Delponte”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pellegrini”, “given” : “Julie”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gianinetto”, “given” : “Marco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Boschetti”, “given” : “Luigi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “DIRECTORATE GENERAL FOR INTERNAL POLICIES POLICY DEPARTMENT A: ECONOMIC AND SCIENTIFIC POLICY Space”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Space Market Uptake in Europe”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=99a54733-bde8-49f2-a40d-ca18431e667c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Delponte ;i;et al.;/i;, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Delponte et al., 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Delponte ;i;et al.;/i;, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Delponte et al., 2016) (Reg. No 377/2014). Next to this space component, data is also procured as part of an in-situ system which comprises of of ground-, sea- or air-borne sensors as well as reference and ancillary data (Reg. No 377/2014). Different agencies that are involved in coordinating the space and in-situ component include the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) for the development of the space component, the European Environment Agency (EEA), the European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union (FRONTEX), the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA), the European Union Satellite Centre (SATCEN), the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and Mercator Océan contribute to the in-situ component ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Strategic Plan 2016-2020”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=dd3a617c-9cd3-4732-8d43-8ab7c1f6c9d0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016e)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016e)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016e)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016e).
Copernicus classifies the services it can provide in different categories. These include the thematic areas areas of land, marine, atmosphere, climate change, emergency management and security ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.5721/EuJRS20144703”, “ISSN” : “22797254”, “abstract” : “Despite successful technological developments, COPERNICUS, the European Earth Observation flagship program, has been showing a weak regional involvement with regards to the wide capacities and benefits it provides for the Environment and Security domains at public and private level. During the project, a methodology was successfully implemented to raise regional awareness on COPERNICUS potential with the concept of a Regional Contact Offices (RCO) Network. This paper aims to describe the process of RCO’s creation and certification. It also presents both benefits and challenges of management and sustainability faced by RCO in order to reach their operational goals. Finally, the paper explores the potential regional impact of RCO.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gil”, “given” : “Artur”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bosc”, “given” : “Christelle”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Basoni”, “given” : “Anna”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Clavu00e9e”, “given” : “Magali”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bacai”, “given” : “Hina”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pergola”, “given” : “Nicola”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Monbet”, “given” : “Philippe”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zolotikova”, “given” : “Svetlana”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zepeda-Juarez”, “given” : “Jesus”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Antoninetti”, “given” : “Massimo”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tramutoli”, “given” : “Valerio”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wells”, “given” : “Alan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Carrara”, “given” : “Paola”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “European Journal of Remote Sensing”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “29-43”, “title” : “DORIS_Net: Enhancing the regional impact of COPERNICUS program by setting up the European Network of Regional Contact Offices”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “47” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ce7cc0fe-9b05-4074-a810-f37c7ab1e8d0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gil <i>et al.</i>, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gil et al., 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gil <i>et al.</i>, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Gil et al., 2014). The figure below (figure 0-2) shows the different thematic areas with some of the services relevant to these (see figure 1). These have so far reached varying degrees of maturity, whereby only the land monitoring and emergency management sector are fully operational ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.eea.europa.eu/about-us/what/seis-initiatives/copernicus”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EEA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Copernicus u2014 European Environment Agency”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a26ab55b-1160-3700-91bd-a32da8acb288” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EEA, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EEA, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EEA, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EEA, 2016). The atmosphere monitoring and marine monitoring sectors are in a pre-operational phase, while the climate change monitoring and security service applications are in the developmental phase ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.eea.europa.eu/about-us/what/seis-initiatives/copernicus”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EEA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Copernicus u2014 European Environment Agency”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a26ab55b-1160-3700-91bd-a32da8acb288” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EEA, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EEA, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EEA, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EEA, 2016).

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 2: Copernicus services according to thematic areas ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Observing_the_Earth/Copernicus/Focus_on_Copernicus_applications”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “17” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Focus on Copernicus applications”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6fe26059-76bd-3694-a640-daf9f04bdf11” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, 2016)
Though the regulation defines policy-makers and public authorities as the core beneficiaries of the services, the commercial private users, education and research sectors as well as non-profit organisations are also to benefit from the data provided by the satellites (Reg. No 377/2014). A ‘full, open and non-fee basis’ access-to-data policy is key in allowing different stakeholders to benefit from the resources, a basis for developing value-added downstream services and products (Reg. No 377/2014).
While the regulation, like any other, is binding and directly applicable in all member states, Article 48 also recognizes that Copernicus needs to be coordinated at Union level due to the “scale of the action, be better achieved at Union level” whereby “the Union may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity” (Reg. No 377/2014, Art. 48). Supporting the claim, this provision is “in accordance with the principle of proportionality,…, and does not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve that objective” (Reg. No 377/2014). Nevertheless, space matters count as a shared competence between the EU and its member states, whereby the regulation repetitively stresses that the programme is based on a partnership between the Union, ESA and the member states. The Union thereby requires the input of the member states by complementing Copernicus through existing national capacities including available contributing missions, in situ data, capacities for spaceborne observations and commercial initiatives (Reg. No 377/2014, Art. 4) (Reg. No 377/2014, Art. 5). Member states are encouraged to “promote and facilitate the use of Earth observation technologies both by local authorities and by SMEs, dedicated networks for Copernicus data distribution, including national and regional bodies” (Reg. No 377/2014, Art. 6). In addition, member states, third countries and international organisations should be free to contribute to the programme on the basis of appropriate agreements (Reg. No 377/2014, Art. 21). Moreover, the Commission should be assisted by independent experts from a broad constituency of stakeholders, including and in particular experts nominated by member states (Reg. No 377/2014, Art. 43).
Having said this, it is also important to highlight the limits of the interference of the EU in space matters in the individual member states. Article 189(2) TFEU points out that the establishment of a European Space programme does not include the “harmonisation of the laws and regulations of the Member States”. Though a shared competence, the exclusion of a harmonisation of laws and regulations of the member states has led to a situation where the interpretation and implementation of the regulation establishing the Copernicus programme varies greatly among the member states. The varied implementation of the regulation provisions has resulted in a highly fragmented European space market (COM(2013) 108 final). Nevertheless, the European Commission stresses the vast potential and possibilities that come with the Copernicus space programme, especially where the creation of downstream markets is concerned.
The Copernicus Market Report – creating a user-driven market for products and services “The Copernicus programme is a cornerstone of the European Union’s efforts to monitor the Earth and its diverse ecosystems… but Copernicus can also drive economic growth, because it can act as a data source for applications and services… The close link between satellite images and the wider geoinformation products sector reinforces the strength of downstream markets.” – El?bieta Bie?kowska, European Commissioner for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs (DG GROW) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279590092”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Copernicus – Market Report”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=84f2a334-82ec-4de7-be1b-b03f2af99a11” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016c).
By quoting an excerpt of the introductory foreword found in the Copernicus Market Report 2016, two main points relevant for the master thesis are established. On the one hand, the main operational purpose of the Copernicus programme is the observation of the Earth and creation of satellite data as a basis for applications in agriculture, forestry, urban monitoring, insurance, ocean, monitoring oil & gas, renewable energies, and air quality. It follows that this free and openly available HRSD asset should be bluntly put; useable for intended target groups or end users. The idea is that specific downstream value chains emerge where value-added service (VAS) intermediaries process and customize satellite-derived data to a format that fits the needs of the end user.

To understand the meaning of an intermediary within the given context, it appertains to break down the structure of the Copernicus value chain, from data generation to products and services. Having said this, the thesis gives only an overview of the general structure that exists as envisioned by the EU. Different national or regional, private or public as well as organisational factors will influence the general model. Essentially the Copernicus value chain is made up of three segments including the upstream, midstream and downstream sector. The VAS intermediaries are found mostly in the downstream and sometimes midstream sector. They include satellite operators, data providers, data-resellers (selling HRSD from EU and non-EU satellite operators and data providers), geo-information service providers, research institutes and VAS providers (COM(2014) 344 final).
The value chain starts with the generation of HRSD itself. As part of the upstream sector it includes providers of EO space infrastructure, satellite and ground system (in-situ) manufacturers and operators, as well as providers of launch capabilities ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Space-Tec Partners”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “COPERNICUS GIO LOT3”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “December”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “4-7”, “title” : “Assessing the Economic Value of Copernicus: u201cEuropean Earth Observation and Copernicus Downstream Services Market Studyu201d”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=cfb265d7-4eff-4315-9a34-74a28c4a78fc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Space-Tec Partners, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Space-Tec Partners, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Space-Tec Partners, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Space-Tec Partners, 2012). Involved entities in this part of the value chain are the ESA and EUMETSAT ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.copernicus.eu/main/overview”, “abstract” : “About”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Copernicus”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Overview | Copernicus”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=08b8d543-d210-3eec-8794-d1fcde821a29” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Copernicus, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Copernicus, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Copernicus, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Copernicus, no date). The ESA is responsible for the development of the space segment component of the Copernicus programme and operates the Sentinel-1, -2, -3 and -5P satellites ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.copernicus.eu/main/overview”, “abstract” : “About”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Copernicus”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Overview | Copernicus”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=08b8d543-d210-3eec-8794-d1fcde821a29” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Copernicus, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Copernicus, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Copernicus, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Copernicus, no date). The EUMETSAT is in charge of Sentinel-3, -4 and -5 satellites ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.copernicus.eu/main/overview”, “abstract” : “About”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Copernicus”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Overview | Copernicus”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=08b8d543-d210-3eec-8794-d1fcde821a29” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Copernicus, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Copernicus, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Copernicus, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Copernicus, no date). Complementary to the data derived from satellites, the so called in-situ component entails the collection of data from monitoring systems located on the ground, at sea or in the air (Reg. No 377/2014). In-situ devices include sensors located on ground based weather stations, ocean buoys and air quality monitoring networks which next to providing robust data, also calibrate and validate the data derived from the satellites ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.copernicus.eu/main/overview”, “abstract” : “About”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Copernicus”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Overview | Copernicus”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=08b8d543-d210-3eec-8794-d1fcde821a29” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Copernicus, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Copernicus, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Copernicus, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Copernicus, no date) (Reg. No 377/2014). Finally there are over 30 national and international contributing missions that are complementary to the Sentinel satellites in the provision of HRSD ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.esa.int/About_Us/Welcome_to_ESA/European_Space_Policy”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “12” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “European Space Policy”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=aad9eabb-f56a-3e49-a15c-81e87a9d564a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date a)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date a)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, no date a). They have different measuring device properties including Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) , optical sensors, altimetry systems, radiometers and spectrometers ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.esa.int/About_Us/Welcome_to_ESA/European_Space_Policy”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “12” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “European Space Policy”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=aad9eabb-f56a-3e49-a15c-81e87a9d564a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date a)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date a)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, no date a). Well-known examples of contributing missions include SPOT (VGT), SPOT (HRS), TerraSAR–X, RapidEye, Deimos-2, Meteosat or Pleiades ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bargellini”, “given” : “P”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “GEOSS Workshop”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “publisher” : “Department, Ground Segment and Mission Operations Directorate, Earth Observation Programmes Agency, European Space”, “title” : “Copernicus Space Component Overview”, “type” : “paper-conference” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8d1a3da8-aef1-4563-860f-1d2b421a6f16” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Bargellini, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Bargellini, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Bargellini, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Bargellini, 2013). The data generated by these satellites, supporting missions and in-situ components are then attributed to the different application areas including land monitoring, emergency management, atmosphere monitoring, maritime environment monitoring, climate change and security ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Strategic Plan 2016-2020”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=dd3a617c-9cd3-4732-8d43-8ab7c1f6c9d0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016e)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016e)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016e)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016e).
Although Sentinel data is offered for free, application-specific algorithms have to run over the images derived from the satellites to attribute praxis-relevant values to these ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mazzucato”, “given” : “Mariana”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Robinson”, “given” : “Douglas K.R.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Market Creation and the European Space Agency”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=25a40dd8-15fd-4e54-8808-22a09b621929” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mazzucato and Robinson, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mazzucato and Robinson, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mazzucato and Robinson, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mazzucato and Robinson, 2016). Data providers that utilize data emitted from the upstream sector are part of the midstream sector. They acquire, store and process space-derived data to a degree which makes the data fit for commercial and institutional purposes, and distribute it to the downstream sector where the data undergoes further processing and adaptation ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279590092”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Copernicus – Market Report”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=84f2a334-82ec-4de7-be1b-b03f2af99a11” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016c) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Space-Tec Partners”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “COPERNICUS GIO LOT3”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “December”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “4-7”, “title” : “Assessing the Economic Value of Copernicus: u201cEuropean Earth Observation and Copernicus Downstream Services Market Studyu201d”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=cfb265d7-4eff-4315-9a34-74a28c4a78fc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Space-Tec Partners, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Space-Tec Partners, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Space-Tec Partners, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Space-Tec Partners, 2012).
The final and, for the purpose of this master thesis, most relevant sector of the value chain is the downstream sector. It is a complex structure that is made up of several facets to bring useable products and VAS to the final end users. It is essential to understand that the data acquired from the midstream sector must undergo several steps involving a number of actors before it gets to the intended end users. Hereby the main actors are the aforementioned intermediaries who further process, tailor and individualize space-derived data to pass on to the final users. The intermediaries play a critical role in catalysing innovative value chains and essentially create markets based on satellite data ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Space-Tec Partners”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “COPERNICUS GIO LOT3”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “December”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “4-7”, “title” : “Assessing the Economic Value of Copernicus: u201cEuropean Earth Observation and Copernicus Downstream Services Market Studyu201d”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=cfb265d7-4eff-4315-9a34-74a28c4a78fc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Space-Tec Partners, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Space-Tec Partners, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Space-Tec Partners, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Space-Tec Partners, 2012) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279590092”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Copernicus – Market Report”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=84f2a334-82ec-4de7-be1b-b03f2af99a11” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016c) Intermediaries are heterogenous in structure and include (geo information) start-ups, SMEs and larger players, research organisations and universities ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279590115”, “abstract” : “Following the assessment of the Copernicus programmeu2019s impacts on the upstream segment, this study aims at characterising the benefits of and the barriers to the Earth Observation (EO) downstream and end user markets in Europe, in order to identify the levers that can support the development of economic activity exploiting Copernicus. After a review of the existing literature, the EO downstream market is characterised by using the US Landsat programme as a benchmark, by the role of large ICT players, the flourishing of platforms and cloud computing, and the overall Big Data trend. The European market is then investigated in detail for 8 promising value chains through consultation with a wide panel of stakeholders, to characterise the current impact of Copernicus according to economic, social, environmental and strategic perspectives, and to forecast the evolution of its contribution to growth and employment up to 2020. Based on the identified strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, recommendations are provided globally and specifically for each value chain, to foster market uptake by European companies. Though still rather low, the penetration of Copernicus data in the EO market is expected to grow in the future, with substantial benefits for both intermediate and end users.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “360”, “title” : “Study to examine the socio- economic impact of Copernicus in the EU Report on the Copernicus downstream sector and”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1b4ad822-6f91-4a72-92d7-f202680f1d6d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016f)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016f)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016f)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016f). There are over 100 VAS or data reseller businesses in Europe, however it is important to note that many intermediaries in the downstream sector are also active in more than one segment of the value chain, especially larger companies (COM(2014) 344 final). In comparison with the upstream and midstream sector, the downstream value chain has the greatest commercial and economic prospects with a potential turnover of EUR 1.0 billion to EUR 2.6 billion ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “OECD”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “title” : “The space economy at a glance”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b81aad21-4fc7-432b-aa59-47b2be1ab8ac” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2007)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2007)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(OECD, 2007)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(OECD, 2007) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Spacetec”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “title” : “Assessing the Economic Value of GMES: u201cEuropean Earth Observation (EO) and GMES Downstream Services Market Studyu201d. Executive Summary. Specific Contract of the Framework Service Contract 89/PP/ENT/2011 u2013 LOT 3 (u201cSupport to GMES related policy measuresu201d)”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6ad61d76-9913-46d9-a5cb-cb99e0004158” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Spacetec, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Spacetec, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Spacetec, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Spacetec, 2012).
All in all, the initial spending on the Copernicus programme from 2008 to 2020 accrued to EUR 7.4 billion, but the total gross added value is estimated at EUR 10.3 billion, which broken down is 1.4 euro for every one euro ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Strategic Plan 2016-2020”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=dd3a617c-9cd3-4732-8d43-8ab7c1f6c9d0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016e)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016e)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016e)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016e). The European Association of Remote Sensing Companies (EARSC) conducted a survey on the ‘State and Health of the European EO Services Industry’ in the fiscal year 2016, contacting over 700 companies ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EARSC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1-16”, “title” : “A Survey into the State and Health of the European EO”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b6c43552-db71-4853-9d1b-231a406acbd2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EARSC, 2017). The results showed that the number of companies has been growing at a rate of 7.3% per annum in recent years from 310 in 2012 to 510 in 2016 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EARSC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1-16”, “title” : “A Survey into the State and Health of the European EO”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b6c43552-db71-4853-9d1b-231a406acbd2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EARSC, 2017). Hereby over 95% of the companies are micro- or small-sized companies ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EARSC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1-16”, “title” : “A Survey into the State and Health of the European EO”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b6c43552-db71-4853-9d1b-231a406acbd2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EARSC, 2017). Most are located in France, the UK, Germany and the Netherlands ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EARSC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1-16”, “title” : “A Survey into the State and Health of the European EO”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b6c43552-db71-4853-9d1b-231a406acbd2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EARSC, 2017). The EO-market in agricultural sectors has the highest penetration rate for Copernicus data, representing 13% of EO data exploited in the sector ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279590092”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Copernicus – Market Report”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=84f2a334-82ec-4de7-be1b-b03f2af99a11” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016c). In 2015 the EO downstream market for precision farming applications was estimated at EUR 66.3 million ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279590115”, “abstract” : “Following the assessment of the Copernicus programmeu2019s impacts on the upstream segment, this study aims at characterising the benefits of and the barriers to the Earth Observation (EO) downstream and end user markets in Europe, in order to identify the levers that can support the development of economic activity exploiting Copernicus. After a review of the existing literature, the EO downstream market is characterised by using the US Landsat programme as a benchmark, by the role of large ICT players, the flourishing of platforms and cloud computing, and the overall Big Data trend. The European market is then investigated in detail for 8 promising value chains through consultation with a wide panel of stakeholders, to characterise the current impact of Copernicus according to economic, social, environmental and strategic perspectives, and to forecast the evolution of its contribution to growth and employment up to 2020. Based on the identified strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, recommendations are provided globally and specifically for each value chain, to foster market uptake by European companies. Though still rather low, the penetration of Copernicus data in the EO market is expected to grow in the future, with substantial benefits for both intermediate and end users.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “360”, “title” : “Study to examine the socio- economic impact of Copernicus in the EU Report on the Copernicus downstream sector and”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1b4ad822-6f91-4a72-92d7-f202680f1d6d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016f)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016f)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016f)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016f).

It goes without saying that the nature of EU regulations, policies and strategies will also impact national structures and dictate actions specific to the subject area. As such it is in a last effort appropriate to highlight the EU aspect regarding the requirements for the realization of Copernicus-enabled economic impacts. In line with the visions and ideas presented in the Copernicus Market Report, the Commission has entrusted DG GROW to draw up a Strategic Plan 2016 – 2020 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Strategic Plan 2016-2020”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=dd3a617c-9cd3-4732-8d43-8ab7c1f6c9d0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016e)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016e)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016e)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016e). While the Commission recognizes the strategic importance of space for the EU, it deems a coherent and stable regulatory framework aiming to set the conditions for the development of markets for space applications and services and the exploitation of space data, a prerequisite ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Strategic Plan 2016-2020”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=dd3a617c-9cd3-4732-8d43-8ab7c1f6c9d0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016e)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016e)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016e)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016e). Moreover, the Commission points out that in order to create an internal market for space products and services, an unequivocal industrial policy for the space sector needs to be defined that reconciles the Union’s political ambitions with the economic specificity of the space sector ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.spacepol.2012.02.009”, “ISBN” : “9781317383598”, “ISSN” : “02659646”, “abstract” : “The rise of the EU as an actor in the European and world space theatres, in its various roles as initiator, owner and operator of large-scale programmes such as Galileo and GMES, has raised a number of questions with regard to industrial policy. Based on the experiences from the Galileo programme’s procurement round in the Full Operational Capability (FOC) phase and on the present discussions on space industrial policy within the EU, this paper argues that, whereas the EU’s political ambitions in space have been discussed and become reasonably well defined, the specific policy tools and legal instruments to put them into practice are far from complete. First, an unequivocal industrial policy for the space sector needs to be defined that reconciles the Union’s political ambitions with the economic specificities of the space sector. At present, this is a work in progress, with opinions diverging between member states. Second, both logically and temporally, these policy decisions need to be translated into legal instruments that allow their implementation. This implies the development of made-to-measure funding instruments and procurement rules. We conclude by emphasising the need for a sector-specific industrial policy as an integral part of the EU’s space policy. u00a9 2012 Elsevier Ltd.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hansen”, “given” : “Rik”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wouters”, “given” : “Jan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Space Policy”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “94-101”, “title” : “Towards an EU industrial policy for the space sector – Lessons from Galileo”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “28” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6ac07886-3236-465e-a828-b82a76a48bbe” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Hansen and Wouters, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Hansen and Wouters, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Hansen and Wouters, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Hansen and Wouters, 2012) (COM(2013) 108 final). Further on the sustained funding for the implementation of the Copernicus programme is imperative and defined in the annual working programme as set out by the European Commission. In fact the budget for 2018 amounts to EUR 652 million and is pulled from the general budget of the EU ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “publisher-place” : “Brussels”, “title” : “ANNEX to the COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING DECISION on the adoption of the Work programme 2018 and on the financing of the Copernicus Programme EN”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ad166712-3f5b-4ccf-b6f5-a0c8113ce42a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2018)”, “manualFormatting” : “(EC 2018, Art.2)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC 2018, Art.2). Now that Sentinel satellite missions for EO are available for exploitation under the open-access policy and the efforts towards a regulatory framework have been declared, establishing new value chains and expanding these are necessary to achieve the objectives as set out in the Commission Communication Space Strategies of 2013 and 2016.
The need to create markets and services to cater to end user’s needs is also highlighted in the Regulation No. 377/2014 establishing the Copernicus Programme. Having said that, the continuous involvement of users, particularly regarding the definition and validation of service requirements is needed to realise penetration and expansion of markets and an increase in competitiveness of downstream operators (Reg. No 377/2014 Art. 4 (3d)) (Reg. No 377/2014 Art. 45). Without further ado, the next chapter will explore to what extent the presence of Copernicus is felt in the national Austrian structures.

Austria The most obvious national link to the Copernicus programme is found in Austria’s current relation to ESA. Austria became an associated member of ESA back in the 1980s and a full member by 1987 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmvit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “title” : “Austria in Space – Strategy of the bmvit for Austrian Space Activities”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c6b4fc0a-4665-444b-b8d8-4925b3fcf91f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmvit, 2014). By doing so, Austrian research institutes and companies are since given the chance to integrate themselves into the development of space missions and space-based applications, being provided with measuring instruments and contributions to satellite and launcher systems ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmvit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “title” : “Austria in Space – Strategy of the bmvit for Austrian Space Activities”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c6b4fc0a-4665-444b-b8d8-4925b3fcf91f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmvit, 2014). Next to ESA, the membership and contribution to EUMETSAT as well as the national Austrian Space Applications Programme (ASAP) form the main components of the Austrian space activities ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmvit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Austrian Technology in Space – An Overview of Austrian Space Industry and Research”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=77abd3fb-5442-4cf1-aa3a-d9f6e3ba5414” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmvit, 2017). ASAP was brought to life in 2002 by bmvit as a bottom-up research and development funding programme in the support of EU and ESA programmes on a national level. Since then it has been functioning as a funding, networking and advice service for several stakeholders; scientific institutions, industrial enterprises and SMEs that are involved in space science and exploration projects, as well as the development of space technologies, products and services ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.ffg.at/en/austrian-space-applications-programme”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “23” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “FFG”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Austrian Space Applications Programme”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7b61b274-a59d-3e05-b05e-a4f56deca5e1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(FFG, no date b)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(FFG, no date b)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(FFG, no date b)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(FFG, no date b). The financial contributions under ESA, EUMETSAT and ASAP make up the national space budget ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.ffg.at/en/services/austrian-esa-participation”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “23” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “FFG”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Austrian ESA participation”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a60ec99d-eabc-381c-bb0c-849b07056a7b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(FFG, no date a)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(FFG, no date a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(FFG, no date a)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(FFG, no date a). Austria transfers financial contributions to ESA, after which these contributions redistributed in the form of contracts towards national research institutions and companies ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.ffg.at/en/services/austrian-esa-participation”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “23” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “FFG”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Austrian ESA participation”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a60ec99d-eabc-381c-bb0c-849b07056a7b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(FFG, no date a)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(FFG, no date a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(FFG, no date a)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(FFG, no date a). In 2017, the total national space budget was EUR 70 million ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmvit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Austrian Technology in Space – An Overview of Austrian Space Industry and Research”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=77abd3fb-5442-4cf1-aa3a-d9f6e3ba5414” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmvit, 2017).
Legal provision and implementation Forming the most fundamental legal base for space legislation, the Austrian Federal Law on the Authorisation of Space Activities and the Establishment of a National Space Registry was adopted in 2011 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmvit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Austrian Technology in Space – An Overview of Austrian Space Industry and Research”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=77abd3fb-5442-4cf1-aa3a-d9f6e3ba5414” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmvit, 2017) (NPOC 2015). The first Austrian Space Strategy was adopted a year later in 2012 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmvit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Austrian Technology in Space – An Overview of Austrian Space Industry and Research”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=77abd3fb-5442-4cf1-aa3a-d9f6e3ba5414” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmvit, 2017). The most recent one was published in 2017 and has set out four objectives that include the national ambition of becoming a recognized and visible partner, creating a competitive space sector, steering the orientation towards application potentials and paving the way for a sustainable base for space activities ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmvit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Austrian Technology in Space – An Overview of Austrian Space Industry and Research”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=77abd3fb-5442-4cf1-aa3a-d9f6e3ba5414” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmvit, 2017). Last but not least, the Regulation of the Austrian Federal Minister for Transport, Innovation and Technology (bmvit) for the Implementation of the Austrian Federal Law on the Authorisation of Space Activities and Establishment of a National Space Registry has been the last legal act to date (2015) (NPOC, 2015). In general, the bmvit is the main reference point in space matters. It poses as the national space registry, setting out administrative procedures for the launching of space objects (BGBl. I Nr. 132/2011) (BGBl. II No. 36/2015). The tasks of the bmvit also include the facilitation of the involvement of Austrian companies, research institutions and future users of SEO services in developing and using space infrastructure, mainly through the agencies it owns ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmvit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “title” : “Austria in Space – Strategy of the bmvit for Austrian Space Activities”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c6b4fc0a-4665-444b-b8d8-4925b3fcf91f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmvit, 2014). For example, the Aeronautics and Space Agency (ALR) under the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG), and fully owned by the bmvit, is the docking station to the international space world for Austrian science and industry ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmvit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “title” : “AustriAn technology in spAce”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=640a9911-c5f6-4781-be25-c1b846f28948” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmvit, 2012). Founded on the 1st of September 2004 and pursuant to the FFG Act on establishing a research promotion agency under the Federal Law Gazette I No. 73/2004, the entity offers a diverse and focused programme portfolio for Austrian businesses and research facilities with a hassle-free access to research funding (FFG, no date c). The agency represents Austria on an international level, in particular to the bodies of the ESA, EU and EUMETSAT and manages the participation in bilateral and international programmes ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmvit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “title” : “AustriAn technology in spAce”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=640a9911-c5f6-4781-be25-c1b846f28948” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmvit, 2012). Besides being the main contact point for coordination activities in the area of space, the agency is also responsible for the implementation of the national space policy ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmvit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “title” : “AustriAn technology in spAce”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=640a9911-c5f6-4781-be25-c1b846f28948” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmvit, 2012). One of the main outputs of the agency is the already mentioned ASAP, which has first been established in 2002 and is a bottom-up research and development funding programme aiming at supporting and complementing the objectives of EU and ESA programmes ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmvit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “title” : “AustriAn technology in spAce”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=640a9911-c5f6-4781-be25-c1b846f28948” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmvit, 2012). In the time frame between 2002 to 2014, a total of 241 projects have been supported with approximately EUR 55 million worth of funding ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmvit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “title” : “Austria in Space – Strategy of the bmvit for Austrian Space Activities”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c6b4fc0a-4665-444b-b8d8-4925b3fcf91f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmvit, 2014). One of the areas that ASAP promotes is the application of space technology while aiming at securing Austria’s competitive position in this field ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmvit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “title” : “AustriAn technology in spAce”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=640a9911-c5f6-4781-be25-c1b846f28948” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmvit, 2012).

In concrete relation to the Copernicus programme, the bmvit has allocated a total of EUR 3 million in projects for the extraction, analysis and use of Sentinel-data (ZAMG, 2016). According to Jörg Leichtfried, the former Federal Minister for Transport, Innovation and Technology the “data offers Austrian universities, research institutes and businesses new opportunities. Thereby we create a substantial basis for our environmental and climate policies” (ZAMG, 2016). Together with the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) and the Austrian Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Research, the Sentinel National Mirror Austria was set up. The Sentinel National Mirror Austria is an online platform that offers Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data for free. The portal extracts around 3 trillionbyte data from ESA and is processed by the ZAMG to be made readily available (ZAMG, 2016). The Land Information System Austria is another project which has been financed by bmvit and ESA ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.landinformationsystem.at/#/lisa/overview”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “23” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “LISA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Development of the Austrian Land Information System”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e91573ec-f63f-359e-b755-5bf7bfe9fbc9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(LISA, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(LISA, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(LISA, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(LISA, no date). A multi-stage project that began in 2009, it was run under the auspices of ASAP. By combining national spatial data infrastructure (orthophotos, airborne laser scanning data and other countrywide available geodata) with European GMES/Copernicus data infrastructure, detailed geospatial information on the status and development of land cover and land use in Austria have been created ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Banko”, “given” : “Gebhard”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mansberger”, “given” : “Reinfried”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gallaun”, “given” : “Heinz”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Grillmayer”, “given” : “Roland”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pru00fcller”, “given” : “Rainer”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Riedl”, “given” : “Manfred”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Stemberger”, “given” : “Wolfgang”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Steinnocher”, “given” : “Klaus”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Walli”, “given” : “Andreas”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Land Use and Land Cover Mapping in Europe”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “Remote Sensing and Digital Image Processing”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “title” : “Land Information System Austria (LISA)”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “18” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=bcde7b43-edaf-4f95-ac5b-8734971a797d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Banko ;i;et al.;/i;, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Banko et al., 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Banko ;i;et al.;/i;, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Banko et al., 2014) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.landinformationsystem.at/#/lisa/overview”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “23” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “LISA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Development of the Austrian Land Information System”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e91573ec-f63f-359e-b755-5bf7bfe9fbc9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(LISA, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(LISA, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(LISA, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(LISA, no date). The last stage of the project, CadasterENV ran from August 2015 to December 2017, and included the production of an Austrian wide land cover map using Sentinel-2 satellite images ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.landinformationsystem.at/#/lisa/overview”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “23” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “LISA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Development of the Austrian Land Information System”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e91573ec-f63f-359e-b755-5bf7bfe9fbc9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(LISA, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(LISA, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(LISA, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(LISA, no date). Hereby the Copernicus space component was finally integrated into Austria and achieved the following milestones; (i) the integration and full exploitation of Sentinel-2 imagery in the Land Information System Austria (LISA), (ii) the creation of a high-resolution land cover map of 10,000 km2 capturing the whole spatial territory of the country, (iii) and the ability to differentiate between the land type and land use change including long-term changes (e.g. road and building infrastructure), seasonal changes (agriculture) and continuous changes (forest development) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.landinformationsystem.at/#/lisa/overview”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “23” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “LISA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Development of the Austrian Land Information System”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e91573ec-f63f-359e-b755-5bf7bfe9fbc9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(LISA, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(LISA, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(LISA, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(LISA, no date). Relevant for agriculture are the change alert maps to track short term and frequent changes in agricultural areas and the HR time series within a vegetation period to track crop rotation ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.landinformationsystem.at/#/lisa/overview”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “23” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “LISA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Development of the Austrian Land Information System”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e91573ec-f63f-359e-b755-5bf7bfe9fbc9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(LISA, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(LISA, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(LISA, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(LISA, no date).
The Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring (EODC), funded in 2014 is a public-private collaborative IT infrastructure forum in Vienna functioning in the procuring, archiving, processing, managing, and distribution of EO data ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmvit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Austrian Technology in Space – An Overview of Austrian Space Industry and Research”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=77abd3fb-5442-4cf1-aa3a-d9f6e3ba5414” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmvit, 2017) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3390/rs8110938”, “ISBN” : “2072-4292”, “ISSN” : “2072-4292”, “abstract” : “This technical note presents the first Sentinel-2 data service platform for obtaining atmospherically-corrected images and generating the corresponding value-added products for any land surface on Earth (http://s2.boku.eodc.eu/). Using the European Space Agencyu2019s (ESA) Sen2Cor algorithm, the platform processes ESAu2019s Level-1C top-of-atmosphere reflectance to atmospherically-corrected bottom-of-atmosphere (BoA) reflectance (Level-2A). The processing runs on-demand, with a global coverage, on the Earth Observation Data Centre (EODC), which is a public-private collaborative IT infrastructure in Vienna (Austria) for archiving, processing, and distributing Earth observation (EO) data (http://www.eodc.eu). Using the data service platform, users can submit processing requests and access the results via a user-friendly web page or using a dedicated application programming interface (API). Building on the processed Level-2A data, the platform also creates value-added products with a particular focus on agricultural vegetation monitoring, such as leaf area index (LAI) and broadband hemispherical-directional reflectance factor (HDRF). An analysis of the performance of the data service platform, along with processing capacity, is presented. Some preliminary consistency checks of the algorithm implementation are included to demonstrate the expected product quality. In particular, Sentinel-2 data were compared to atmospherically-corrected Landsat-8 data for six test sites achieving a R2 = 0.90 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = 0.031. LAI was validated for one test site using ground estimations. Results show a very good agreement (R2 = 0.83) and a RMSE of 0.32 m2/m2 (12% of mean value).”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “u017bu00f3u0142tak”, “given” : “Mateusz”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pipitone”, “given” : “Claudia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zappa”, “given” : “Luca”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wenng”, “given” : “Hannah”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Immitzer”, “given” : “Markus”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Weiss”, “given” : “Marie”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Baret”, “given” : “Frederic”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Remote Sensing”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “11”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “938”, “title” : “Data Service Platform for Sentinel-2 Surface Reflectance and Value-Added Products: System Use and Examples”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “8” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=58e562b0-bc3c-4c70-892c-f00772044d19” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo ;i;et al.;/i;, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo et al., 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo ;i;et al.;/i;, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo et al., 2016). It represents another direct national involvement with the Copernicus programme ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmvit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Austrian Technology in Space – An Overview of Austrian Space Industry and Research”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=77abd3fb-5442-4cf1-aa3a-d9f6e3ba5414” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmvit, 2017) (ZAMG, 2016). It is run by the Technical University of Vienna (TU), with data developers and users from ten different countries (ZAMG, 2016). The aim of the forum is the exchange of experiences and the finding of new possibilities with the use of EO-data (ZAMG, 2016). The EODC offers an on-demand processing system, based on a cloud computing environment that derives geophysical parameters and land cover properties from Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and other missions ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmvit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Austrian Technology in Space – An Overview of Austrian Space Industry and Research”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=77abd3fb-5442-4cf1-aa3a-d9f6e3ba5414” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmvit, 2017). The centre connects some of Europe’s most powerful computer processing resources, and Sentinel data are found on the Vienna Scientific Cluster (VSC) ‘supercomputer’ which has the storage power of 2 quadrillion byte (ZAMG, 2016) (EODC, n.d.-a). Based on requests users have access to required data results from a user-friendly web page or a dedicated application programming platform (API) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3390/rs8110938”, “ISBN” : “2072-4292”, “ISSN” : “2072-4292”, “abstract” : “This technical note presents the first Sentinel-2 data service platform for obtaining atmospherically-corrected images and generating the corresponding value-added products for any land surface on Earth (http://s2.boku.eodc.eu/). Using the European Space Agencyu2019s (ESA) Sen2Cor algorithm, the platform processes ESAu2019s Level-1C top-of-atmosphere reflectance to atmospherically-corrected bottom-of-atmosphere (BoA) reflectance (Level-2A). The processing runs on-demand, with a global coverage, on the Earth Observation Data Centre (EODC), which is a public-private collaborative IT infrastructure in Vienna (Austria) for archiving, processing, and distributing Earth observation (EO) data (http://www.eodc.eu). Using the data service platform, users can submit processing requests and access the results via a user-friendly web page or using a dedicated application programming interface (API). Building on the processed Level-2A data, the platform also creates value-added products with a particular focus on agricultural vegetation monitoring, such as leaf area index (LAI) and broadband hemispherical-directional reflectance factor (HDRF). An analysis of the performance of the data service platform, along with processing capacity, is presented. Some preliminary consistency checks of the algorithm implementation are included to demonstrate the expected product quality. In particular, Sentinel-2 data were compared to atmospherically-corrected Landsat-8 data for six test sites achieving a R2 = 0.90 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = 0.031. LAI was validated for one test site using ground estimations. Results show a very good agreement (R2 = 0.83) and a RMSE of 0.32 m2/m2 (12% of mean value).”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “u017bu00f3u0142tak”, “given” : “Mateusz”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pipitone”, “given” : “Claudia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zappa”, “given” : “Luca”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wenng”, “given” : “Hannah”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Immitzer”, “given” : “Markus”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Weiss”, “given” : “Marie”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Baret”, “given” : “Frederic”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Remote Sensing”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “11”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “938”, “title” : “Data Service Platform for Sentinel-2 Surface Reflectance and Value-Added Products: System Use and Examples”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “8” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=58e562b0-bc3c-4c70-892c-f00772044d19” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo ;i;et al.;/i;, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo et al., 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo ;i;et al.;/i;, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo et al., 2016). Leaf area index (LAI) and broadband hemispherical-directional reflectance factor (HDRF) are specific examples of Sentinel-2 agricultural vegetation monitoring parameters on the land cover maps that are offered by the EODC ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3390/rs8110938”, “ISBN” : “2072-4292”, “ISSN” : “2072-4292”, “abstract” : “This technical note presents the first Sentinel-2 data service platform for obtaining atmospherically-corrected images and generating the corresponding value-added products for any land surface on Earth (http://s2.boku.eodc.eu/). Using the European Space Agencyu2019s (ESA) Sen2Cor algorithm, the platform processes ESAu2019s Level-1C top-of-atmosphere reflectance to atmospherically-corrected bottom-of-atmosphere (BoA) reflectance (Level-2A). The processing runs on-demand, with a global coverage, on the Earth Observation Data Centre (EODC), which is a public-private collaborative IT infrastructure in Vienna (Austria) for archiving, processing, and distributing Earth observation (EO) data (http://www.eodc.eu). Using the data service platform, users can submit processing requests and access the results via a user-friendly web page or using a dedicated application programming interface (API). Building on the processed Level-2A data, the platform also creates value-added products with a particular focus on agricultural vegetation monitoring, such as leaf area index (LAI) and broadband hemispherical-directional reflectance factor (HDRF). An analysis of the performance of the data service platform, along with processing capacity, is presented. Some preliminary consistency checks of the algorithm implementation are included to demonstrate the expected product quality. In particular, Sentinel-2 data were compared to atmospherically-corrected Landsat-8 data for six test sites achieving a R2 = 0.90 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = 0.031. LAI was validated for one test site using ground estimations. Results show a very good agreement (R2 = 0.83) and a RMSE of 0.32 m2/m2 (12% of mean value).”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “u017bu00f3u0142tak”, “given” : “Mateusz”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pipitone”, “given” : “Claudia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zappa”, “given” : “Luca”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wenng”, “given” : “Hannah”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Immitzer”, “given” : “Markus”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Weiss”, “given” : “Marie”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Baret”, “given” : “Frederic”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Remote Sensing”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “11”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “938”, “title” : “Data Service Platform for Sentinel-2 Surface Reflectance and Value-Added Products: System Use and Examples”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “8” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=58e562b0-bc3c-4c70-892c-f00772044d19” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo ;i;et al.;/i;, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo et al., 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo ;i;et al.;/i;, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo et al., 2016).
From the data acquired by the maps, downstream services are developed in the areas of spatial planning, forestry, agriculture, water and natural hazard management, environmental protection and conservation ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.landinformationsystem.at/#/lisa/overview”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “23” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “LISA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Development of the Austrian Land Information System”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e91573ec-f63f-359e-b755-5bf7bfe9fbc9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(LISA, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(LISA, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(LISA, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(LISA, no date). The users of these amenities include public authorities such as Ministerium für ein lebenswertes Österreich (bmlfuw), Land-, forst- und wasserwirtschaftliches Rechenzentrum GmbH, Bundesamt für Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Statistik Austria, and all the regional governments of Austria ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.landinformationsystem.at/#/lisa/overview”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “23” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “LISA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Development of the Austrian Land Information System”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e91573ec-f63f-359e-b755-5bf7bfe9fbc9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(LISA, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(LISA, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(LISA, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(LISA, no date). For public authorities in their responsibility to give public policy-related advice and information on climate, pollutants and natural resources, environmental monitoring activities and applications benefit significantly from high quality EO-satellite data ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmvit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Austrian Technology in Space – An Overview of Austrian Space Industry and Research”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=77abd3fb-5442-4cf1-aa3a-d9f6e3ba5414” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmvit, 2017). Regarding the private sector, there are no official figures on stakeholders within the agricultural sector. However according to latest space strategy from 2017, there are over 120 Austrian companies or research institutes holding 1,000 employees that are active in the space sector ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmvit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Austrian Technology in Space – An Overview of Austrian Space Industry and Research”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=77abd3fb-5442-4cf1-aa3a-d9f6e3ba5414” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmvit, 2017). Though organisations are found both within the upstream and downstream sector, 47 out of the 120 companies focus on satellite-based applications ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmvit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Austrian Technology in Space – An Overview of Austrian Space Industry and Research”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=77abd3fb-5442-4cf1-aa3a-d9f6e3ba5414” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmvit, 2017). The link between Copernicus and the downstream value chain in agriculture is described in the next chapter.
AgricultureBefore diving into the analysis of the relationship between the SEO system and agriculture, it is first appropriate to establish the background and characteristics of agriculture that make it a suitable ‘customer’ for exploiting SEO systems. Agriculture as the practice of calculated exploitation of soil for the cultivation and production of crops primarily for its nutritional properties, is constituent of a unique economic sector that requires attention dissimilar to other economic sectors.
At this point it is appropriate to establish the status and significance of agriculture on a European scale but also to point out the challenges the sector is currently facing. Of the total land area of the EU, 174 million hectares or 40% is utilised as agricultural area ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2861/020809”, “ISBN” : “9789284604753”, “ISSN” : “00224561”, “abstract” : “Precision agriculture (PA) or precision farming, is a modern farming management concept using digital techniques to monitor and optimise agricultural production processes. Rather than applying the same amount of fertilisers over an entire agricultural field, or feeding a large animal population with equal amounts of feed, PA will measure variations in conditions within a field and adapt its fertilising or harvesting strategy accordingly. Likewise, it will assess the needs and conditions of individual animals in larger herds and optimise feeding on a per-animal basis. PA methods promise to increase the quantity and quality of agricultural output while using less input (water, energy, fertilisers, pesticides, etc.). The aim is to save costs, reduce environmental impact and produce more and better food. The methods of PA rely mainly upon a combination of new sensor technologies, satellite navigation and positioning technology, and the Internet of Things. PA has been making its way into farms across Europe and is increasingly assisting farmers in their work.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Schrijver”, “given” : “Remco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “number-of-pages” : “38”, “title” : “Precision agriculture and the future of farming in Europe Scientific Foresight Study”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3ca2a034-d1e7-43ac-8214-4ce2981c143d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Schrijver, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Schrijver, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Schrijver, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Schrijver, 2016). Of the total agricultural area, 60% is arable land, 34% are permanent pastures and 6% include permanent crops like fruits, berries, nuts, citrus, olives and vineyards ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2861/020809”, “ISBN” : “9789284604753”, “ISSN” : “00224561”, “abstract” : “Precision agriculture (PA) or precision farming, is a modern farming management concept using digital techniques to monitor and optimise agricultural production processes. Rather than applying the same amount of fertilisers over an entire agricultural field, or feeding a large animal population with equal amounts of feed, PA will measure variations in conditions within a field and adapt its fertilising or harvesting strategy accordingly. Likewise, it will assess the needs and conditions of individual animals in larger herds and optimise feeding on a per-animal basis. PA methods promise to increase the quantity and quality of agricultural output while using less input (water, energy, fertilisers, pesticides, etc.). The aim is to save costs, reduce environmental impact and produce more and better food. The methods of PA rely mainly upon a combination of new sensor technologies, satellite navigation and positioning technology, and the Internet of Things. PA has been making its way into farms across Europe and is increasingly assisting farmers in their work.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Schrijver”, “given” : “Remco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “number-of-pages” : “38”, “title” : “Precision agriculture and the future of farming in Europe Scientific Foresight Study”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3ca2a034-d1e7-43ac-8214-4ce2981c143d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Schrijver, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Schrijver, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Schrijver, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Schrijver, 2016). Having said that, there is an overall trend in the decline of the number of holdings, with an average rate of decline of 3.7% per annum, while the average area per holding has seen an increase from 14.4 to 16.1 hectares between 2005 and 2013 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2861/020809”, “ISBN” : “9789284604753”, “ISSN” : “00224561”, “abstract” : “Precision agriculture (PA) or precision farming, is a modern farming management concept using digital techniques to monitor and optimise agricultural production processes. Rather than applying the same amount of fertilisers over an entire agricultural field, or feeding a large animal population with equal amounts of feed, PA will measure variations in conditions within a field and adapt its fertilising or harvesting strategy accordingly. Likewise, it will assess the needs and conditions of individual animals in larger herds and optimise feeding on a per-animal basis. PA methods promise to increase the quantity and quality of agricultural output while using less input (water, energy, fertilisers, pesticides, etc.). The aim is to save costs, reduce environmental impact and produce more and better food. The methods of PA rely mainly upon a combination of new sensor technologies, satellite navigation and positioning technology, and the Internet of Things. PA has been making its way into farms across Europe and is increasingly assisting farmers in their work.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Schrijver”, “given” : “Remco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “number-of-pages” : “38”, “title” : “Precision agriculture and the future of farming in Europe Scientific Foresight Study”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3ca2a034-d1e7-43ac-8214-4ce2981c143d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Schrijver, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Schrijver, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Schrijver, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Schrijver, 2016).
In 2017, the total value output of the agricultural industry of the EU-28 was about EUR 427 billion, up from EUR 400 billion in 2016 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279757655”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eurostat”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-170”, “title” : “Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics. Agricultural production – crops”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f9f91ebd-aa8a-48c4-808c-c8e0eba2d0e8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Eurostat, 2017). 51,9% of this total output came from crops including vegetables and horticultural plants (13.2%), cereals (10.7%), fruits (6.6%), forage plants (5.8%), wine (5.4%), industrial plants (5.2%), potatoes (3.1%), olive oil (1.2%) and others ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279757655”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eurostat”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-170”, “title” : “Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics. Agricultural production – crops”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f9f91ebd-aa8a-48c4-808c-c8e0eba2d0e8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Eurostat, 2017). According to national reports, around 10 million people worked in the agricultural sector in 2015, accounting for 4.4% of the total employment of the EU ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279757655”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eurostat”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-170”, “title” : “Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics. Agricultural production – crops”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f9f91ebd-aa8a-48c4-808c-c8e0eba2d0e8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Eurostat, 2017). Hereby 72.8% of the agricultural workforce is located in the seven member states including Romania, Poland, Italy, France, Spain, Bulgaria and Germany ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279757655”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eurostat”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-170”, “title” : “Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics. Agricultural production – crops”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f9f91ebd-aa8a-48c4-808c-c8e0eba2d0e8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Eurostat, 2017). There is an ‘ageing’ trend in the demographic structure of the workforce where 59.2% of those working in the agricultural sector are 40 – 64 years old ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279757655”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eurostat”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-170”, “title” : “Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics. Agricultural production – crops”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f9f91ebd-aa8a-48c4-808c-c8e0eba2d0e8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Eurostat, 2017).
One of the biggest current challenges the agricultural sector is facing is climate change. On the one hand, the agricultural sector is responsible for 11.3% of the greenhouse gas emissions in Europe, the fifth highest contributor after the energy, transport, residential and commercial sectors with emissions equivalent to 514.1 million tonnes of CO2 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “title” : “National emissions reported to the UNFCCC and to the EU Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism provided by Directorate-General for Climate Action”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8947d7a8-14fa-4721-bc59-299d2844b827” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2014a)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2014a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2014a)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2014a). More specifically, the largest share of agricultural emissions actually come from the more potent nitrous oxide (N2O) accounting for 58% of the non-CO2 emissions and methane (CH4) responsible for the remaining 42% ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2861/295025”, “ISBN” : “9789284606474”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hart”, “given” : “Kaley”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Allen”, “given” : “Ben”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Keenleyside”, “given” : “Clunie”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nanni”, “given” : “Silvia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Maru00e9chal”, “given” : “Anne”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Paquel”, “given” : “Kamila”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nesbit”, “given” : “Martin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ziemann”, “given” : “Julia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “130”, “title” : “Research for Agri Committee – the Consequences of Climate Change for Eu Agriculture. Follow-Up To the Cop21 – Un Paris Climate Change Conference”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=479b55c2-1403-4b30-8ea7-884274b2923b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Hart ;i;et al.;/i;, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Hart et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Hart ;i;et al.;/i;, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Hart et al., 2017). The main sources of these emissions are a result of processes like enteric fermentation (42.9%), the management of agricultural soils (38%) and manure management (15.4%) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2861/295025”, “ISBN” : “9789284606474”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hart”, “given” : “Kaley”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Allen”, “given” : “Ben”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Keenleyside”, “given” : “Clunie”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nanni”, “given” : “Silvia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Maru00e9chal”, “given” : “Anne”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Paquel”, “given” : “Kamila”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nesbit”, “given” : “Martin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ziemann”, “given” : “Julia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “130”, “title” : “Research for Agri Committee – the Consequences of Climate Change for Eu Agriculture. 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Agricultural practices including mechanical farming, the expansion of agriculture into semi-natural areas and removal of landscape features, the specialisation and intensification of production and the high use of nitrogen containing fertilisers all contribute to the aforementioned emissions ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2861/295025”, “ISBN” : “9789284606474”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hart”, “given” : “Kaley”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Allen”, “given” : “Ben”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Keenleyside”, “given” : “Clunie”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nanni”, “given” : “Silvia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Maru00e9chal”, “given” : “Anne”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Paquel”, “given” : “Kamila”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nesbit”, “given” : “Martin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ziemann”, “given” : “Julia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “130”, “title” : “Research for Agri Committee – the Consequences of Climate Change for Eu Agriculture. 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At the same time, climate change is and will significantly impact the nature of agricultural systems in various ways that are highly place- and crop specific ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2861/295025”, “ISBN” : “9789284606474”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hart”, “given” : “Kaley”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Allen”, “given” : “Ben”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Keenleyside”, “given” : “Clunie”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nanni”, “given” : “Silvia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Maru00e9chal”, “given” : “Anne”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Paquel”, “given” : “Kamila”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nesbit”, “given” : “Martin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ziemann”, “given” : “Julia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “130”, “title” : “Research for Agri Committee – the Consequences of Climate Change for Eu Agriculture. 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In general, there will be changes in water availability, more extreme temperature variations, presence and persistence of pests and diseases as well as fire risks ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2861/295025”, “ISBN” : “9789284606474”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hart”, “given” : “Kaley”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Allen”, “given” : “Ben”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Keenleyside”, “given” : “Clunie”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nanni”, “given” : “Silvia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Maru00e9chal”, “given” : “Anne”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Paquel”, “given” : “Kamila”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nesbit”, “given” : “Martin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ziemann”, “given” : “Julia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “130”, “title” : “Research for Agri Committee – the Consequences of Climate Change for Eu Agriculture. 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Relevant to Austria, Central and Eastern Europe will experience an increase in warm temperature extremes, water temperatures, risks of forest fires and a decrease in summer precipitation ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/figures/key-past-and-projected-impacts-and-effects-on-sectors-for-the-main-biogeographic-regions-of-europe-4”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “3” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “European Environment Agency”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “title” : “Key observed and projected climate change and impacts for the main regions in Europe”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d138cbc9-f93b-3f0c-b4c4-20a9ec8817ab” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(European Environment Agency, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(European Environment Agency, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(European Environment Agency, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(European Environment Agency, 2015). Time is, more than ever a critical variable when preventive or mitigative actions are required. This calls for the need of highly specialised and precise information that allow the management of these issues ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “FAO”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Report No. 56719-GLB”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “56719-GLB”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “title” : “Global Strategy To Improve Agricultural And Rural Statistics”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3f2ed5e1-39c4-44dd-ad53-d62954130c5f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(FAO, 2010)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(FAO, 2010)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(FAO, 2010)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(FAO, 2010). The European agricultural landscape finds itself at many crossroads but the increasing digitalisation of agricultural systems and practices give rise to unprecedented information, in theory able to lead to higher efficiencies and lower environmental impacts ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2861/020809”, “ISBN” : “9789284604753”, “ISSN” : “00224561”, “abstract” : “Precision agriculture (PA) or precision farming, is a modern farming management concept using digital techniques to monitor and optimise agricultural production processes. Rather than applying the same amount of fertilisers over an entire agricultural field, or feeding a large animal population with equal amounts of feed, PA will measure variations in conditions within a field and adapt its fertilising or harvesting strategy accordingly. Likewise, it will assess the needs and conditions of individual animals in larger herds and optimise feeding on a per-animal basis. PA methods promise to increase the quantity and quality of agricultural output while using less input (water, energy, fertilisers, pesticides, etc.). The aim is to save costs, reduce environmental impact and produce more and better food. The methods of PA rely mainly upon a combination of new sensor technologies, satellite navigation and positioning technology, and the Internet of Things. PA has been making its way into farms across Europe and is increasingly assisting farmers in their work.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Schrijver”, “given” : “Remco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “number-of-pages” : “38”, “title” : “Precision agriculture and the future of farming in Europe Scientific Foresight Study”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3ca2a034-d1e7-43ac-8214-4ce2981c143d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Schrijver, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Schrijver, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Schrijver, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Schrijver, 2016) A system providing highly-frequent and accurate information on agricultural parameters including biomass and yield estimation, vegetation vigour and drought stress monitoring, assessment of crop phenological development, crop acreage estimation and cropland mapping as well as the mapping of disturbances and land use and cover changes, are increasingly utilized as a means for monitoring and evaluating food security and to track the effects climate change has on agriculture on the long run ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3390/rs5020949”, “ISBN” : “2072-4292”, “ISSN” : “20724292”, “abstract” : “Many remote sensing applications are devoted to the agricultural sector. Representative case studies are presented in the special issue u201cAdvances in Remote Sensing of Agricultureu201d. To complement the examples published within the special issue, a few main applications with regional to global focus were selected for this review, where remote sensing contributions are traditionally strong. The selected applications are put in the context of the global challenges the agricultural sector is facing: minimizing the environmental impact, while increasing production and productivity. Five different applications have been selected, which are illustrated and described: (1) biomass and yield estimation, (2) vegetation vigor and drought stress monitoring, (3) assessment of crop phenological development, (4) crop acreage estimation and cropland mapping and (5) mapping of disturbances and land use/land cover (LULC) changes. Many other applications exist, such as precision agriculture and irrigation management (see other special issues of this journal), but were not included to keep the paper concise. The paper starts with an overview of the main agricultural challenges. This section is followed by a brief overview of existing operational monitoring systems. Finally, in the main part of the paper, the mentioned applications are described and illustrated. The review concludes with some key recommendations.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Remote Sensing”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “949-981”, “title” : “Advances in remote sensing of agriculture: Context description, existing operational monitoring systems and major information needs”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “5” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ee87272a-c645-47d3-bbd7-9ab8642dcf91” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Atzberger, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Atzberger, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Atzberger, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Atzberger, 2013).
History of SEOs in agriculture The use of remote sensing in agriculture dates back to the 1960s ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.oneonta.edu/faculty/baumanpr/geosat2/RS History II/RS-History-Part-2.html”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Baumann”, “given” : “Paul”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “title” : “History of Remote Sensing, Satellite Imagery”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8dd3c29c-03f5-34a8-b890-2f478f129898” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Baumann, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Baumann, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Baumann, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Baumann, 2009). Capturing images of land from above through aerial photography for the purpose of carrying out crop inventories and soil survey mapping have been employed before the emergence of spaceborne earth observation systems through satellites ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.4135/9780857021052.n26”, “ISBN” : “9780857021052”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nellis”, “given” : “M. 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The term ‘remote sensing’ was introduced in 1960, describing the capturing of the earth’s surface via black and white aerial photography from airplanes ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.oneonta.edu/faculty/baumanpr/geosat2/RS History II/RS-History-Part-2.html”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Baumann”, “given” : “Paul”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “title” : “History of Remote Sensing, Satellite Imagery”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8dd3c29c-03f5-34a8-b890-2f478f129898” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Baumann, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Baumann, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Baumann, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Baumann, 2009). The potential of observing land from space for monitoring crop development and estimating wheat yield over wide areas was soon discovered ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.4135/9780857021052.n26”, “ISBN” : “9780857021052”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nellis”, “given” : “M. Duane”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Price”, “given” : “Kevin P.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rundquist”, “given” : “Donald”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The SAGE Handbook of Remote Sensing”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2008” }, “page” : “368-383”, “title” : “Remote Sensing of Cropland Agriculture”, “type” : “chapter” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f4d70382-a98d-499a-bc9c-db1598a02456” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Nellis, Price and Rundquist, 2008)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Nellis, Price and Rundquist, 2008)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Nellis, Price and Rundquist, 2008)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Nellis, Price and Rundquist, 2008). In fact, even in the early days the remote sensing models contained the basic algorithms that are used to this day on biophysical parameters such as irrigation ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). In an interview with Dr. Francesco Vuolo from the Institute of Surveying, Remote Sensing and Land Information at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), he revealed; “There was this link between the earth observation community and the community of biologists who were separately working at plant level. When these two came together, it was clear that these models could be applied on a much bigger scale from the plant and parcel level to regional, national and continental scale.” The launch of Landsat-1 in 1972 was a revolutionary milestone, presenting the first satellite that was specialised on the observation and study of the Earth’s surface and its landmasses ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.oneonta.edu/faculty/baumanpr/geosat2/RS History II/RS-History-Part-2.html”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Baumann”, “given” : “Paul”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “title” : “History of Remote Sensing, Satellite Imagery”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8dd3c29c-03f5-34a8-b890-2f478f129898” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Baumann, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Baumann, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Baumann, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Baumann, 2009). From this point forward, images taken from space captured portions of the electro-magnetic spectrum that contained information beyond what was visible to the human eye ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.oneonta.edu/faculty/baumanpr/geosat2/RS History II/RS-History-Part-2.html”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Baumann”, “given” : “Paul”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “title” : “History of Remote Sensing, Satellite Imagery”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8dd3c29c-03f5-34a8-b890-2f478f129898” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Baumann, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Baumann, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Baumann, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Baumann, 2009). This drove the funding of research programmes making agriculture one of the first domains to exploit EO data ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.oneonta.edu/faculty/baumanpr/geosat2/RS History II/RS-History-Part-2.html”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Baumann”, “given” : “Paul”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “title” : “History of Remote Sensing, Satellite Imagery”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8dd3c29c-03f5-34a8-b890-2f478f129898” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Baumann, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Baumann, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Baumann, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Baumann, 2009) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Strategic Plan 2016-2020”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=dd3a617c-9cd3-4732-8d43-8ab7c1f6c9d0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016e)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016e)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016e)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016e). In Europe, the agricultural monitoring for information on crop areas and yields started in 1988, mainly by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/mars”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “20” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Monitoring Agricultural ResourceS (MARS)”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1a5d942b-ab52-32db-9e13-2fe2cdc69056” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016d)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016d)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016d)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016d). The Landsat programme is still employed globally and has become an integral tool in agricultural applications. In fact, US satellites have been the main source of EO data for agriculture in Europe for an extended period. Crop yield forecasting, standardized measurement of field areas, identification of crop types, geo-location of landscape features and assessment of environmental impacts have since 1993 contributed to the management of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), enabling a broader range of technical support services to DG Agriculture and member state administration ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/mars”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “20” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Monitoring Agricultural ResourceS (MARS)”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1a5d942b-ab52-32db-9e13-2fe2cdc69056” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016d)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016d)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016d)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016d). Having said this, the technical specifications of the Landsat satellites have been tailor-made for the croplands of the U.S. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “This study, provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE committee, aims to shed light on the potential applicability of data acquired from the EU Galileo and Copernicus satellite systems in both the public and private sector, and on the reasons why such potential still remains largely underutilized. The regulatory framework, market characteristics and policy actions that are being taken to make use of space data, are comprehensively analysed. The study also addresses recommendations for different policy levels.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Delponte”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pellegrini”, “given” : “Julie”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gianinetto”, “given” : “Marco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Boschetti”, “given” : “Luigi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “DIRECTORATE GENERAL FOR INTERNAL POLICIES POLICY DEPARTMENT A: ECONOMIC AND SCIENTIFIC POLICY Space”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Space Market Uptake in Europe”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=99a54733-bde8-49f2-a40d-ca18431e667c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Delponte ;i;et al.;/i;, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Delponte et al., 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Delponte ;i;et al.;/i;, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Delponte et al., 2016). With a spatial resolution of 30 meters and a temporal resolution of 16 days, Landsat might be an adequate tool for monitoring 340 million acres of US agricultural land, where 65% of the land holdings have an average area over 50 hectares ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “The agricultural economics literature provides various estimates of the number of farms and small farms in the world. This paper is an effort to provide a more complete and up to date as well as carefully documented estimate of the total number of farms in the world, as well as by region and level of income. It uses data from numerous rounds of the World Census of Agriculture, the only dataset available which allows the user to gain a complete picture of the total number of farms globally and at the country level. The paper provides estimates of the number of family farms, the number of farms by size as well as the distibution of farmland by farm size. These estimates find that: there are at least 570 million farms worldwide, of which more than 500 million can be considered family farms. Most of the worldu2019s farms are very small, with more than 475 million farms being less than 2 hectares in size. Although the vast majority of the worldu2019s farms are smaller than 2 hectares, they operate only a small share of the worldu2019s farmland. Farmland distribution would seem quite unequal at the global level, but it is less so in low- and lower-middle-income countries as well as in some regional groups. These estimates have serious limitations and the collection of more up-to-date agricultural census data, including data on farmland distribution is essential to our having a more representative picture of the number of farms, the number of family farms and farm size as well as farmland distribution worldwide.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lowder”, “given” : “Sarah K”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Skoet”, “given” : “Jakob”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Singh”, “given” : “Saumya”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “ESA Working Paper”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “14”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “38”, “title” : “What do we really know about the number and distribution of farms and family farms in the world ?”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “14-02” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8bf7c523-8a86-4656-9781-a13560da3254” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Lowder, Skoet and Singh, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Lowder, Skoet and Singh, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Lowder, Skoet and Singh, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Lowder, Skoet and Singh, 2014) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “United States Department of Agriculture-Economic Research Service”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2006” }, “title” : “Major Uses of Land in the United States 2002/EIB-14”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8c29c5d9-820f-407e-930e-17293b0ee68d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(United States Department of Agriculture-Economic Research Service, 2006)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(United States Department of Agriculture-Economic Research Service, 2006)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(United States Department of Agriculture-Economic Research Service, 2006)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(United States Department of Agriculture-Economic Research Service, 2006). In the past few years it has been increasingly recognized that for the agricultural lands of Europe, where the average individual parcel holdings are 5 hectares and the total European agricultural area is 263 million acres, using Landsat solely has not been the best option ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Land_cover_statistics”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eurostat”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “title” : “Land cover statistics – Statistics Explained”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=30e130be-3f79-307d-9d2d-6cdb64b46ec4” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Eurostat, 2013). The spatial, temporal and optical resolution of the satellite suitable for larger areas as found in the US, has left plenty of room to improve the quality and scope of data for the European agricultural lands. In addition, the access to high quality data has often been connected to high costs, and data acquisition generally conditional to uncertain perspectives on long-term data continuity ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “April”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-18”, “title” : “Concept note -Towards Future Copernicus Service Components in support to Agriculture ?”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e9208b3e-1f7b-400c-ab17-a543efc3e489” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016b)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016b)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016b)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016b). As a result, high quality agricultural mapping and monitoring have not been an easily accessible tool ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “April”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-18”, “title” : “Concept note -Towards Future Copernicus Service Components in support to Agriculture ?”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e9208b3e-1f7b-400c-ab17-a543efc3e489” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016b)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016b)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016b)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016b). Having said, Landsat works well as a complementary data source to that of Sentinel. In fact many EU countries still avail themselves of Landsat-8 aerial imagery, including Austria.
Sentinel satellites In order to understand the technological advances in the agricultural domain owed to the Sentinel satellites, it is appropriate to briefly profile these. The satellites in use for the production of HRSD in the agricultural domain are mainly Sentinel-2, Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-3 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “April”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-18”, “title” : “Concept note -Towards Future Copernicus Service Components in support to Agriculture ?”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e9208b3e-1f7b-400c-ab17-a543efc3e489” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016b)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016b)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016b)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016b). The Sentinel-2 mission is composed of the two separate satellite components Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-2B, both of which launched in June 2015 and March 2017 respectively ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://earth.esa.int/web/guest/missions/esa-operational-eo-missions/sentinel-2”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Sentinel-2”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b5620988-fa83-37c4-91ce-dd169a2867fb” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date e)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date e)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date e)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, no date e). The services that fall under the mission’s capacities include crop monitoring, vegetation, soil and water cover as part of land observation as well as the construction of land use and -change detection maps ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://earth.esa.int/web/guest/missions/esa-operational-eo-missions/sentinel-2”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Sentinel-2”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b5620988-fa83-37c4-91ce-dd169a2867fb” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date e)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date e)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date e)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, no date e). The Sentinel-2 mission generates 10 m to 30 m multi-spectral data with 13 bands in the visible (VIS), near infrared (NIR), and short wave infrared part of the spectrum ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.rse.2018.04.031”, “ISSN” : “0034-4257”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Roy”, “given” : “David”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zhang”, “given” : “Hankui K”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Roy”, “given” : “David P”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yan”, “given” : “Lin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Li”, “given” : “Zhongbin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Huang”, “given” : “Haiyan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vermote”, “given” : “Eric”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Remote Sensing of Environment”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “April”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “page” : “0-1”, “publisher” : “Elsevier”, “title” : “Characterization of Sentinel-2A and Landsat-8 top of atmosphere , surface , and nadir BRDF adjusted reflectance and NDVI differences Remote Sensing of Environment Characterization of Sentinel-2A and Landsat-8 top of atmosphere , surface , and nadir BRDF a”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6a2dcb30-1fd1-4d5b-9b62-f68c2464cd74” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Roy ;i;et al.;/i;, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Roy et al., 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Roy ;i;et al.;/i;, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Roy et al., 2018). This high resolution optical imagery satellite has a global coverage time of the Earth’s land surface of 5 days ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://earth.esa.int/web/guest/missions/esa-operational-eo-missions/sentinel-2”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Sentinel-2”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b5620988-fa83-37c4-91ce-dd169a2867fb” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date e)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date e)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date e)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, no date e). Typically combined with Landsat-8, cloud-free surface observations thanks to variable satellite overpass times and dates are possible and enhance the quality of the images ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3390/rs9090902”, “abstract” : “Combination of different satellite data will provide increased opportunities for more frequent cloud-free surface observations due to variable cloud cover at the different satellite overpass times and dates. Satellite data from the polar-orbiting Landsat-8 (launched 2013), Sentinel-2A (launched 2015) and Sentinel-2B (launched 2017) sensors offer 10 m to 30 m multi-spectral global coverage. Together, they advance the virtual constellation paradigm for mid-resolution land imaging. In this study, a global analysis of Landsat-8, Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-2B metadata obtained from the committee on Earth Observation Satellite (CEOS) Visualization Environment (COVE) tool for 2016 is presented. A global equal area projection grid defined every 0.05 u2022 is used considering each sensor and combined together. Histograms, maps and global summary statistics of the temporal revisit intervals (minimum, mean, and maximum) and the number of observations are reported. The temporal observation frequency improvements afforded by sensor combination are shown to be significant. In particular, considering Landsat-8, Sentinel-2A, and Sentinel-2B together will provide a global median average revisit interval of 2.9 days, and, over a year, a global median minimum revisit interval of 14 min (u00b11 min) and maximum revisit interval of 7.0 days.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Li”, “given” : “Jian”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Roy”, “given” : “David P”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zhou”, “given” : “Guoqing”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Remote Sensing”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “A Global Analysis of Sentinel-2A, Sentinel-2B and Landsat-8 Data Revisit Intervals and Implications for Terrestrial Monitoring”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8ac6f7a5-af20-318c-aa38-a9e21ec27531” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Li ;i;et al.;/i;, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Li et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Li ;i;et al.;/i;, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Li et al., 2017). The Sentinel-2 mission is the most relevant in the domain of agriculture, which is why it is important to describe some of the procedural steps behind data product acquisition. Understanding the following concepts will also shed light on issues mentioned in later stages of the thesis. As briefly mentioned before, Sentinel-2 data can be retrieved free of charge from ESA’s Open Access Hub. Having said this, transforming raw data into a user friendly form requires different algorithms to be run over the Sentinel-2 data ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://sentinels.copernicus.eu/web/sentinel/missions/sentinel-2/data-products”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “7” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Sentinel-2 – Data Products – Sentinel Handbook”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=13f9dc98-7a6a-3bfe-a2e1-582b5389fbf4” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date f)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date f)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date f)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, no date f). The products that are available to users are called Level-1C “Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) Reflectances” and Level-2A “Bottom of the Atmosphere (BOA) Reflectances” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://sentinels.copernicus.eu/web/sentinel/missions/sentinel-2/data-products”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “7” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Sentinel-2 – Data Products – Sentinel Handbook”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=13f9dc98-7a6a-3bfe-a2e1-582b5389fbf4” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date f)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date f)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date f)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, no date f). As the Sentinel satellites capture the earth’s surface, images will show a mix of the light reflected off the surface and off the atmosphere ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.researchgate.net/post/What_is_Difference_between_the_top_of_atmosphere_radiance_and_surface_radiance_and_their_ranges”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Brunclik”, “given” : “Tamas”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “What is Difference between the top of atmosphere radiance and surface radiance and their ranges?”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7f8ccc90-bc00-403b-9132-76e390f8464f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Brunclik, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Brunclik, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Brunclik, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Brunclik, 2017). This is the TOA ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.researchgate.net/post/What_is_Difference_between_the_top_of_atmosphere_radiance_and_surface_radiance_and_their_ranges”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Brunclik”, “given” : “Tamas”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “What is Difference between the top of atmosphere radiance and surface radiance and their ranges?”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7f8ccc90-bc00-403b-9132-76e390f8464f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Brunclik, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Brunclik, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Brunclik, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Brunclik, 2017). To remove the influence of the portion of the light reflected off the atmosphere and to obtain the mere portion reflected off the surface, atmospheric-, terrain or cirrus corrections have to be undertaken ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.researchgate.net/post/What_is_Difference_between_the_top_of_atmosphere_radiance_and_surface_radiance_and_their_ranges”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Brunclik”, “given” : “Tamas”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “What is Difference between the top of atmosphere radiance and surface radiance and their ranges?”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7f8ccc90-bc00-403b-9132-76e390f8464f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Brunclik, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Brunclik, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Brunclik, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Brunclik, 2017). ESA provides a processor called Sen2Cor that performs needed corrections to create BOA data ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://step.esa.int/main/third-party-plugins-2/sen2cor/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “7” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Sen2Cor | STEP”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=23e363ec-8796-3fb9-a858-ce8ff97a0508” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date c)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date c)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date c)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, no date c) These products are, broken down to their singular minimum indivisible unit, elementary granules of a fixed size containing all the 13 possible spectral bands of Sentinel-2 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://sentinels.copernicus.eu/web/sentinel/missions/sentinel-2/data-products”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “7” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Sentinel-2 – Data Products – Sentinel Handbook”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=13f9dc98-7a6a-3bfe-a2e1-582b5389fbf4” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date f)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date f)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date f)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, no date f). Finally, these granules are also called tiles and consist of 100×100 km2 ready-for-download ortho-images, or land cover maps ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://sentinels.copernicus.eu/web/sentinel/missions/sentinel-2/data-products”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “7” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Sentinel-2 – Data Products – Sentinel Handbook”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=13f9dc98-7a6a-3bfe-a2e1-582b5389fbf4” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date f)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date f)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date f)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, no date f). These images can already be directly used as crop monitoring maps; this is the approach of Hagelversicherung, one of the service providers that will be discussed in a later stage. By applying additional algorithms and site-specific or in-situ data, the data can be further optimized to match the required needs of the end user.
In contrast, Sentinel-1 produces images based on C-band SAR imagery over land at 10m optical resolution with a revisit time of 12 days ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://earth.esa.int/web/guest/missions/esa-operational-eo-missions/sentinel-1”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Sentinel-1”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a4c99f6d-285e-3d6a-83c8-a912d5c4dbb1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date d)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date d)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date d)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, no date d). This Sentinel mission is an active microwave sensor with all-weather day and night observation capacities enabling the generation of denser time series and detecting small movement on the ground ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://earth.esa.int/web/guest/missions/esa-operational-eo-missions/sentinel-1”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Sentinel-1”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a4c99f6d-285e-3d6a-83c8-a912d5c4dbb1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date d)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date d)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date d)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, no date d). The SAR component in Sentinel-1 is able to perceive information that optical satellites like Sentinel-2 cannot register. SAR can give information on the following; (i) soil surface characteristics over vegetation-covered surfaces including surface roughness and soil moisture, (ii) specific, more precise and permanent crop yield estimations and calculations for crops like for rice, corn, tomato, olive groves, vineyards, or horticultures, (iii) and water audits, showing overwatered areas and system leaks ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://cordis.europa.eu/result/rcn/205266_en.html”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “3” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Periodic Reporting for period 1 – AgroRadar (Using Copernicus Earth Observation radar data to disrupt Precision Agriculture)”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6a51acd9-b76a-3722-b43e-05162e40568d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2017b)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2017b)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2017b)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2017b) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3390/s17091966”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gao”, “given” : “Qi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zribi”, “given” : “Mehrez”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Escorihuela”, “given” : “Maria Jose”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Baghdadi”, “given” : “Nicolas”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “MDPI”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “2”, “title” : “Synergetic Use of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 Data for Soil Moisture Mapping at 100 m Resolution”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “Sensors 20” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4cc7beb1-afdc-4b63-977e-911d88774b95” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gao ;i;et al.;/i;, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gao et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gao ;i;et al.;/i;, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Gao et al., 2017). As such, the properties of Sentinel-1 can also form a valuable tool in combination with other technologies in the field of precision agriculture (PA). Having said this, Sentinel-1 is by far not as prevalent in agricultural applications as Sentinel-2 and not directly relevant for the case studies in the later sections of the thesis. This is why data properties and processing are not described further.
Sentinel-3, the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument with its 21 spectral bands is said to be able to expand the global monitoring capacity with almost daily revisit times ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://earth.esa.int/web/guest/missions/esa-eo-missions/sentinel-3”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “20” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Sentinel-3 – ESA EO Missions”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=bd24c37b-7ebb-39d1-9a6c-4f71474b27cc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date g)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date g)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date g)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, no date g) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Observing_the_Earth/Copernicus/Sentinel-3/Over_land”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “20” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Over land / Sentinel-3”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8baad192-7bd9-34d3-8991-8ffd336101ed” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date b)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date b)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date b)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, no date b) . Albeit a low optical resolution of 300m, the 21 spectral bands have superior quality with three thermal channels delivering accurate information on leaf area index, fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation in the plant canopy and terrestrial chlorophyll ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://earth.esa.int/web/guest/missions/esa-eo-missions/sentinel-3”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “20” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Sentinel-3 – ESA EO Missions”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=bd24c37b-7ebb-39d1-9a6c-4f71474b27cc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date g)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date g)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date g)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, no date g) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Observing_the_Earth/Copernicus/Sentinel-3/Over_land”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “20” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Over land / Sentinel-3”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8baad192-7bd9-34d3-8991-8ffd336101ed” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date b)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date b)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, no date b)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, no date b) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Strategic Plan 2016-2020”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=dd3a617c-9cd3-4732-8d43-8ab7c1f6c9d0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016e)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016e)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016e)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016e) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.esa.int/About_Us/Welcome_to_ESA/Budget_as_presented_during_DG_press_conference_24_January_2013”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “title” : “Budget as presented during DG press conference 24 January 2013 / Welcome to ESA / About Us / ESA”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0e518dc3-c892-3510-ac2e-d1d2efe9c2c4” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, 2013).
With this in mind, the Sentinel missions touch on three different novel aspects that contrast with the EO quality of previous satellite systems.
The perhaps most obvious contribution of the satellites are their technical properties. The sum of spatial, spectral, radiometric and temporal resolution qualities enable the procurement of HRSD ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279590092”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Copernicus – Market Report”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=84f2a334-82ec-4de7-be1b-b03f2af99a11” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016c). This gives rise to numerous biophysical parameters relevant in the agricultural domain including canopy chlorophyll content, LAI or Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as indicators for photosynthetic and physiological activity, soil moisture and surface temperature (EC, 2016c) (Veloso et al 2017) (Frampton et al., 2013). In fact, NDVI is a standardized way to measure healthy vegetation. High NDVI values indicate healthy vegetation, while low NDVI indicates little or no vegetation ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://gisgeography.com/ndvi-normalized-difference-vegetation-index/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “17” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “GIS Geography”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “What is NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index)?”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2614e0f3-dbfb-3d88-8f7e-bb0fb6ccabf8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(GIS Geography, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(GIS Geography, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(GIS Geography, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(GIS Geography, no date).  The NDVI time series do not only allow the momentary and ongoing observation in the spectral behaviour of a parcel due to processes such as sealing, but the time series also allows the observation of the phenological development of crop sites and pastures one year in retrospect ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Moitzi”, “given” : “Thomas”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “publisher” : “Paris Lodron-Universitu00e4t Salzburg”, “title” : “Erstellung und Analyse von NDVI Zeitreihen an INVEKOS-Geometrien auf Basis von Sentinel 2 Daten”, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1aaf24a8-4487-4fd6-be45-35525f03e726” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Moitzi, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Moitzi, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Moitzi, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Moitzi, 2017). In general, NDVI analysis allow the monitoring of crops from planting to harvest, showing changes as the season advances, which allow the deduction of irregularities like weed patches, nutrient deficiency, soil compaction and erosion or inadequate irrigation (EC 2016b) (COM(2014) 344 final). Thus, the optical (Sentinel-2) and radar (Sentinel-1) remote sensing data allow the seasonal mapping of cultivated areas, field scales, crop types and crop dynamics, which in effect enable the deduction of information key to applications including irrigation-, fertilizer-, pest-, and drought management (EC 2016b) (Veloso et al 2017) (Frampton et al., 2013). Using georeferenced and orthorectified imagery allow the accurate location and size affected by the problems and enable farmers a more precise application of seeds, fertilizer and pesticides (CEOS, 2015) (COM(2014) 344 final). In general, higher accuracy allows the better planning of harvest dates, lower production costs by saving resources like water and fertilizer and higher yields per unit of fertilizer (CEOS, 2015). The monitoring of crops and vegetation control thus allows taking informed decisions on the most feasible solution to optimize the parcel of land and consequently monitor the corrective actions taken to indicate the effectiveness of the decision ((COM(2014) 344 final). In other words, the advances in technology have allowed to transform abstract images with various degrees of imprecisions by previous EOS into the promise of meaningful, concrete depictions of land with high practical relevance and optimization options for the end users.
The (significance of) free & open policy of Copernicus in agriculture The second unique aspect of the Copernicus programme is the “full, free and open” data policy or licensing scheme (EC, 2016d). The global coverage of the EOS allows the global uptake of data acquisition. This offers the chance of putting all who wish to exploit data supplied by the Copernicus, together with other free and open EO sources like Landsat-8 and MODIS on a level playing field (EC, 2016d). Fundamental for enabling the creation of long term agricultural monitoring programmes and robust forecasting models based on inter-annual, inter-seasonal and inter-regional trend analysis, is the continuity of global observations for over 15 years (EC, 2016d). This also gives the unprecedented opportunity for establishing long-term collaborations and knowledge exchange between public and private stakeholders in the pursuit of creating globally consistent and comparable agricultural monitoring maps and output models, hereby guaranteeing verifiable common quality and accuracy standards (EC, 2016d). In fact, such a project of global character exists in the form of the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring Initiative (GEOGLAM) (CEOS 2015). 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One initiative under GEOGLAM in cooperation with the Joint Experiment of Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) project, is the Sentinel-2 for Agriculture (Sen2-Agri) initiative ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.jecam.org/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “6” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “JECAM”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “JECAM | Joint Experiment of Crop Assessment and Monitoring”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=610492f3-048c-3541-9a1d-a05aea82d216” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(JECAM, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(JECAM, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(JECAM, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(JECAM, no date) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.esa-sen2agri.org/objectives/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “6” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sen2Agri”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Objectives u2013 Sentinel-2 for Agriculture”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b14cb4f3-7893-33a9-8e74-121e1dc55cce” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Sen2Agri, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Sen2Agri, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Sen2Agri, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sen2Agri, no date). 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Funded by ESA, the concrete objectives of the project are to offer validated algorithms, open source code and best practices to process Sentinel-2 data in an operational manner for worldwide representative agriculture systems ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.esa-sen2agri.org/objectives/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “6” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sen2Agri”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Objectives u2013 Sentinel-2 for Agriculture”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b14cb4f3-7893-33a9-8e74-121e1dc55cce” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Sen2Agri, no date)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Sen2Agri, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Sen2Agri, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Sen2Agri, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sen2Agri, no date). By combining Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 datasets, Sen2-Agri creates agricultural monitoring products including cloud-free reflectance composites, dynamic cropland masks, crop type maps, and vegetation status indicators (NDVI, LAI, phenology indices) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.eodc.eu/data-services/sen2-agri/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “6” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EODC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Sen2-Agri in the EODC cloud”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=5ac3b2ce-b33e-3097-ad32-15c31661a61f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EODC, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EODC, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EODC, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EODC, no date). 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At national level, the EODC enables national scale automated agricultural monitoring by providing a cloud solution for the Sen2-Agri system, which is available on pre-configured virtual machines in the EODC cloud infrastructure and with direct access to the EODC data archive ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.eodc.eu/data-services/sen2-agri/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “6” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EODC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Sen2-Agri in the EODC cloud”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=5ac3b2ce-b33e-3097-ad32-15c31661a61f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EODC, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EODC, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EODC, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EODC, no date). The EODC offers its customers data and processing resources to make Sen2-Agri useful, so that potential beneficiaries wishing to exploit Sen2-Agri do not have to set up their own processing environment and manage the large amount of data that may not be possible with conventional PCs ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.eodc.eu/data-services/sen2-agri/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “6” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EODC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Sen2-Agri in the EODC cloud”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=5ac3b2ce-b33e-3097-ad32-15c31661a61f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EODC, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EODC, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EODC, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EODC, no date).
Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 have been a major contribution on the monitoring of crops including wheat, rice, maize and soybeans with increased temporal coverage of moderate spatial resolution optical data ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://earthzine.org/2016/01/30/looking-ahead-geoglam-in-2016/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “13” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Whitcraft”, “given” : “Alyssa”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “30th January”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Looking Ahead: GEOGLAM in 2016 | Earthzine”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ebe0d8a2-c836-3636-a004-1ce940b509ce” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Whitcraft, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Whitcraft, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Whitcraft, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Whitcraft, 2016). In fact, crop monitoring as enabled by the Sentinel system has also been employed with increasing quality in the grant of aid to European farmers under the CAP through the “Controls with Remote Sensing” (CwRS) system. The monitoring of crops and vegetation control thus allows taking informed decisions on the most feasible solution to optimize a parcel of land and consequently monitor the corrective actions taken to indicate the effectiveness of the decision ((COM(2014) 344 final).
Link of Sentinel satellite data to precision farming and the concept of digitalized agriculture In this time and age there are many concepts associated with innovative agriculture. Interchangeably used buzzwords like smart farming, agriculture 4.0, precision farming, etc. are becoming increasingly prominent terms in the agricultural market sector. Having said this, equalising Sentinel satellite data applications with these concepts is only justified to a certain extent, as these expressions encompass a wide variety of products and services that do not necessarily always integrate Sentinel satellite data. Notwithstanding, it is appropriate to clarify what is implied by the concepts of innovative agriculture to avoid potential confusion and depict the connection of satellite data to these concepts.
A term that was coined in the 1990s, precision agriculture (PA) describes the wholistic farm management approach using information technology, satellite positioning (GNSS) data, remote sensing and proximal data gathering ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2012.08.009”, “ISSN” : “1537-5110”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mulla”, “given” : “David J”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Biosystems Engineering”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “358-371”, “publisher” : “IAgrE”, “title” : “Special Issue : Sensing in Agriculture Review Twenty five years of remote sensing in precision agriculture : Key advances and remaining knowledge gaps 5”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “114” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e31cf1ed-733e-4953-9608-bff3c142eea5” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mulla, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mulla, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mulla, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mulla, 2012) (EP, 2014). According to the Copernicus Market Report, PA technologies make up 93.3% of the revenues generated by EO-services in the agricultural sector ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279590092”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Copernicus – Market Report”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=84f2a334-82ec-4de7-be1b-b03f2af99a11” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016c). Hereby Copernicus data accounts for around 14% of the earnings generated by intermediate downstream service providers in the PA sector ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279590092”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Copernicus – Market Report”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=84f2a334-82ec-4de7-be1b-b03f2af99a11” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016c). The aim is to match the agronomic praxis and resource inputs to the localised conditions within a field and improve the accuracy of their application ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1533/9781782423928.2.235”, “ISBN” : “9781782423713”, “abstract” : “This chapter looks briefly at the history of precision farming techniques and how they have evolved up to the present day. It covers the costs and benefits of the technology and techniques, and then describes the various mapping methods that can take place on-farm these days. It discusses the use of auto-steering and variable rate application in particular. It also discusses the difficulties sometimes encountered when interpreting data. 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In line with the logic of the Sentinel satellite applications, the procedure of precision farming involves collecting data related to yield and potential yield-affecting factors, which are then analysed to deduct the extent of their impact ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1533/9781782423928.2.235”, “ISBN” : “9781782423713”, “abstract” : “This chapter looks briefly at the history of precision farming techniques and how they have evolved up to the present day. It covers the costs and benefits of the technology and techniques, and then describes the various mapping methods that can take place on-farm these days. It discusses the use of auto-steering and variable rate application in particular. It also discusses the difficulties sometimes encountered when interpreting data. 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If the factor and its effect on the yield have been determined, the farm manager decides the type, distribution and amount of corrective treatment to apply ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1533/9781782423928.2.235”, “ISBN” : “9781782423713”, “abstract” : “This chapter looks briefly at the history of precision farming techniques and how they have evolved up to the present day. It covers the costs and benefits of the technology and techniques, and then describes the various mapping methods that can take place on-farm these days. It discusses the use of auto-steering and variable rate application in particular. It also discusses the difficulties sometimes encountered when interpreting data. 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The data can be collected directly in the fields or via ground or satellite sensors, and all information is georeferenced and linked to a cell, pixel or grid on a map ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/B978-0-12-802239-9.00009-8”, “ISBN” : “9780128022399”, “abstract” : “Precision agriculture (PA), sometimes called u201cprescription farmingu201d or u201cvariable rate technology,u201d is the main topic in this chapter, focusing on sugarcane. PA comprises a set of techniques that can be used in several areas of agricultural science. It can be defined as a new management technology based on georeferenced information for the control of agricultural systems and it is based on the detailing of georeferenced information through the application of monitoring processes and integration of characteristics of soil, plant and climate. PA represents around 10% of the total area cultivated with sugarcane in Brazil, and the simplest way to adopt PA in sugarcane crops is to apply inputs at variable rates based on soil characteristics. In this chapter all details to rationally use PA for a better and sustainable sugarcane production it are described.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Alves Varella”, “given” : “Carlos Alberto”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gleriani”, “given” : “Josu00e9 Marinaldo”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Santos”, “given” : “Ronaldo Medeiros”, “non-dropping-particle” : “dos”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Sugarcane”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “185-203”, “title” : “Precision Agriculture and Remote Sensing”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e21edebb-f684-4622-8a22-d50356bfc63c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Alves Varella, Gleriani and dos Santos, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Alves Varella, Gleriani and dos Santos, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Alves Varella, Gleriani and dos Santos, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Alves Varella, Gleriani and dos Santos, 2015). Capturing wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation focusing on a few visible or NIR bands was what PA was able to offer in its early days ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2012.08.009”, “ISSN” : “1537-5110”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mulla”, “given” : “David J”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Biosystems Engineering”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “358-371”, “publisher” : “IAgrE”, “title” : “Special Issue : Sensing in Agriculture Review Twenty five years of remote sensing in precision agriculture : Key advances and remaining knowledge gaps 5”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “114” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e31cf1ed-733e-4953-9608-bff3c142eea5” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mulla, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mulla, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mulla, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mulla, 2012). Notwithstanding, the idea of creating maps and automated vehicles able to display and calculate parameters like crop yield, terrain features/topography, organic matter content, moisture levels, nitrogen levels, pH, electrical conductivity, Magnesium and Potassium, set this concept apart from ‘more basic’ and cheaper applications even in the late 1990s (McBratney, 1999). 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As such PA represents one of the first marketable and tangible concepts of digitalised agriculture. Next to GPS and remote sensing for mapping, connectivity, localisation and orientation, unmanned air vehicle (UAVs) or drones , robots and sensors found on various farm equipment including tractors, tillers or combine harvesters are available on the markets these days ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2012.08.009”, “ISSN” : “1537-5110”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mulla”, “given” : “David J”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Biosystems Engineering”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “358-371”, “publisher” : “IAgrE”, “title” : “Special Issue : Sensing in Agriculture Review Twenty five years of remote sensing in precision agriculture : Key advances and remaining knowledge gaps 5”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “114” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e31cf1ed-733e-4953-9608-bff3c142eea5” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mulla, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mulla, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mulla, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mulla, 2012) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Industry 4.0 in Agriculture : Focus on IoT aspects”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=41ed7296-080a-499e-8541-db48e04e93ed” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2017a)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2017a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2017a)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2017a). All these applications can be used in fertility and disease management, weather data systems, seed optimization or irrigation systems ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Industry 4.0 in Agriculture : Focus on IoT aspects”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=41ed7296-080a-499e-8541-db48e04e93ed” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2017a)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2017a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2017a)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2017a).

In addition to the state-of-the-art products, a determining factor for the (interchangeably-usable) concepts of digitalised agriculture, smart farming or finally agriculture 4.0, is the exploitation of cloud computing as the database backbone for all data gathered by the technologies applied.
The application of Sentinel-2 in crop monitoring maps can also be counted as a precision agriculture tool, especially for large arable fields ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1017/S2040470017000784”, “ISSN” : “2040-4700”, “abstract” : “;p;This work assesses the potential of Sentinel-2A images in precision agriculture for Barley production in a case study. Two workflows are proposed: 1) images were acquired with a relatively simple methodology to follow the crop development; 2) two images around harvest time were downloaded and processed using a more complex and accurate methodology to calculate four vegetation indices (NDVI, WDRVI, GRVI and GNDVI) to be correlated to yield with linear regression models. Yield data were acquired with a yield monitor installed in a combine harvester. Green-based vegetation indices performed slightly better. However, the highest correlation coefficient was 0.48. Better results may be achieved with earlier imagery and other vegetation indices. Sentinel-2 is a promising tool for precision agriculture in large arable crop fields.;/p;”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Escolu00e0”, “given” : “A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Badia”, “given” : “N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Arnu00f3”, “given” : “J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Martu00ednez-Casasnovas”, “given” : “J. A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Advances in Animal Biosciences”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “02”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “377-382”, “title” : “Using Sentinel-2 images to implement Precision Agriculture techniques in large arable fields: First results of a case study”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “8” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7b4b3e99-dc2d-45be-9671-1bb6be8779aa” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Escolu00e0 ;i;et al.;/i;, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Escolu00e0 et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Escolu00e0 ;i;et al.;/i;, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Escolà et al., 2017). To give an example, TalkingFields is a German company that integrates Sentinel satellite data into its precision farming product. The company, which began as a project within an ESA programme, is run by the three organisations including VISTA, Farm Facts and the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://forobs.jrc.ec.europa.eu/recaredd/S1_composite.php”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “title” : “Sentinel 1”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b4346a9d-05cd-3e61-955a-27e67703bc91” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, 2015) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “CEOS”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “CEOS: Committee on Earth Observation Satellites JAXA: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2015 edition”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “title” : “Applications of SATEL LITE EARTH OBSERVATIONS: Serving Society, Science, ; Industry”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=314391d9-098c-4d37-9e97-6916f8d08f48” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(CEOS, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(CEOS, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(CEOS, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(CEOS, 2015). The partners are a combination of a research institute and two companies. VISTA GmbH is a remote-sensing company that is able to translate the scientific and technical aspects into services, whereas Farm Facts specialises on developing agricultural software ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.farmfacts.com/about-us/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “5” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Farm Facts”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “About us”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=76ee604d-698c-3779-8dd7-662cb10c2e2f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Farm Facts, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Farm Facts, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Farm Facts, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Farm Facts, no date) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.vista-geo.de/en/profil/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “5” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vista GmbH”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Profile”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=cf63d70d-9bcb-3664-8731-d8156d2854fe” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vista GmbH, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vista GmbH, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vista GmbH, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vista GmbH, 2016). The intended end users are farmers who are offered services based on observation data from Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2, Landsat, RapidEye, TerraSAR-X, mobile satellite navigation, satellite navigation input from ground sensors, and a farm management software that uses crop models ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://forobs.jrc.ec.europa.eu/recaredd/S1_composite.php”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “title” : “Sentinel 1”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b4346a9d-05cd-3e61-955a-27e67703bc91” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, 2015) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “CEOS”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “CEOS: Committee on Earth Observation Satellites JAXA: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2015 edition”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “title” : “Applications of SATEL LITE EARTH OBSERVATIONS: Serving Society, Science, ; Industry”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=314391d9-098c-4d37-9e97-6916f8d08f48” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(CEOS, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(CEOS, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(CEOS, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(CEOS, 2015). Yield modelling, crop development observation, fertilizer management, plant protection management, precision sowing soil sampling, greening management and irrigation management are all found in the companies’ portfolio of products and services ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://forobs.jrc.ec.europa.eu/recaredd/S1_composite.php”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “title” : “Sentinel 1”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b4346a9d-05cd-3e61-955a-27e67703bc91” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, 2015). As a model example of high-tech precision farming, the company has even won a golden award at an international Agritechnica trade fair in Hannover ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://forobs.jrc.ec.europa.eu/recaredd/S1_composite.php”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “16” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ESA”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “title” : “Sentinel 1”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b4346a9d-05cd-3e61-955a-27e67703bc91” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ESA, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ESA, 2015).
Value chain structures in agricultureCopernicus-enabled applications in economic terms finds its greatest beneficiary in the domain of agriculture, according to the Copernicus Market Report of 2016. According to 2015 figures, the EO downstream revenues stood at over EUR 70 million with an expected 38% average annual growth rate of Copernicus benefits up to 2020 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279590092”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Copernicus – Market Report”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=84f2a334-82ec-4de7-be1b-b03f2af99a11” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016c). The diagram below (figure 0-3) shows a very basic and general overview of the Copernicus agriculture value chain from data procurement via the satellites and in-situ monitoring systems to the end user. There are many more elements and intermediate stages that will be touched on, but the most relevant for this master thesis is the intermediary to end user constellation.

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 3: Depiction of the Copernicus EO downstream value chain (Netherlands Space Office, 2017) (EC, 2016b)The classification of the users of Copernicus data and applications are divided between the public and private sector ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.geospatialworld.net/article/economic-impact-copernicus/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “5” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Narain”, “given” : “Ananya”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Geospatial World”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “What is the Economic Impact of Copernicus Programme?”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7dac6988-3ff5-333d-8839-ff6def7c6560” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Narain, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Narain, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Narain, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Narain, 2017). It may be appropriate to start with a very demonstrative example of a beneficiary or end user of Sentinel satellites; the European Commission itself. Hereby the reliance on satellite data is imperative for the implementation of EU policies and regulations. Acquiring independent and timely information to identify and measure main crop areas in Europe, estimate production early in the year and check the validity of farmers’ applications for EU subsidies all support the implementation of the EU CAP policy ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/978-3-7091-4860-0”, “ISBN” : “9783709148600”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “De”, “family” : “Mey”, “given” : “Stefaan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “Yearbook on Space Policy 2015, Yearbook on Space”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “175-191”, “title” : “The Future of Satellite Applications : The End-User Perspective”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=dce3ceee-d3dd-4482-b0be-11d806c6ddda” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mey, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mey, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mey, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mey, 2017). In this regard the end user is clear, as is the value added through satellite data.
While farmers may be perceived as the most obvious and thesis-relevant examples of end users in the Copernicus agricultural value chain, Sentinel satellite applications can yield benefits to other stakeholders that are involved in the agricultural sector in one way or another. Hereby VAS companies as intermediaries usually provide trainings to the end users, adapted to the technical capabilities and needs of the clients ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279590115”, “abstract” : “Following the assessment of the Copernicus programmeu2019s impacts on the upstream segment, this study aims at characterising the benefits of and the barriers to the Earth Observation (EO) downstream and end user markets in Europe, in order to identify the levers that can support the development of economic activity exploiting Copernicus. After a review of the existing literature, the EO downstream market is characterised by using the US Landsat programme as a benchmark, by the role of large ICT players, the flourishing of platforms and cloud computing, and the overall Big Data trend. The European market is then investigated in detail for 8 promising value chains through consultation with a wide panel of stakeholders, to characterise the current impact of Copernicus according to economic, social, environmental and strategic perspectives, and to forecast the evolution of its contribution to growth and employment up to 2020. Based on the identified strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, recommendations are provided globally and specifically for each value chain, to foster market uptake by European companies. Though still rather low, the penetration of Copernicus data in the EO market is expected to grow in the future, with substantial benefits for both intermediate and end users.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “360”, “title” : “Study to examine the socio- economic impact of Copernicus in the EU Report on the Copernicus downstream sector and”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1b4ad822-6f91-4a72-92d7-f202680f1d6d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016f)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016f)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016f)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016f). To exemplify, trainings can involve explaining and briefing the end users on how to interpret the maps and the types of decisions that can be taken; i.e. the increase of irrigation volume in one part of the parcel or the reduction of fertilizer application in another ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279590115”, “abstract” : “Following the assessment of the Copernicus programmeu2019s impacts on the upstream segment, this study aims at characterising the benefits of and the barriers to the Earth Observation (EO) downstream and end user markets in Europe, in order to identify the levers that can support the development of economic activity exploiting Copernicus. After a review of the existing literature, the EO downstream market is characterised by using the US Landsat programme as a benchmark, by the role of large ICT players, the flourishing of platforms and cloud computing, and the overall Big Data trend. The European market is then investigated in detail for 8 promising value chains through consultation with a wide panel of stakeholders, to characterise the current impact of Copernicus according to economic, social, environmental and strategic perspectives, and to forecast the evolution of its contribution to growth and employment up to 2020. Based on the identified strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, recommendations are provided globally and specifically for each value chain, to foster market uptake by European companies. Though still rather low, the penetration of Copernicus data in the EO market is expected to grow in the future, with substantial benefits for both intermediate and end users.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “360”, “title” : “Study to examine the socio- economic impact of Copernicus in the EU Report on the Copernicus downstream sector and”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1b4ad822-6f91-4a72-92d7-f202680f1d6d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016f)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016f)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016f)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016f). Yield mapping, input management, farm management, seasonal mapping of cultivated areas, water management and drought monitoring, or even support to subsidy controls can benefit policy makers, agricultural insurance companies, agricultural cooperatives, or food companies ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279590092”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Copernicus – Market Report”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=84f2a334-82ec-4de7-be1b-b03f2af99a11” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016c). While the farmers and agricultural cooperatives benefit from information on more efficient use of agricultural inputs and increased productivity, public authorities and decision makers on a national, regional or international level can benefit from the assessment of crop location changes, improved monitoring of meteorological and hydrological droughts and food security issues for governing and regulative purposes ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279590092”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “October”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Copernicus – Market Report”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=84f2a334-82ec-4de7-be1b-b03f2af99a11” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EC, 2016c)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EC, 2016c). Yield forecasts or damage control can significantly benefit insurance companies that can estimate the loss incurred due to natural calamities or food companies to better plan production. Regarding food security issues in third countries, development agencies, the World Bank or UN organisations and research All these end user – benefit constellations are listed in the Copernicus Market Report as possible benefits that exist in theory.
The end users often do not directly interact with the data procurement and data provider actors, as the needed information needs to be processed and tailored to the requirements of the end user. Needless to say, individual processing chains involve a series of highly specialised processing steps. In effect, the end users are connected to intermediary players that include agricultural advisors and service providers, start-ups, micro companies or SMEs, ICT-companies and remote sensing companies, agricultural insurance companies, EO scientists, research organizations, etc (Netherlands Space Office, 2017). EO technologies are often too expensive to purchase on an individual basis, especially for farmers. Often the direct customers of Sentinel satellite based products and applications are agricultural cooperatives who then allocate the products and services to the farmer segments they represent ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.geospatialworld.net/article/economic-impact-copernicus/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “5” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Narain”, “given” : “Ananya”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Geospatial World”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “What is the Economic Impact of Copernicus Programme?”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7dac6988-3ff5-333d-8839-ff6def7c6560” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Narain, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Narain, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Narain, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Narain, 2017). These stakeholders take on the multiple roles along the value chain, once as direct customers of Copernicus based products but also as service provider intermediaries (EC, 2016b).
To offer a glimpse of intermediary – end user constellations based on Copernicus products, two examples are briefly showcased.

Rezatec is a UK-based company, which create agro-meteorological and biophysical data models via satellite data and weather information to characterize and monitor crops as a way to plan the efficient input of resources while improving yield output on a season per season basis (EC, 2016f). The SME is made up of a team with backgrounds in statistical and big data analysis, EO analysis, methods and tools, software development, advanced computing techniques and GIS (Rezatec 2018). Clients include farmers and companies that are mostly satellite data analytics themselves (Rezatec 2018).
Another example of a company is Fieldsense, a Danish start-up that offers farmers a smartphone app (EC, 2016f). Founded in 2014, the SME uses Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-2B data to create crop models to monitor the health of them to detect crop stress, water damage, nutrient deficiency, insect damage, crop diseases and soil quality variations (Fieldsense 2018).
Having pointed out the theoretical aspects as offered by the European Commission in the Copernicus Market Report, it is appropriate to critically assess these ideas against the practical examples of intermediary to end user interaction case studies in the Austrian agricultural sector as shown next.

Practical examples of intermediary – end user interaction in the Austrian agricultural sector This section will present the findings with regards to the presence of Sentinel satellite data-based service and product providers existing within the Austrian agricultural sector, the intermediary to end user relations and the general awareness, perception and attitude of the end users, first and foremost farmers, to available products and services based on (Sentinel) satellite data. Existing Sentinel satellite service providers or intermediaries were found in various ways. EO4Water was thoroughly profiled in the EU Copernicus market report. Hagelversicherung was discovered through google web search and yet other stakeholders were indirectly found by contacting agricultural associations, mainly the Chamber of Agriculture. To find out the awareness, perception and attitude of farmers directly, an online survey was set up and shared on a variety of platforms. A forum thread was also created on a commonly used online platform by farmers, Landwirt, to induce discussions on Sentinel satellite-based applications in agriculture. On one end, mapping the intermediary landscape is an important aspect to give an overview what possibilities currently exist, in other words the supply on the market. At the same time this is a means to show the limitations and gaps found on the side of intermediaries. On the other side, the farmers as end users have to be approached to find out their personal take on available applications and thus the ‘demand’ for products and services. Because Sentinel-satellite based applications are often put into the category of PA products and services, and rightly so to a large extent, the stakeholders were approached on their knowledge and viewpoints of digitalized farming and agriculture in general, albeit (indirectly) steering the conversation towards Sentinel based opportunities. This should also have the effect of inclusivity and reaching as many stakeholders as possible.
A brief profile of the Austrian agricultural sectorIt is appropriate to first and foremost briefly profile the agricultural landscape in Austria. The most recently published data is from the year 2016 by the federal Agency Statistik Austria. 30 000 farm and forest owners served as a sample size to determine the general status of agriculture in Austria ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.bmnt.gv.at/land/produktion-maerkte/Agrarstrukturerhebung-2016—erste-Ergebnisse-.html”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmnt”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Erste Ergebnisse der Agrarstrukturerhebung 2016”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=71e7f361-5e68-4323-9fe6-0c22ae4db6cf” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmnt, 2016). Currently, there are about 161 200 farm- and forestry holdings ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.bmnt.gv.at/land/produktion-maerkte/Agrarstrukturerhebung-2016—erste-Ergebnisse-.html”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmnt”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Erste Ergebnisse der Agrarstrukturerhebung 2016”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=71e7f361-5e68-4323-9fe6-0c22ae4db6cf” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmnt, 2016). There is a general trend of regression in the total number of farm holdings, whereas the average area of farmland per agricultural holding has been gradually increasing in the past decades (see figure 0-4) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.bmnt.gv.at/land/produktion-maerkte/Agrarstrukturerhebung-2016—erste-Ergebnisse-.html”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmnt”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Erste Ergebnisse der Agrarstrukturerhebung 2016”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=71e7f361-5e68-4323-9fe6-0c22ae4db6cf” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmnt, 2016).

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 4: Farm and forestry holdings in Austria from 1951 to 2016 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.bmnt.gv.at/land/produktion-maerkte/Agrarstrukturerhebung-2016—erste-Ergebnisse-.html”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmnt”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Erste Ergebnisse der Agrarstrukturerhebung 2016”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=71e7f361-5e68-4323-9fe6-0c22ae4db6cf” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmnt, 2016)
The number of organic farms has seen an increase of 8% from 2013 to 2016 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.bmnt.gv.at/land/produktion-maerkte/Agrarstrukturerhebung-2016—erste-Ergebnisse-.html”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmnt”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Erste Ergebnisse der Agrarstrukturerhebung 2016”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=71e7f361-5e68-4323-9fe6-0c22ae4db6cf” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmnt, 2016). In total, 16% of all farm holdings produce and cultivate organically ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.bmnt.gv.at/land/produktion-maerkte/Agrarstrukturerhebung-2016—erste-Ergebnisse-.html”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmnt”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Erste Ergebnisse der Agrarstrukturerhebung 2016”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=71e7f361-5e68-4323-9fe6-0c22ae4db6cf” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmnt, 2016). 90% of the farms are family-run, whereby 31% are managed by women ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.bmnt.gv.at/land/produktion-maerkte/Agrarstrukturerhebung-2016—erste-Ergebnisse-.html”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmnt”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Erste Ergebnisse der Agrarstrukturerhebung 2016”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=71e7f361-5e68-4323-9fe6-0c22ae4db6cf” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmnt, 2016). In total, 13% of the agricultural produce are cash crops that include grain, oilseeds, root crops, and commercially used crops ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.bmnt.gv.at/land/produktion-maerkte/Agrarstrukturerhebung-2016—erste-Ergebnisse-.html”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmnt”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Erste Ergebnisse der Agrarstrukturerhebung 2016”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=71e7f361-5e68-4323-9fe6-0c22ae4db6cf” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmnt, 2016).
Understanding the needs and decision logic of the end userBefore diving into the specifics of what solutions and services Sentinel satellite data can offer, it is in the first place important to understand the requirements of ultimate end user, in this case the farmer. This in turn means the need to highlight the environmental, social, political and economic aspects that influence the farmers’ ‘day-to-day’ but also longer-term decision-making in relation to their agricultural activities. A number of these factors are portrayed in the figure below (see figure 0-5) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/wcc.469”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tobin”, “given” : “Daniel”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Allred”, “given” : “Shorna B”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “August”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “United States agricultural stakeholder views and decisions on climate change”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f35f01ef-74df-4716-bd21-dec8efe20f6f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Tobin and Allred, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Tobin and Allred, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Tobin and Allred, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Tobin and Allred, 2017) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.fao.org/docrep/x0266e/x0266e02.htm”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “15” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “FAO”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Farm household decision making and extension framework for understanding farm household-level decision making and design of agroforestry extension strategies”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6e4b7d5c-afaa-3ab6-847b-612952ce18dc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(FAO, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(FAO, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(FAO, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(FAO, no date)

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 5 : Factor dependent decision making of a farmer (Tobin and Allred, 2017) (FAO, no date) (Schönhart, 2018)Completely non-influenceable are the given biophysical and environmental surroundings on the farm. For example, the physical landscape is one determining natural factor that is in turn dependent on a number of other elements of the field properties, including the (i) soil type and its capacity to hold water, (ii) the size and shape of a field, (iii) the altitude of the location, (iv) slope, (v) the distance to the farm, (vi) and the historic land use ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Schu00f6nhart”, “given” : “Martin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “u00d6konomik nachhaltiger Landnutzung im Globalen Wandel Kapitel 4: Landnutzungsentscheidungen Kapitel 4b u00d6konomische Grundlagen”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=bda8dfe1-8137-4460-9b72-df7003c0de99” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Schu00f6nhart, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Schu00f6nhart, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Schu00f6nhart, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Schönhart, 2018). Next to the physical landscape, climatic factors like (i) precipitation, (ii) solar radiation, (iii) temperature or wind, natural calamities like (i) droughts, (ii) floods and the seasonal patterns defining the biological lifecycle of crops are also elements that take up a considerable amount of consideration in the cultivation design ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Schu00f6nhart”, “given” : “Martin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “u00d6konomik nachhaltiger Landnutzung im Globalen Wandel Kapitel 4: Landnutzungsentscheidungen Kapitel 4b u00d6konomische Grundlagen”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=bda8dfe1-8137-4460-9b72-df7003c0de99” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Schu00f6nhart, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Schu00f6nhart, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Schu00f6nhart, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Schönhart, 2018). Having said this, farmers owning land for generations or have decade-long experience with their fields, already know how the surrounding natural environment affects their fields. In effect, the practice- and intuition- based knowledge is predominant, and decision-making and adaption to anomalies, routine based.
Other factors that can influence the practices of farmers are socio-economic and political. These influences are not ‘fixed’ and allow for various degrees of flexibility. Farm- and farmer specific capacities also belong to that group. It is clear that the nature of decisions range from simple to complex and from operational to strategic. Investing in PA technologies to optimize practices and increase agricultural productivity are tied to serious considerations because they wholly affect the decision-making system of a farmer. In other words, the acquirement and exploitation of PA technologies, whether they are based on Sentinel satellite data or not, requires a series of changes in the given, present operational and decision-making structures. This then leaves the question to the farmer of whether the investment into these technologies (financially, but also the time and effort tied to the integration of reformed practices) is feasible overall.
EO4WaterA noteworthy and key practical case study of a Sentinel-2 based agricultural product is the EO4Water project, now a fully running service. It counts as one of the most elaborate intermediary to end user interactions in the agricultural service sector in Austria, having been hailed as a best-practice example in the Copernicus Market Report. EO4Water has also been awarded with the Neptun Wasserpreis 2017 in the category WasserForscht (Vuolo, 2018). While conducting research for the thesis and turning to Dr. Thomas Geist, expert in EO and the official point of contact for Copernicus in Austria, I was redirected to Dr. Francesco Vuolo and his team from the Institute of Surveying, Remote Sensing and Land Information (IVFL) from in the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences of Vienna (BOKU). In other terms, the relevance of this case study for the master thesis is clearly established.
The current service is largely based on a pilot demonstration campaign that was conducted from May 2013 to September 2013 and involved the testing of an irrigation management webGIS application by around 50 small-scale farmers from Marchfeld (Vuolo et al 2015). The main aim of the demonstration campaign was to find out the user’s experience and view on the usability of the irrigation management application. Gaining knowledge about the expectations, needs and problems of the farmers relating to the use of the information and tools provided was also a significant part of the project evaluation (Vuolo et al 2015). Ultimately, this project is also indicative to find out whether a service product like this could be turned into a potentially feasible business opportunity on the long run. The EO4Water project is a valuable testimony of the processes behind establishing a satellite-based application and the importance of intermediary to end user relation coupled to it.
Funded under FFG ASAP, the project was led by Dr. Francesco Vuolo with the help of Dipl. Ing. Laura Essl and Prof. Clement Atzberger, all based in IVFL, BOKU ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). The institute itself is specialised on applied remote sensing and GIS technologies in the agricultural, forestry and environmental domain for land use mapping, forest monitoring, vegetation phenology and ecological interpretation ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmvit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “title” : “AustriAn technology in spAce”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=640a9911-c5f6-4781-be25-c1b846f28948” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmvit, 2012). Research topics encompass the mapping of land use, land cover and change detection, the mapping of vegetation biophysical variables, drought monitoring and irrigation management and the detection of vegetation anomalies ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmvit”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “title” : “AustriAn technology in spAce”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=640a9911-c5f6-4781-be25-c1b846f28948” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmvit, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmvit, 2012).
As one of the main crop production areas in Austria, the test-bed for the project activities was the region of Marchfeld in Lower Austria ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). Known as the ‘breadbasket’ of Austria, the region has next to the traditional cultivation of crops, also seen an increase in the cultivation of vegetables including onions, peas, carrots, asparagus, spinach, salads, string beans, celery and sweet corn ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.genuss-region.at/genussregionen/niederoesterreich/marchfeld-gemuese/index.html”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “1” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Genuss Region u00d6sterreich”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Marchfeld Gemu00fcse”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0fed359d-a2d9-3454-bf58-f18f01eda06c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Genuss Region u00d6sterreich, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Genuss Region u00d6sterreich, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Genuss Region u00d6sterreich, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Genuss Region Österreich, no date). Covering an area of approximately 90,000 ha, the region is characterised by a semi-arid climate, with an annual rainfall of less than 550mm ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). Groundwater accounts for 60% of the crop irrigation, performed using private wells that are powered with electric or Diesel pumps ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). It goes without saying that for water-intensive crops like sugar beet and potatoes, regular irrigation is of critical importance during the cropping season, whereas semi-intensive crops such as cereals, oilseed and maize are irrigated during dry periods ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). The groundwater reserves in the Marchfeld region are one of the largest in Austria, containing a volume of over 1 billion m3 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.marchfeldkanal.at/00index190.htm”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Betriebsgesellschaft Marchfeldkanal”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Grundwasservorkommen”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=39f6c2d8-8e16-43fd-897a-2c5d83a40b33” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Betriebsgesellschaft Marchfeldkanal, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Betriebsgesellschaft Marchfeldkanal, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Betriebsgesellschaft Marchfeldkanal, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Betriebsgesellschaft Marchfeldkanal, 2018). The pressure on this vital resource in terms of quality and quantity is manifold. One of the biggest dangers to the region is climate change, largely reflected in the seasons of high temperatures and lacking precipitation, resulting in prolonged periods of drought. In the last two years alone, record breaking temperatures have been documented in Austria, where March 2017 has had the highest temperatures in 251 years and April 2018 the highest temperatures since 1800 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.zamg.ac.at/cms/de/klima/klima-aktuell/monatsrueckblick”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “1” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ZAMG”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Monatsru00fcckblick”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b5dc1306-af7a-3ebf-8a74-dfdd86f22e31” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ZAMG, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ZAMG, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ZAMG, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ZAMG, 2018) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://derstandard.at/2000061632601/Duerre-Hagel-und-Co-Bauern-fuerchten-biblische-Plage”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “1” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Standard”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “Der”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Du00fcrre, Hagel und Co: Bauern fu00fcrchten biblische Plage”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=32e240be-f7b6-3634-af4a-becafb9f91f6” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Der Standard, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Der Standard, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Der Standard, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Der Standard, 2017). This is accompanied by a precipitation deficit targeting the region of Marchfeld especially, as seen in a precipitation-deficit map by Hagelversicherung from the year 2017 (see figure 0-6).

453999610793980
Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 6: Precipitation deficit 1st of March to 21st of July 2017 (Marchfeld region) circled (Hagelversicherung, 2017)Urban and industrial sectors also rely on the groundwater resource. Next to that, the demand for sustainable locally produced high-quality food further spurs the need to optimize the strategies for a more effective and efficient irrigation system ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). With conventional practices and on the basis that farmers irrigate up to 2000m3 per hectare per annum, costs between EUR 400 and EUR 1000 per hectare accrue ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “PwC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “2016”, “title” : “Improving irrigation management via EO data in Lower Austria with the help of Copernicus”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4e904fb4-459b-437a-82f2-2dc2e3af4d6b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(PwC, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(PwC, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(PwC, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(PwC, 2016). For the farmers of Marchfeld, irrigation practices are based on a number of information sources. Checking the actual weather conditions and weather forecast are the most obvious tools, as well as using online platforms for information on precipitation and wind direction ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). Self-owned precipitation measurement stations within the farm or on the field site, and checking the state of the plants individually through field visits are also part of the options ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). Due to various limitations, existing irrigation practices are in their current forms a compromise between the cost of irrigation and loss of production ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). For example, the price of the seeds or expected market price of the produce are determining factors when it comes to how much, where and when irrigation takes place ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). When farmers do not have the capacity to water the whole field, the decision of where the irrigation infrastructure is to be placed, is decided at the beginning of the irrigation season. Hereby the simultaneous irrigation of the whole field is not possible ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). Where production contracts have to be met, the crops or produce affected will be watered first ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). Personal experience influenced by the suggestions of friends or the practices of neighbours are additional factors to be taken into account in the irrigation habits ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). These technical and economic constraints cause farmers to often water their plants at the limit of water stress conditions in an attempt to lower costs while minimising yield loss ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erl165”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fereres”, “given” : “Elias”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Soriano”, “given” : “Maria”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Experimental Botany”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “page” : “147u2013159”, “title” : “). Deficit irrigation for reducing agricultural water use.”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “Volume 58” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=cbabbaa8-170c-4b79-a140-6f8b7c987941” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fereres and Soriano, 2007)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fereres and Soriano, 2007)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fereres and Soriano, 2007)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fereres and Soriano, 2007). As such, a webGIS application that is designed to enable more efficient irrigation practices would seem like a welcome solution.
It has to be noted that within the project, the satellite images used were not based on Sentinel-2, as at the time of the project the Sentinel technology was not fully operational yet. Instead, Landsat-8 was the main data source, complemented by the commercial satellite DEIMOS-1 in case of cloud cover ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). This way cloud-free images were obtained every 15 days ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). Hereby the total irrigation area covered within the project was around 2000 hectares and included 46 individual fields with an average size of 5 hectares ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015).

Demonstration Campaign
The first stage of the demonstration campaign, the irrigation season from May to September 2013, involved the testing of a previously set up webGIS system that served as the main repository for the maps of the parcels displaying irrigation related parameters such as crop water requirements (CWR) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). Having said this, the application had to be adapted to the local circumstances in order for the maps to show real-time and place specific results. Without going into too much technical detail, the model is based on the Penman-Monteith (P-M) equation, which required for its calculation atmospherically corrected multi-spectral satellite images and agro-meteorological variables like temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and air humidity ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). These were derived from local weather stations and were used to calculate the crop evapotranspiration (ET) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). Subtracting the crop ET from measured rainfall values will then yield the CWR. The crop ET, e?ective rainfall, and irrigation requirements (CWR) values would be displayed on a webGIS platform or mobile technology application with access restricted to the fields owned by the farmers ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). The figure below (0-7) shows a screenshot of what the application surface looked like and the kind of information that was shown ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015).

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 7: The application shows field details (crop type, irrigation method) and the temporal series of crop ET, e?ective rainfall, and irrigation requirements ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)

After setting up the application, a core-group of users who would test the webGIS tool had to be found. By going more or less “door-to-door”, 50 farmers were found who agreed in partaking ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). Before testing the application, the defined group participated in a qualitative information session, where they would define the needs, problems and expectations in relation to the existing application that they would be testing ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). When asked about the motivation behind participating in the demonstration campaign, the reasons listed included: (i) finding out the best time for irrigating crops, (ii) curiosity about new available technologies, (iii) information on the crop ET and (iv) the possibility to observe differences in crop development within one field unit or between different fields growing the same type of crop but under different conditions ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). The main expectations by the farmers in relation to the application included (i) proving their long standing knowledge by being able to compare the ET and CWR maps to their own practices, (ii) find out where to save energy costs associated with irrigation and (iii) save time on travels to check on all the fields ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. 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Once they got to test the webGIS application, of main interest to the farmers was to find out the efficiency of their watering practices by comparing the water requirements as measured and shown on the webGIS application, and their actual irrigation practices. For this, the farmers were asked to provide reports on the volumes of supplied water for every irrigation unit on the fields ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). The ratio of water supplied by the farmers to water demand as shown on the application, was an indicator of how efficiently the water was being used, 1 indicating total efficiency ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). The crops cultivated by the farmers included sugar beet, maize, potatoes, soya, onion, carrots, spinach and peas ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). The results showed that the average value of the water efficiency for all crops was close to 1. This meant high efficiency or that the amount of water supplied was indeed the maximum amount of water required by the crops ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). There was variability within the results however. While sugar beet received less water than required, onion, maize, carrots, spinach and peas received more than was necessary (see figure 0-8) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). According to the research team, these results show that room for irrigation practice optimisation is possible. Adapting watering practices with this information in mind would save over 10% of the water and energy in water-intensive crops, equivalent to an annual economic benefit of EUR 40–100 per hectare ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015).

| Total Crop Water Use Indicator (Water supply/Potential Water Demand) for Sugarbeet (n = 16), Soya (n = 5), Potatoes (n = 8), Onion (n = 3), Maize (n = 9), and other crops (n = 5).
Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 8: CWU for sugar beet, soya, potatoes, onion, maize and other crops; red bars indicating over-watering and blank bars indicating under-watering ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)
The project findings point to two imperative issues on determining whether this service would really be a desired and useful tool for the farmers. The questions that hereby arises is what benefit the end users would derive from a service like this and whether that would justify investing in this type of product.
During the testing phase the farmers had the possibility to give feedback on the application either through calling the project team or participating in monthly group meetings ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). This was done through phone calls, e-mail correspondence, personal visits, organized workshops or ‘Stammtsich’ events ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). Feedback was collected after the irrigation period as well, whereby a questionnaire and personal interviews assessed the frequency of use, benefits and problems associated with the application ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). All in all, for the duration of the project a total of 30 farmers participated in the qualitative feedback reporting ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). The results showed that most farmers had a positive impression of the application they tested, mainly on the crop ET that could help them to make better decisions in irrigation ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). The expectations that were completely fulfilled included the possibility to observe spatial variability between fields or the possibility to observe phenological developments ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). The benefits that were mentioned less frequently included the possibility to get information on soil characteristics, improve the sustainable use of water within the farm or obtain local weather information ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). There were also a number of technical problems that the farmers encountered, such as the difficulty in understanding the units and terminology. The incompatibility of the application system with farm management structures was another issue, because a number of days are needed to irrigate one field irrigation unit, preventing an immediate reaction to the water requirements of crops on other parts of the parcel ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). Losing passwords or using an insufficient internet browser as well as the expectation of the satellite images with a higher spatial resolution were other mentioned problems ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). All in all, when the farmers were asked whether they would be willing to pay for the provided services, 54% showed willingness to pay either directly or through cost-sharing options, 32% did not give an answer and 14% indicated no willingness to pay at all ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). The question then remains whether or how the webGIS application would have to be optimised in order to make the products desirable for farmers for the future ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). On this last aspect about 50% of the farmers pointed out that they saw room for optimization in water requirements, the temporal frequency and distribution of irrigation events ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). The information they would require to make these better informed decision included the following; (i) knowing the actual status of the crops without having to survey ever single parcel, (ii) comparing individual practices to those of other farmers irrigating less, (iii) acquiring information on the irrigation needs of the crops during different stages of growth, and (iv) being able to receive more accurate weather prognosis information ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). With regards to optimising the webGIS application, the farmers voiced the wish for options to enter rainfall and irrigation volumes manually into the database in order to log management activities, access the portal on smartphones to save time without mobility constraints and receive alarms via SMS in case stress conditions are met ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015).

While the farmers of course tested the application for free, there were considerable costs associated with the setup of the webGIS application on which the current service is based. To understand what financial resources setting up a customized satellite-based application are associated with, the cost factors will now be highlighted. Setting up the webGIS platform in accordance with the farmer’s database and customer service were some of the typical variable costs that ensued because they varied with the number of hectares and users ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). The operative costs including satellite data acquisition and processing were fixed to a given service coverage per area ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). The operative costs included the work done by personnel, which covered (i) EO data procurement, (ii) atmospheric correction of images and generation of products, (iii) quality control and calibration/validation activities, (iv) agro-meteorological data elaboration and (v) maintenance of geo-infrastructures ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). Field travel, software licenses and commercial satellite data were other costs ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). Highlighting the costs of acquiring commercial satellite images are important to understand how integrating Copernicus Sentinel-2 data would make a difference in the overall cost structures of a service like this. In order to deliver useful and accurate information to the end users there are requirements as to the resolution of the images themselves. It goes without saying that the higher the resolution or the lower the pixel size, the better the quality of the images but also the more expensive the data. Commercial satellites, including DEIMOS-1, SPOT image or RapidEye, deliver pixels in respective order from 20m to 10m to 5m ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). For EO4Water, the costs that would be associated with acquiring 10 images for the period of the irrigation season, would equal EUR 15,000 for DEIMOS-1, EUR 18,000 for SPOT image and EUR 35,000 for RapidEye ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). For the customer this means that the cost of satellite data would make up 25% to 40% of the total costs or EUR 2.5 per hectare to EUR 4.3 per hectare per growing season ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015). Therefore, having the possibility of using freely available satellite data from Landsat-8 (30m pixel size) or Sentinel-2 (10 – 20m pixel size) lowers the cost of the overall service to EUR 1.3 per hectare per year while largely maintaining the quality of the images ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fenvs.2015.00052”, “ISSN” : “2296-665X”, “abstract” : “This paper presents the results of a collaborative work with farmers and a cost-benefit analysis of geospatial technologies applied to irrigation water management in the semi-arid agricultural area in Lower Austria. We use Earth observation (EO) data to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) and webGIS technologies to deliver maps and irrigation advice to farmers. The study reports the technical and qualitative evaluation performed during a demonstration phase in 2013 and provides an outlook to future developments. The calculation of the benefits is based on a comparison of the irrigation volumes estimated from satellite vs. the irrigation supplied by the farmers. In most cases, the amount of water supplied was equal to the maximum amount of water required by crops. At the same time high variability was observed for the different irrigation units and crop types. Our data clearly indicates that economic benefits could be achieved by reducing irrigation volumes, especially for water-intensive crops. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, most of the farmers expressed a very positive interest in the provided information. In particular, information related to crop ET was appreciated as this helps to make better informed decisions on irrigation. The majority of farmers (54%) also expressed a general willingness to pay, either directly or via cost sharing, for such a service. Based on different cost scenarios, we calculated the cost of the service. Considering 20,000 ha regularly irrigated land, the advisory service would cost between 2.5 and 4.3 u20ac/ha per year depending on the type of satellite data used. For comparison, irrigation costs range between 400 and 1000 u20ac/ha per year for a typical irrigation volume of 2,000 cubic meters per ha. With a correct irrigation application, more than 10% of the water and energy could be saved in water-intensive crops, which is equivalent to an economic benefit of 40-100 u20ac/ha per year.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Essl”, “given” : “Laura”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Environmental Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “July”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Costs and benefits of satellite-based tools for irrigation management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d2d6abd4-0938-41af-b36c-7489d21c912b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, Essl and Atzberger, 2015).
To understand the present state of the EO4Water service, it is important to point out that core models have been established in forerunner phases like the demonstration campaign. Besides EO4Water, other previous projects including PLEIADES or SIRIUS had to be realized with the aim of creating and validating models and approaches that could then be applied in the future for real farm management business applications ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). It is important to understand that beside satellite images as such, weather information or data provided by farmers themselves including soil type measurements or irrigation volumes are just as important to deliver highly accurate functioning services. All these variables are “plugged in” to the developed physiological models ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). There is flexibility of connecting different data sources as well, depending on what data is available and when, for example a farmer cannot provide exact soil type measurements ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). The effort put into the development of these models however, should not be understated, having taken years to optimize.

Current Service
As of summer 2018, EO4Water is a fully running service ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). Quite a few things have changed since the course of the forerunner stages like the demonstration campaign. Beside irrigation management, crop growing condition monitoring and, as of 2018 this year, nitrogen fertilizer monitoring for wheat are also offered ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). The services at present are not only directed at farmers, but also the agrotech industry and machinery manufacturers ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://eo4water.com/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “30” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EO4Water”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “eo4water u2013 Earth observation for water resource management”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2d071a25-28f5-3696-ac5b-83ef130c7a3a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EO4Water, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EO4Water, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EO4Water, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EO4Water, no date).
With the official availability of Sentinel-2, the IVFL BOKU managed to set up a Sentinel-2 data service platform allowing the procurement of atmospherically-corrected images and with that, making VAS available for any land surface on Earth ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3390/rs8110938”, “ISBN” : “2072-4292”, “ISSN” : “2072-4292”, “abstract” : “This technical note presents the first Sentinel-2 data service platform for obtaining atmospherically-corrected images and generating the corresponding value-added products for any land surface on Earth (http://s2.boku.eodc.eu/). Using the European Space Agencyu2019s (ESA) Sen2Cor algorithm, the platform processes ESAu2019s Level-1C top-of-atmosphere reflectance to atmospherically-corrected bottom-of-atmosphere (BoA) reflectance (Level-2A). The processing runs on-demand, with a global coverage, on the Earth Observation Data Centre (EODC), which is a public-private collaborative IT infrastructure in Vienna (Austria) for archiving, processing, and distributing Earth observation (EO) data (http://www.eodc.eu). Using the data service platform, users can submit processing requests and access the results via a user-friendly web page or using a dedicated application programming interface (API). Building on the processed Level-2A data, the platform also creates value-added products with a particular focus on agricultural vegetation monitoring, such as leaf area index (LAI) and broadband hemispherical-directional reflectance factor (HDRF). An analysis of the performance of the data service platform, along with processing capacity, is presented. Some preliminary consistency checks of the algorithm implementation are included to demonstrate the expected product quality. In particular, Sentinel-2 data were compared to atmospherically-corrected Landsat-8 data for six test sites achieving a R2 = 0.90 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = 0.031. LAI was validated for one test site using ground estimations. Results show a very good agreement (R2 = 0.83) and a RMSE of 0.32 m2/m2 (12% of mean value).”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “u017bu00f3u0142tak”, “given” : “Mateusz”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pipitone”, “given” : “Claudia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zappa”, “given” : “Luca”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wenng”, “given” : “Hannah”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Immitzer”, “given” : “Markus”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Weiss”, “given” : “Marie”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Baret”, “given” : “Frederic”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Remote Sensing”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “11”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “938”, “title” : “Data Service Platform for Sentinel-2 Surface Reflectance and Value-Added Products: System Use and Examples”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “8” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=58e562b0-bc3c-4c70-892c-f00772044d19” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo <i>et al.</i>, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo et al., 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo <i>et al.</i>, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo et al., 2016). As described before, ESA offers Level-1C TOA reflectance products as well as the Sen2Cor algorithms to produce atmospherically corrected Sentinel-2A BOA data. The BOKU team uses customized versions of these algorithms to process raw satellite images in combination with other data relevant for the established models in a number of processing steps to deliver final results ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). Improving and automating these processing chains took EO4Water 4 to 5 years, one of the biggest innovations largely owed to Copernicus and the resulting cloud processing facilities ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). The service was developed within the EODC to offer the useable Sentinel-2 data on-demand ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3390/rs8110938”, “ISBN” : “2072-4292”, “ISSN” : “2072-4292”, “abstract” : “This technical note presents the first Sentinel-2 data service platform for obtaining atmospherically-corrected images and generating the corresponding value-added products for any land surface on Earth (http://s2.boku.eodc.eu/). Using the European Space Agencyu2019s (ESA) Sen2Cor algorithm, the platform processes ESAu2019s Level-1C top-of-atmosphere reflectance to atmospherically-corrected bottom-of-atmosphere (BoA) reflectance (Level-2A). The processing runs on-demand, with a global coverage, on the Earth Observation Data Centre (EODC), which is a public-private collaborative IT infrastructure in Vienna (Austria) for archiving, processing, and distributing Earth observation (EO) data (http://www.eodc.eu). Using the data service platform, users can submit processing requests and access the results via a user-friendly web page or using a dedicated application programming interface (API). Building on the processed Level-2A data, the platform also creates value-added products with a particular focus on agricultural vegetation monitoring, such as leaf area index (LAI) and broadband hemispherical-directional reflectance factor (HDRF). An analysis of the performance of the data service platform, along with processing capacity, is presented. Some preliminary consistency checks of the algorithm implementation are included to demonstrate the expected product quality. In particular, Sentinel-2 data were compared to atmospherically-corrected Landsat-8 data for six test sites achieving a R2 = 0.90 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = 0.031. LAI was validated for one test site using ground estimations. Results show a very good agreement (R2 = 0.83) and a RMSE of 0.32 m2/m2 (12% of mean value).”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “u017bu00f3u0142tak”, “given” : “Mateusz”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pipitone”, “given” : “Claudia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zappa”, “given” : “Luca”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wenng”, “given” : “Hannah”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Immitzer”, “given” : “Markus”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Weiss”, “given” : “Marie”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Baret”, “given” : “Frederic”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzberger”, “given” : “Clement”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Remote Sensing”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “11”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “938”, “title” : “Data Service Platform for Sentinel-2 Surface Reflectance and Value-Added Products: System Use and Examples”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “8” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=58e562b0-bc3c-4c70-892c-f00772044d19” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo <i>et al.</i>, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo et al., 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo <i>et al.</i>, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo et al., 2016). The figure below (0-9) shows an overview of the data processing steps from the raw images to making end user ready data.

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 9: Overview of the data processing steps from the raw images to making end user ready dataIn general, BOKU is also a principal contributor partner, sharing data, software and know-how within EODC (Vuolo, 2018).
As can be seen, Sentinel-2 has been gradually integrated into the processing value chain of EO4Water. The change from mainly using Landsat to now largely relying on Sentinel in complement with Landsat in case of cloud cover, has been accompanied by a “paradigm shift” in many aspects ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). For one the improved quality of the data also indicates an improved application and user experience. With improved quality and quantity the data volume has also increased considerably so that the download of data on conventional PCs is no longer possible ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018).

Now, all required Sentinel data is obtained from the EODC. The whole processing proceeds in a “self-run mode” and EO4Water only undertakes quality checks ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). EO4Water offers their services in fixed and established places in Austria, which allows the self-run mode ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). “We understand the customer requirements and analyse the data situation, then we study solutions for responding to the requirements and we implement these solutions using the same tools 99% of the time, but re-adapting them to run in a different context. The main issue is data availability from the ground, scales and the various practical problems (associated with data procurement)” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018).
For EO4Water, the current business structure is optimal. “10 years ago one would buy a computer and server to process data and lose investment if it remained unused when there are no clients” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). The system now is much more efficient and less risky for business because the intermediary now invests in the resources it actually uses by paying processing fees per hour or based on the pay-as-you-go model ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). This shows that new processing concepts and the free and open availability of the Sentinel data have also impacted cost structures and business models of the intermediary.
Another main aspect is the shift in the companies’ intermediary to end user position in the value chain. While during the demonstration campaign, the IVFL team worked with the farmers directly, this direct relationship no longer exists. Though the farmers are the final recipients of the services, they often cannot afford or are unwilling to pay to get these services directly from projects like EO4Water ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “PwC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “2016”, “title” : “Improving irrigation management via EO data in Lower Austria with the help of Copernicus”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4e904fb4-459b-437a-82f2-2dc2e3af4d6b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(PwC, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(PwC, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(PwC, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(PwC, 2016). Instead, the data product is passed down to another intermediary before it reaches the farmers. These intermediaries include farm management software companies or retailers in the agricultural market, who then distribute these services ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). An example is RWA Lagerhaus who offer water management services on the online platform “Beregnungsplan.at”, citing BOKU as the data providers of this service ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.lagerhaus.at/effiziente-feldberegnung-dank-satellitentechnologie+2500+3285263”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “1” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lagerhaus”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Effiziente Feldberegnung dank Satellitentechnologie”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b507b98a-9658-33ba-8021-bd64b37630be” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Lagerhaus, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Lagerhaus, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Lagerhaus, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Lagerhaus, no date). Interested clients sign up at a Lagerhaus supplier offering the “smart” solution at Lagerhaus Marchfeld, Frauenkirchen or Wiener Becken ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.lagerhaus.at/effiziente-feldberegnung-dank-satellitentechnologie+2500+3285263”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “1” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lagerhaus”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Effiziente Feldberegnung dank Satellitentechnologie”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b507b98a-9658-33ba-8021-bd64b37630be” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Lagerhaus, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Lagerhaus, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Lagerhaus, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Lagerhaus, no date). The farmers then get access to the online tool and pick the areas on the map that they would like to irrigate ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.lagerhaus.at/effiziente-feldberegnung-dank-satellitentechnologie+2500+3285263”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “1” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lagerhaus”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Effiziente Feldberegnung dank Satellitentechnologie”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b507b98a-9658-33ba-8021-bd64b37630be” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Lagerhaus, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Lagerhaus, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Lagerhaus, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Lagerhaus, no date). For this, they have to enter the last known real irrigation volume, after which the online tool automatically calculates the needed irrigation volume on a daily basis during the irrigation period ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.lagerhaus.at/effiziente-feldberegnung-dank-satellitentechnologie+2500+3285263”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “1” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lagerhaus”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Effiziente Feldberegnung dank Satellitentechnologie”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b507b98a-9658-33ba-8021-bd64b37630be” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Lagerhaus, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Lagerhaus, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Lagerhaus, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Lagerhaus, no date). Moreover, the farmer can choose different “packages” depending on the field size between 10 hectares, 20 hectares, 50 hectares or more, and a test-package is also possible for a larger field site ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.lagerhaus.at/effiziente-feldberegnung-dank-satellitentechnologie+2500+3285263”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “1” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lagerhaus”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Effiziente Feldberegnung dank Satellitentechnologie”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b507b98a-9658-33ba-8021-bd64b37630be” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Lagerhaus, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Lagerhaus, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Lagerhaus, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Lagerhaus, no date). The service is valid for a year, after which the subscription ends automatically ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.lagerhaus.at/effiziente-feldberegnung-dank-satellitentechnologie+2500+3285263”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “1” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lagerhaus”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Effiziente Feldberegnung dank Satellitentechnologie”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b507b98a-9658-33ba-8021-bd64b37630be” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Lagerhaus, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Lagerhaus, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Lagerhaus, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Lagerhaus, no date).
In this case, the data is not transferred from EO4Water to the mentioned retailers, but rather the data is sent directly from the processing servers to the web-interface online platforms the farmers use ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). Currently, the results of the EO4Water projects are offered in Lower Austria, Burgenland and Styria; regions where the agricultural areas are characterized by dry climate. The relatively dense population of farmers increases the likelihood of service demand compared to other regions ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018).

For a small intermediary like EO4Water, direct customer service and management would be too expensive for agricultural land holdings averaging around 19,7 hectares ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bnmt”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “https://www.bmnt.gv.at/land/produktion-maerkte/Agr”, “title” : “Erste Ergebnisse der Agrarstrukturerhebung 2016”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9108d3ff-e8a3-4d93-91b8-cd6ecf0b1877” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bnmt, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bnmt, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bnmt, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bnmt, 2016). According to Dr. Vuolo, the farm style, size and structure is a determining factor in the business model; “if we are talking about large industrial agro-businesses with 1000 ha ownership, there is an interest to approach these directly… avoiding the interface element” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). Having said this, user feedback is still part of the ‘research group’ activities and a way to guide research in a relevant direction ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). These users, some of which are the farmers that participated in the demonstration campaign, provide valuable feedback ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). This is especially relevant when expansions in the service are planned, such is the case with yield forecasting ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018).
Currently the EO4Water services, apart from Austria, are also offered in some parts of France and Germany ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). However, due to the lack of intermediary value chain structures, the service is provided on a free basis and there is reliance on implementation or start-up funds ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018).
On the outlook of the service in the coming years, Dr. Vuolo is very optimistic. For one he has been observing a change on the perception of satellite technology in general saying that “a few years ago satellites were perceived as spies” and the potential of the biophysical parameters that could be derived from satellite observation were not recognized yet ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). From his personal experience the case of irrigation is a typical example of an issue going beyond economic considerations for the farmers. Irrigation practices are associated with considerable effort and stress for the them and while the service may not bring about a great amount of water resource or energy savings, it would definitely contribute to the quality of work ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). Moreover the demographic structure in the agricultural population is changing, with many ‘young’ farmers emerging the scene ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). A lot of them are former and future students and graduates from BOKU and are taking over their parents’ farms ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). They are largely familiar with remote sensing technologies. This paves the way for an informed user community ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). Nevertheless, there is still is room for awareness raising and informing the general public ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018). Finally, the wish for the future is that EO4Water may become self-sufficient and that other actors may continue the training and education of the intended end user community ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vuolo”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview on the EO4 Water Initiative”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8a9eb782-bbb1-4ac8-a16a-e59a3fd308da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vuolo, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vuolo, 2018).

HagelversicherungOne of the other intermediaries that integrates Sentinel-satellite data into its services is the Österreichische Hagelversicherung VVaG (OH). Founded in 1947, OH is an agricultural mutual insurance company that provides insurance against hail, frost, storms, droughts, floods and other risks that could cause damage to agricultural cultivation areas ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.hagel.at/unternehmen/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “29” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Unternehmen”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c12612ad-2d4f-3f4d-a971-097b0d42b4a6” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date c)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date c)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date c)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Österreichische Hagelversicherung, no date c). Next to gardeners and wine makers, farmers are the main customers that obtain support and compensation payments within approximately one week of the request ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.hagel.at/unternehmen/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “29” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Unternehmen”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c12612ad-2d4f-3f4d-a971-097b0d42b4a6” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date c)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date c)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date c)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Österreichische Hagelversicherung, no date c). The employed experts are farmers themselves who are trained on a regular basis within the framework of the company’s “expert-academy” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.hagel.at/unternehmen/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “29” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Unternehmen”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c12612ad-2d4f-3f4d-a971-097b0d42b4a6” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date c)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date c)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date c)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Österreichische Hagelversicherung, no date c). Since the 17th of May 2017, the company has presented a new service to its insured members, offering Sentinel-satellite based data to monitor the plant growth of individual parcels of land throughout the whole vegetation season ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.hagel.at/presseaussendungen/erstmals-satelliten-im-dienste-der-landwirtschaft/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “29” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Erstmals Satelliten im Dienste der Landwirtschaft”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3cfd3def-e0aa-390b-ba34-fdf8d7367af7” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Österreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a). In fact, the OH is the first agricultural insurance company in the world that offers its clients Sentinel-2 satellite images of their land holdings ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ORF2”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Land und Leute – Satellitenbilder”, “type” : “motion_picture” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1c0e215e-37b7-4aec-83fe-bb43f50ea963” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ORF2, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ORF2, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ORF2, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ORF2, 2017).
In order to understand the background behind integrating Sentinel-2 data into existing services, an interview was conducted with Prok. Dipl. -Hlfl- Ing. Johann Fank, the director of damage and compensation management of OH ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.hagel.at/team/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “2” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Team”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e484bbe8-5a0d-3be3-a2b0-ac70d74e080d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date b)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date b)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date b)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Österreichische Hagelversicherung, no date b).
According to Fank, the trigger behind implementing Sentinel into existing structures came after a participation in the EU event UNIFARM user forum meeting on 13 June 2014 in Prague, linked to the European Space Solutions conference (2018). In this event the possibility of free and open access to all end users was presented and although the idea of satellite data has always been interesting to the company per say, this idea was never brought to fruition ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). This was due to the costs associated with satellite imagery or even the uncertainty of whether the provision of this data could bring benefits in the first place ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). Since the event however, the OH has been occupied with the question of whether the Sentinel satellite data could be compressed and processed to an extent that it would be beneficial to customers ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018).
As of present, the company obtains the Sentinel-satellite data directly from ESA without any intermediary steps, specifically those of Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-2B ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). The images available as single 300km x 300km tiles are downloaded and compiled as needed ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). Being able to download spatially limited images limits the size of the raw data, whereby the needed data is a fraction of what is available globally ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). Once received, the OH’s employed meteorologists process the data and make the resulting service available to its insured clients via official website or smart-phone applications ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://diepresse.com/home/wirtschaft/economist/5219747/Mit-Satellitendaten-ins-Weizenfeld”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “29” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Die Presse”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Mit Satellitendaten ins Weizenfeld”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f6721ed7-aa50-3733-96ec-19912fb0ac32” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Die Presse, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Die Presse, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Die Presse, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Die Presse, 2017) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.hagel.at/presseaussendungen/erstmals-satelliten-im-dienste-der-landwirtschaft/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “29” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Erstmals Satelliten im Dienste der Landwirtschaft”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3cfd3def-e0aa-390b-ba34-fdf8d7367af7” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Österreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a). Figure 0-11 shows the Hagelversicherung value chain.

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 10: The Hagelversicherung value chainOH boasts around 30 000 users, which is around 18.6% of the total forestry- and farming population in Austria. These avail themselves of the weather-services, including prognosis and analysis and can simultaneously use the satellite data service ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.bmnt.gv.at/land/produktion-maerkte/Agrarstrukturerhebung-2016—erste-Ergebnisse-.html”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “bmnt”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Erste Ergebnisse der Agrarstrukturerhebung 2016”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=71e7f361-5e68-4323-9fe6-0c22ae4db6cf” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(bmnt, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(bmnt, 2016). ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). It is only a matter of an additional option where the user, after logging in via the company’s website, is redirected to a graphic representation of their land holdings ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). The farmers can view the current satellite data of their land holdings, but also view images of their land holdings a year in retrospect ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). Next to dated information on the earth’s orbit, the user also finds instructions for use and a feedback form to the relevant department of the company ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://blickinsland.at/50710-2/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “29” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Blick ins Land”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Hagelversicherung: Kunden erhalten Satellitenbilder”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2d8b2812-3712-3c19-8c90-1de7212492fc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Blick ins Land, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Blick ins Land, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Blick ins Land, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Blick ins Land, 2017).

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 11: Map showing the plant growth for two separate parcels (Österreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a)Figure 0-12 demonstrates what parameters can be obtained from the maps. In this case the plant growth over time of two different parcels, shown as a yellow and blue, are shown on the graph ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.hagel.at/presseaussendungen/erstmals-satelliten-im-dienste-der-landwirtschaft/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “29” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Erstmals Satelliten im Dienste der Landwirtschaft”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3cfd3def-e0aa-390b-ba34-fdf8d7367af7” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Österreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a). The basis for this depiction is the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI). The greener the parcel, the stronger the growth ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://blickinsland.at/50710-2/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “29” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Blick ins Land”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Hagelversicherung: Kunden erhalten Satellitenbilder”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2d8b2812-3712-3c19-8c90-1de7212492fc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Blick ins Land, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Blick ins Land, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Blick ins Land, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Blick ins Land, 2017). Showing the changes in the chlorophyll content is something the infrared channels or feedback of the plant on the infrared channel are capable of ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). As Dr. Kurt Weinberger, CEO of the company puts it, “with the new satellite service we provide, it is for the first time possible that a farmer can observe the differences in plant growth between parcels every 5 days throughout the whole vegetation period from a bird’s-eye view.” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.hagel.at/presseaussendungen/erstmals-satelliten-im-dienste-der-landwirtschaft/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “29” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Erstmals Satelliten im Dienste der Landwirtschaft”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3cfd3def-e0aa-390b-ba34-fdf8d7367af7” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Österreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a). The depicted plant growth can be used as a basis to know what measures, such as watering or fertilizer application have to be taken to optimize the conditions of the crops in a timely manner ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ORF2”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Land und Leute – Satellitenbilder”, “type” : “motion_picture” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1c0e215e-37b7-4aec-83fe-bb43f50ea963” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ORF2, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ORF2, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ORF2, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ORF2, 2017). Plant growth is also an indicator of whether and to what extent the plants are hampered or damaged because of natural calamities like droughts, storms, floods or hail. This way appropriate measures can be taken without delay, minimising the damage that would otherwise incur ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ORF2”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Land und Leute – Satellitenbilder”, “type” : “motion_picture” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1c0e215e-37b7-4aec-83fe-bb43f50ea963” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ORF2, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ORF2, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ORF2, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ORF2, 2017). Before this service, customers had to rely on their own estimations and observations largely based on on-field visits and experience ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ORF2”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Land und Leute – Satellitenbilder”, “type” : “motion_picture” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1c0e215e-37b7-4aec-83fe-bb43f50ea963” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ORF2, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ORF2, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ORF2, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ORF2, 2017). “Two weeks ago the crops on a parcel of land were looking almost identical to me, but the Satellite has already shown small differences ” explains Thomas Schmidt, a farmer who cultivates 1,400 hectares of land with his colleagues in Weinviertel, Lower Austria ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ORF2”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Land und Leute – Satellitenbilder”, “type” : “motion_picture” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1c0e215e-37b7-4aec-83fe-bb43f50ea963” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ORF2, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ORF2, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ORF2, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ORF2, 2017). This way a farmer can see and decide on time whether it is even feasible to cultivate a certain area. According to Dr. Weinberger, “The goal is to provide an instrument that would increase the entrepreneurial success of a farm holding and support the farmers on the way to agriculture 4.0, making the Austrian agricultural sector on the whole more competitive.” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.hagel.at/presseaussendungen/erstmals-satelliten-im-dienste-der-landwirtschaft/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “29” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Erstmals Satelliten im Dienste der Landwirtschaft”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3cfd3def-e0aa-390b-ba34-fdf8d7367af7” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Österreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a). The company itself profits from this service because it eases the calculation and estimation of the loss incurred as a result of natural damages and thus, how much reimbursement the company owes to the insured farmers ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.hagel.at/presseaussendungen/erstmals-satelliten-im-dienste-der-landwirtschaft/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “29” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Erstmals Satelliten im Dienste der Landwirtschaft”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3cfd3def-e0aa-390b-ba34-fdf8d7367af7” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Österreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a). “If there was, say flood damage, the satellite data allows us to define the extent of damage within a very short time frame and as a result create very accurate and precise damage forecasts and prognosis” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.hagel.at/presseaussendungen/erstmals-satelliten-im-dienste-der-landwirtschaft/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “29” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Erstmals Satelliten im Dienste der Landwirtschaft”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3cfd3def-e0aa-390b-ba34-fdf8d7367af7” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(u00d6sterreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Österreichische Hagelversicherung, no date a). This is also especially the case with damages as a result of drought, because the difference within a field can be recognized very well ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). For other damages including hail or damage due to moisture, the cloud cover ensuing with these natural calamities prevents the capture of images ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). In this case the company is currently limited when it comes to the utility of the data on a broad basis, but research is conducted to further assess the usability as such ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). What has to be kept in mind is that the resolution of the satellite images does also pose a limit to how objectively or accurately damage assessment can be undertaken. Though the satellite images give a good oversight, a 10m x 10m pixel resolution cannot detect exact changes and damages on or within single plants ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018).
The question of how many clients actually avail themselves of the satellite data service is not easily answered due to the duality of this service ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). Be as it may, according to Fank not all farmers who use the weather prognosis service also use the plant growth application, hereby adding the following arguments. The useability of the service largely depends on the size and structure of the farms ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). For small-scale farmers who have had their land holdings for generations, a tool that shows the changes on the parcels over time is almost a superfluous one because they know their properties, and have a good sense of how the land changes and responds to external stimuli over a growing season ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). Seeing the changes of chlorophyll content in the plants thanks to the satellite images is informative but in order to make it useful, the farmers would need the technology and technical infrastructure that would prevent the damages due to a drought, for example ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). Therefore, although the essential information is available, the market has to develop a product or service that would allow one to make practical use of the information ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). For farms growing in size, or farmers that have a large number of leased land, the satellite images are indeed an interesting tool as they do not know the new fields as well as the ones they have previously owned for generations ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). This is also the case for Eastern-European agro-companies that have large scale agricultural holdings ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). For these farm structures, the satellite information is valuable because knowing whether a higher or reduced input of plant protection or pesticide product is needed, can optimize the yield of the crops while minimizing the effort ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). For this however, machines that receive and process signals and give the fertilizer spreaders the ‘instruction’ for the exact application of fertilizer on the needed spot(s) on the field, are needed ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). Part of precision farming, the investments in machines like these are associated with great costs that only allow those farmers or agro-businesses, who cultivate big enough areas where these investments would actually pay off, to acquire technologies like these ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). As official statistics indicate, the farms are continuously growing in size while the small-scale ones are shrinking in number, whereas the labour force is not increasing ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). When a large area has to be cultivated in a short period of time, showing the development of the crops over time can make precision technologies useful in optimizing fertilizer input and the working steps while making the cultivation more environmentally friendly ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). As to whether the yield can be doubled using this technology, contrary to many sources, it is most likely not the case with “maybe a single-digit percentage increase in the optimisation possibility” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018).
The question then remains as to whether or what strategies could be pursued to increase the awareness of the potential benefits of Sentinel-satellite products to also drive and create appropriate markets. According to Fank, informing and providing trial offers would be an option, but the use and benefit for the end users would have to be so clear and evident that trainings and education should not be a necessity ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). One of the main issues remaining is that no real marketable product in the domain of satellite data, with the exception of GPS, has been brought forward in the last years despite sums of EUR 100 million research funds flowing into this area ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). Now that the satellite data is available on a more or less open-source basis, ideas of the private sector are required and can be enabled once a critical mass of end users has been established. Products will then emerge out of that group ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018).
Apart from Austria, the company offers its services in five other European countries including Hungary, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Slovenia and Romania ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fank”, “given” : “Johann”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Fank Johann on integrating Sentinel-2 into the companies’ services”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c47f3b8f-0ea6-4c6b-929a-8b4c288c204a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fank, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fank, 2018). In these countries the single units of agricultural holdings are in general much larger than the ones in Austria ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://diepresse.com/home/wirtschaft/economist/5219747/Mit-Satellitendaten-ins-Weizenfeld”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “29” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Die Presse”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Mit Satellitendaten ins Weizenfeld”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f6721ed7-aa50-3733-96ec-19912fb0ac32” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Die Presse, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Die Presse, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Die Presse, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Die Presse, 2017).
Perspectives of various stakeholders
So far, two providers of Sentinel satellite-based services; EO4Water and Hagelvericherung were described. With that being said, the informative value of only describing two intermediaries, and as such a one-sided viewpoint, is limiting to the aim and value of the thesis. This is why this section will include the viewpoint of other stakeholders with regards to Sentinel-satellite based services but also in the context of PA in general.
In a first step, e-mail correspondences were sought out with the provincial representatives of the Chamber of Agriculture, or agricultural representatives like ‘Bauernbund’. This served to find out the public sentiments and efforts regarding the use of satellite-based technologies in the respective provinces. Most of the e-mails went unanswered and the ones where replies were given, referrals to the Chamber of Agriculture were made.
In Carinthia, the provincial representative of the Chamber of Agriculture negated an association or support of satellite-based technologies in their region. In Styria on the other hand, the provincial representative of the Chamber of Agriculture painted a different picture. There are connections and educational material on satellite-based agricultural technologies, including Sentinel-2. The Ländliches Fortbildungsinstitut (LFI) in Styria, provides trainings and courses for farmers with a continuing effort to integrate the topics of digitalisation and technical novelties into the courses that focus on the sustainable mobility and cultivation of farms. According to LFI, GPS and drones are standard tools used in farming practices for the inspection of fields, especially to capture pest infestations.
The provincial representative of the Chamber of Agriculture in Lower Austria also reached out claiming that to his knowledge few farmers directly come in contact with Sentinel satellites, but that there are a number of businesses dealing with Sentinel-based services. He listed EO4Water, Hagelversicherung, BOKU and AgroCommander as relevant references.
All in all, the knowledge, familiarity or support by the representatives of the public bodies is limited in most regions with the exception of Styria and Lower Austria.
In a second step the experience and knowledge of the representative of AgroProb, a one-man agricultural consultancy service led and operated by Dipl. Ing. Detlef Walter, is highlighted. He has over 25 years of experience regarding PA and is at the moment professionally also dealing with the integration of Sentinel-satellite data into agricultural applications. In cooperation with AGES, BOKU, AgrarCommander, and his own business AgroProb, the team has not only managed to integrate Sentinel satellite data into the AMAGAP, the tool for determining direct payments based on the CAP system in Austria. As operated by AMA, the agricultural output and yield zone maps are displayed ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Walter”, “given” : “Detlef”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Detlef Walter on Sentinel satellite technology in the agricultural sector of Austria”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=aa9212e9-2edf-4e8c-a4d6-e3ccc38c1acc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Walter, 2018b)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Walter, 2018b)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Walter, 2018b)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Walter, 2018b). Walter has also worked in association with AgroCommander, a company that amongst various other precision farming solutions, offers Sentinel-based fertilizer management applications. Thus he has a good overview of the market situation of Sentinel-satellite based technologies, precision agriculture and digitalised agriculture in general ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Walter”, “given” : “Detlef”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Detlef Walter on Sentinel satellite technology in the agricultural sector of Austria”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=aa9212e9-2edf-4e8c-a4d6-e3ccc38c1acc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Walter, 2018b)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Walter, 2018b)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Walter, 2018b)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Walter, 2018b). The fertilizer management application combines GPS, soil probes and Sentinel-2 data, which can be plugged into the terminals of ISO XML format tractors for automated fertilizer application. This product is available since 2015 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Walter”, “given” : “Detlef”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Detlef Walter on Sentinel satellite technology in the agricultural sector of Austria”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=aa9212e9-2edf-4e8c-a4d6-e3ccc38c1acc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Walter, 2018b)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Walter, 2018b)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Walter, 2018b)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Walter, 2018b). Currently the development of a product is underway, where the fertilizer management application can be available on a mobile- or tablet app without the necessity to have an automated fertilizer application machine.
By means of direct communications and for the purpose of the master thesis, Walter as an agricultural consultant and ‘market expert’ was asked to give his opinion on the current intermediary to end user relation in Austria. To sum up his viewpoint, Walter sees a significant divide in the PA market between the supply and demand side. A few years ago, when the smart farming concepts started to spread in the Austrian media, the message was spread that if one does not jump on the band wagon and invest, the farmers would miss out and have to endure big economic losses. Having said this, taking the example of smart combine harvesters that are able to estimate yield or farm management softwares, have in the last couple of years not been acquired by more than 10 farmers. In general, farm holdings specialised on the production of vegetable produce have a higher profit margin and are more likely to acquire these technologies. In general he warns over the promises made by the media and certain businesses on the effectiveness of delivering the solutions that are promised. For one, these ‘lab-produced’ technologies with complex programming language are not designed in a way that can be understood by the farmer in a practical and comprehensive way. In addition, the intended possibilities and benefits of technologies tend to outshine the need to communicate the efforts associated with acquiring the technologies. For one, the data of the farmers are often present in analogous form on paper; these would have to be transferred from the analogue transcripts or recordings onto the new technologies and devices. In addition, because these technologies are found on a niche market with high technical specifics, the servicing and maintenance are limited to the providers of the products, indicating a further practical hindrance. Several start-ups that are trying to integrate Sentinel-satellite data into practical and innovative solutions, are on the ‘come and go’, because they do not reach the needed demand for their products to pay off the costs ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Walter”, “given” : “Detlef”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Detlef Walter on Sentinel satellite technology in the agricultural sector of Austria”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=aa9212e9-2edf-4e8c-a4d6-e3ccc38c1acc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Walter, 2018b)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Walter, 2018b)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Walter, 2018b)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Walter, 2018b).

Walter also offers critique concerning public authorities. The Chamber of Agriculture in Lower Austria financially supports the purchase of satellite-based automated steering systems, specifically track guidance systems for tractors for the site-specific nitrogen fertilizer application ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://noe.lko.at/fu00f6rderung-fu00fcr-lenksysteme+2500+2626337”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “10” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Landwirtschaftskammer”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Fu00f6rderung fu00fcr Lenksysteme | Allgemeine Informationen Investitionsfu00f6rderung”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908079df-82bf-361b-9768-f379e7615eb7” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Landwirtschaftskammer, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Landwirtschaftskammer, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Landwirtschaftskammer, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Landwirtschaftskammer, 2017). These steering assistants include a GPS antenna, a navigation system, a display and an actuator that takes on the steer-movements on the driven-on lane ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://noe.lko.at/fu00f6rderung-fu00fcr-lenksysteme+2500+2626337”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “10” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Landwirtschaftskammer”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Fu00f6rderung fu00fcr Lenksysteme | Allgemeine Informationen Investitionsfu00f6rderung”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908079df-82bf-361b-9768-f379e7615eb7” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Landwirtschaftskammer, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Landwirtschaftskammer, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Landwirtschaftskammer, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Landwirtschaftskammer, 2017). This technology is funded up to EUR 25,000 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://noe.lko.at/fu00f6rderung-fu00fcr-lenksysteme+2500+2626337”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “10” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Landwirtschaftskammer”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Fu00f6rderung fu00fcr Lenksysteme | Allgemeine Informationen Investitionsfu00f6rderung”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=908079df-82bf-361b-9768-f379e7615eb7” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Landwirtschaftskammer, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Landwirtschaftskammer, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Landwirtschaftskammer, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Landwirtschaftskammer, 2017). Though a considerable amount of funding, this is not a practical solution for every farmer whereby once again the size of the farm largely determines whether an investment like this is feasible ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Walter”, “given” : “Detlef”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Detlef Walter on Sentinel satellite technology in the agricultural sector of Austria”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=aa9212e9-2edf-4e8c-a4d6-e3ccc38c1acc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Walter, 2018b)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Walter, 2018b)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Walter, 2018b)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Walter, 2018b). On the other side, the provincial representatives of the Chamber of Agriculture are often not even familiar with the possibilities due to satellite-based data. In February 2018, Walter held a presentation on the mentioned fertilizer application maps in front of teachers, consultants and representatives of the Chamber of Agriculture. Most of the representatives were not familiar with the practical implementation of Sentinel satellite-based applications. Having also taught and held lectures in Austrian vocational schools for agriculture, the educational system has also not entirely caught up with state-of-the-art possibilities ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Walter”, “given” : “Detlef”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Interview with Detlef Walter on Sentinel satellite technology in the agricultural sector of Austria”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=aa9212e9-2edf-4e8c-a4d6-e3ccc38c1acc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Walter, 2018b)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Walter, 2018b)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Walter, 2018b)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Walter, 2018b).
According to Walter, social, economic and psychological barriers exist on the side of the farmers. A shift in the mindset is required from a mere intergenerational and experience-based knowledge to a more entrepreneurial mindset with a management-like, systematic thinking of the farm holding as a business. Having said that, the reservations and concerns of the farmers are equally justified. In effect, a trade-off must be found where technologies that can easily be combined with existing farm infrastructure and are effective independent of farm size. For example, GPS in a tractor or smart phone apps do not seem to be pose technical problems for the farmers. Furthermore, more public support and education, like the trainings mentioned beforehand in Styria to give farmers practical insight into the possibilities and induce a gradual mind shift, is also to be promoted. Walter gives the example of the fertilizer application map that he has developed with AgroCommander. Although the application is currently only a feasible solution starting at 30 – 40 hectare acreage, the application requires specifically-suited tractors because the data that has to be transferred onto the terminals of the machines. Currently the team is working on the creation of a fertilizer application map that can be available as a mobile or tablet app and that is independent of the tractor design as such.
In order to gain more insight into the thinking of farmers, a forum thread on ‘Landwirt.com’, a popular website for farmers, was opened. The website was recommended by the Chamber of Agriculture as a platform for discussions and knowledge exchange. The post included a link to the survey and a few guiding questions and statements for the forum discussion. These included a statement on the (i) intended aim of the EU to provide satellite data to optimise farm practices by enabling the monitoring of phenological developments of the crops, (ii) avoiding the negative impacts of droughts, (iii) being able to determine the irrigation needs, (iv) and other applications like yield forecasts or pest management. Questions centred around the problems farmers faced, especially in connection to climate change which could make applications like this useful, or whether the farmers themselves had experience with apps, products or services that offered optimisation opportunities with regards to agricultural production. Finally, they were asked whether they think products and services like these were cost efficient in the first place, and whether they supported these opportunities at all, with positive and negative implications. In total 12 answers were given, below are the statements posted.

“We all use the weather forecast. I also use GPS tracking for the cattle. It’s a great thing, but one has to find a compromise between accuracy and battery life. Observing the vegetation via Sentinel is a nice idea, but the structure of my fields is too narrow for Sentinel to yield accurate results. For bigger-sized fields this may be different. All the same, nothing can substitute on-site inspections. In addition, in my opinion the technology in a lot of areas is too expensive and the farmer has to negotiate good prices. After all, heaps of data are supplied to various firms to help them build their product portfolio.”
“There is a lot more arguments for the use of satellite data for agricultural applications than against, if one desists from the issues around data protection and storage issues or the use of unverified apps. The problem is more that these technologies only become a necessity with certain farm structures and crops. Under a certain threshold, these applications are more of a toy or a slight increase in convenience, and nothing can substitute the daily inspection of crops. The control via satellite data may even be more cumbersome than the on-site visit because some data can only be acquired through personal visits to the field. The concepts around rainfall, ET, and phenological status can be interesting but for the end user given the Austrian farm structures will barely yield benefits. Of course, it looks different for diverse (research) organisations.”
“It must be interesting for diverse control organisations like AMA to get information and data frequently every 2 hours or every 10 minutes…”
“I guess I have not entirely arrived in the realms of ‘modern’ agriculture. Can someone explain to me clearly how satellite data can help to optimise irrigation management or prevent damages due to drought?”
“Simply put, the use of satellite data is another step to gain distance between reality and fiction. No electronic means can substitute the on-site inspections as perceived by ‘trained eyes’ and human senses. These means do not solve problems, they are merely toys and a further step to steer agriculture towards a planned economy consisting of few persons that sell consumer goods and services to farmers.”
“The problem is that the satellite observes land from 200 to 400 km distance, land that I can observe directly. When I move around the field myself, I get to know the acreage very fast and know where it is better or worse, where I have more or less yield and where droughts will emerge sooner. When I look at the Sentinel-2 images that Hagelversicherung provides, I always think to myself that with a mere walk across the field I learn and find out so much more than when I study the images for 10 minutes. This is why for me, the application of satellites are more wishful thinking and rather a perfect control instrument for AMA and consortia.”
“Agriculture 4.0 is a highly discussed topic right now. I was the second person in Austria to acquire a high-tech field sprayer that works with UAVs. But they steal your data and in the end the farmer does not profit.”
“Data protection is one of the imperative topics that remain undiscussed. This is why I would remain hesitant towards registering with all the new start-ups that have newly entered the market and offer really cheap farming management systems.”
The answers of the farmers in the forum demonstrate sceptical to negative sentiments. In fact only one user, who also happens to have been featured in the ORFIII “Quantensprung” report in June 2018, offers another opinion. The report with his viewpoints are now presented.
Franz Winkelhofer is a farmer from Lower Austria who owns 170 hectare land that is characterized by sandy-loamy soil with a low concentration of clay and a very low water holding capacity ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ORFIII”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Quantensprung Precision Farming – Franz Winkelhofer”, “type” : “motion_picture” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7ac3842d-7e83-49aa-a5d6-cb8fe9e3a87f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ORFIII, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ORFIII, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ORFIII, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ORFIII, 2018). Next to the already poor soil quality, an annual rainfall of less than 400 mm makes the soil very difficult to cultivate. As a result, and in order to achieve successful cultivation, a targeted way of working is a requirement. For this, Winkelhofer is using Sentinel satellite data as provided by Hagelversicherung for crop development and growth monitoring ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ORFIII”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Quantensprung Precision Farming – Franz Winkelhofer”, “type” : “motion_picture” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7ac3842d-7e83-49aa-a5d6-cb8fe9e3a87f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ORFIII, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ORFIII, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ORFIII, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ORFIII, 2018). He has also invested in the AgroCommander software a few years back, costing around EUR 20 – 30 per hectare land, where he logs his cultivation activities to know where he has to apply fertilizer and in what quantity ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ORFIII”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Quantensprung Precision Farming – Franz Winkelhofer”, “type” : “motion_picture” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7ac3842d-7e83-49aa-a5d6-cb8fe9e3a87f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ORFIII, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ORFIII, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ORFIII, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ORFIII, 2018). Once his planning and analysis are concluded, he saves the data on a USB and plugs the USB into the terminal of his auto-steer tractor that he acquired for EUR 20 000 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ORFIII”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Quantensprung Precision Farming – Franz Winkelhofer”, “type” : “motion_picture” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7ac3842d-7e83-49aa-a5d6-cb8fe9e3a87f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ORFIII, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ORFIII, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ORFIII, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ORFIII, 2018). The benefits Winkelhofer acquires from his precision farming technologies is the reduced amount of input resources like fertilizer, pesticide, and Diesel fuel ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “ORFIII”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Quantensprung Precision Farming – Franz Winkelhofer”, “type” : “motion_picture” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7ac3842d-7e83-49aa-a5d6-cb8fe9e3a87f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(ORFIII, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(ORFIII, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(ORFIII, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ORFIII, 2018). He claims savings of 5% on his farm. For him, the benefits outweigh the costs mainly due to the better and easier working conditions. This way he can also work during night time, or in general when the visibility on the field is reduced. Below is the opinion he posted to the forum thread.
“In principle you are right. We all know our fields quite well, but what has this knowledge helped you in fertilization of your fields? I give you my example… In former times I intuitively determined which part of the parcel needs more or less fertilizer and as a result driven faster or slower over the field to control the fertilizer applied. That was the extent of the accuracy. Given that the Sentinel data is well developed and prepared, I can now precisely determine the differences in the field and apply a differentiated treatment. It doesn’t make sense to apply the same amount of fertilizer to spots with low water holding capacity and 100mm precipitation from January to June than to spots that have a higher water holding and storage capacity. There are sensors that are able to achieve effective fertilization but these sensors are tailor made for agricultural holdings that are not adapted to the Austrian standard. In Austria, AgrarCommander enables a cheap solution, realising intended advantages. These ideally is good for the environment and the wallet.”
SurveyWith all being said, though a lack of time and resources prevented personal interviews with farmers, an online survey was created and spread to be filled out by 80 Austrian farmers who are specialised in the cultivation of crop plants, the results of which are presented here. The aim of the survey was to investigate the knowledge, awareness and attitude on the digitalised farming or smart farming in general. This would enable the deduction of the viewpoints and opinions towards the use of satellite-based data. Not mentioning Sentinel-2 as a concept within the questions was done on purpose for a few reasons. For one, adding a more specific ‘technical’ sounding question may have caused unwelcome confusion or biased the answers of the participants. More importantly however, the aim of the survey was to find out what satellite-based technologies and products the participants are familiar with in general while reaching as wide an audience as possible. The participants were reached via posting the survey on Landwirt and the BOKU “Agrarwissenschaften” university course group, asking the provincial representatives of the Chamber of Agriculture to forward the survey to the target group, and finally spreading the word through personal contacts.
In a first step, the participants of the survey are profiled. It has to be kept in mind that some did not complete the survey entirely, especially when it came to specifying personal information. As such, out of the 80, 51 surveys were completed. For this reason the information on the participants’ profile should be interpreted with caution.
71% of the participants were male, 23% female and 6% did not give an answer regarding their gender. The graph below shows the age range of the participants, whereby the categories below 30 and 30 – 39 were the most prevalent with 74.6%. Regarding the highest obtained educational degree, 39.2% concluded their education in a vocational school with higher education entrance qualification (BHS) and 13.7% in a Kolleg. Participants with a university degree were divided between 9.8% for Bachelor graduates and 11.8% for Master/Magister/Dipl. Ing. Graduates. The distribution of the home provinces is shown in the graph below (figure 0-13). The provinces represented in the highest numbers were Lower Austria with 29.4%, Styria with 21.6%, Upper Austria with 17.6% and Burgenland with 13.7%. Within the context of the master thesis, the most ‘interesting’ provinces are those of Lower Austria, Styria and Burgenland as these are the regions with the highest proportion of crop cultivation, as well as the regions where services like EO4Water are offered. The provinces not represented at all include Vienna, Carinthia and Vorarlberg.

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 12: The distribution of the respective home provinces
The size of the farm was also a survey question, relevant for the profile of the participants (figure 0-14). As it turns out, 30.8% of the farms are in the 20 – 50 ha area range. In general, the farm holdings larger than the 20 – 50 ha range are represented in a higher proportion than the ones below the said range.

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 13: The distribution of farm areas in categories
As to the contextual results, the first question of the survey inquired the extent to which the concept of satellite supported agriculture is familiar (figure 0-15). As such, 32.3% of the participants do know the concept of satellite supported agriculture and 15.4% do not know it at all. 23.1% know the concept well and 27.7% know the concept less well. This means that 83.1% are familiar with the concept to various extents.

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 14: The familiarity with satellite-supported agriculture
In a next step a list of products and technologies related to precision farming were listed, without revealing the relation of these to satellite-based data (figure 0-16). Once again the idea was to keep the options as broad and open as possible, without expecting the farmers to know the exact relationship between certain technologies and satellite-image data. With a list of different products and technologies, as listed below, the participants were asked to reveal which technologies they know, they use and which technologies they neither know nor use. The most well-known technologies are drones and robots alike with 77.8%. For these categories the actual usage is consequently way below, whereby out of all 80 participants only 6 people use drones (11.1%) and 2 people use robots (3.7%). This is followed by the general and overarching concept of smart farming technologies that includes drones, robots, GPS, sensors, analytical IT systems or farm management software. Including the more generic term ‘smart farming technologies’ served the purpose of being more inclusive of other specific products and technologies that exist under the category of smart farming technologies but that are not listed. Familiarity was also expressed, within the range of 53.7% to 57.4%, for farm management software, GPS, analytical IT systems and sensors. The only two services where the usage outweighs simply knowing the concept per say, are mobile apps and online platforms. For mobile apps, 51.9% claimed to use this opportunity and 33.3% denoted only knowing the concept, but not using it. For online platforms 48.1% claimed usage and 40.7% claimed merely knowing the concept. After mobile apps and online platforms, most prevalently used are GPS by 35.2% of the participants. In general, in every category knowing or using a technology always outweighed not knowing and not using them.

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 15: The familiarity with different agricultural application technologiesThe next question was open-ended whereby the participants were asked to freely list concepts they associated satellite data with, in the use for applications in agriculture (figure 0-17). 26 of them listed GPS, followed by associations of weather and meteorology mentioned by 13 participants. Precision farming and auto-steer vehicles were mentioned by 6 participants each. Only one participant listed Sentinel-2 and NDVI as associative expressions.

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 16: Associations of satellite data for applications in agricultureTo find out where participants have come across and encountered the concept of satellite-supported agriculture, a number of possible information sources were listed (figure 0-18). Hereby media was indicated as an information source with 56.6%, followed by official websites of agricultural associations like the Chamber of Agriculture with 49.1% and product- or service providers with 45.3%. Word of mouth is also used as a tool in ‘spreading the message’. 43.4% indicated this method in encountering satellite-supported agriculture.

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 17: The source of information on satellite-supported agriculture
Concerning the personal point of view on the use of satellite data for the monitoring of crop plants, most expressed positive sentiments (figure 0-19). Hereby 15.1% expressed a ‘highly desired’ attitude towards crop monitoring and 37.7% expressed a ‘desire’ for satellite data in the monitoring of crop plants. 13.2% did not desire satellite data for the monitoring of plants at all. The main aim of this question was to create a link between the previously listed, rather general concepts to satellite data. In effect, the idea was also to indirectly indicate the main Sentinel-2 function and divert the thematic attention towards it.

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 18: Point of view on the use of satellite data for the monitoring of crop plantsAsking the participants about the number of providers of satellite-supported agricultural technologies and services they know, is an additional means to find out indirectly how much the farmers know about Sentinel-2 based applications (figure 0-20). The majority of participants (38.8%) do not know any providers of satellite-supported agricultural technologies and 17.3% of those who answered this question claimed to know more than 5 providers.

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 19: Familiarity with providers of satellite-supported agricultural technologies
When the participants were asked about the Sentinel-2 providers whose services they use, 82.7% of the participants claimed to use the services of ZAMG, 71.2% claimed to use the services of Hagelversicherung, and one person uses EO4Water services (figure 0-21). The other names that were added by participants themselves were ‘weather app’, AgroCommander, Infostars and Warndienst, a service by the Chamber of Agriculture. This survey question is key, because it concretely shows which Sentinel-2 services the random sample of farmers use.

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 20: Providers of Sentinel-2 based applicationsTo find out which advantages participants associated satellite-supported technologies with, a list of positively formulated terms were given, and the participants ticked the options they thought applied (figure 0-22). The answers that were ticked most were efficiency increase and the reduction of input resources alike, with 62.7% . These two options go hand in hand as a higher efficiency is the result of less input resources for the same yield. Better working conditions was ticked the least with 29.4%.

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 21: Advantages of satellite-supported agricultural technologies
Similarly, a list of negatively formulated terms were provided to find what concerns or doubts participants associated satellite-supported agricultural technology with (figure 0-23). The answers to this question were more differential than the ones in the previous question. Hereby the concerns most expressed with 70.6% were the high investment costs. Data protection and concern for the loss of data sovereignty were on second place with 56.9%. Reservations towards digital technologies and lacking digital expertise were ticked the least with 11.8%. There were additional comments outside the given list voicing other points. “The tendency of growing farms are supported (financially), and a lot of data are disclosed with the danger of abuse and surveillance”. Another remark on surveillance was made as well as the comment on the useability of satellite technologies only applying after a certain threshold in farm size and structure have been reached. Forgetting to work and observe with the own senses and the need for farmers who understand the soil were other comments. These remarks line up with the comments posted in the ‘Landwirt’ forum.

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 22: Disadvantages of satellite-supported agricultural technologies
The final question in the survey directly asked the participants whether they could imagine acquiring satellite-based applications for their farm (figure 0-24). In general the positive replies which combined categories of ‘agree’ and ‘strongly agree’, made up 49.1%, so almost half of the answers. On the other hand, none of the participants strongly opposed or disagreed to acquiring satellite-based applications.

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 0 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 23: Potential acquirement of satellite-based applications
Results Before jumping to conclusions and answering the research question, a brief summary of the content of the thesis is given, serving to recall the links between the different chapters of the thesis. This thesis tried to shed light on all aspects connected to the use of Sentinel satellite data for applications in agriculture. The thesis started by explaining the emergence of the commercial space economy as a concept, which since its early days as a mainly defense and security tool has evolved to a globally relevant sector endowed with large investments. Though the rules of the commercial world generally do not apply, the space economy is increasingly taking on a competitive character, whereby the exploitation of potential innovative applications is increasingly recognized. The European Union has recognized the potential economic and societal benefit of the space sector, and with the Treaty of Lisbon, established Article 189 TFEU. This called for the establishment of a European Space Programme and European Space Policy which would promote scientific and technical progress, industrial competitiveness and the implementation of its policies. With the objectives stated, next to a European Space Policy a tangible space infrastructure was needed to be build. What would take years to arrive to its present form and function, the Copernicus Programme was at last established in 2014. Since then, Sentinel satellite missions Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 were launched. Part of what makes the Copernicus Programme so essential for the EU and global space economy is that the data procured by the satellites are freely open and accessible to anyone who wishes to make use of it. As envisioned in the Copernicus Market Report, the barrier-free access is supposed to reinforce the use of Sentinel-satellite data in existing and new EO-supported VAS downstream value chains including agriculture, forestry, urban monitoring, insurance, ocean, monitoring oil & gas, renewable energies, and air quality. The EO-market in agricultural sectors has the highest penetration rate for Copernicus data, representing 13% of EO data exploited in the sector. Hereby the intermediaries play a key role in transforming the Sentinel satellite data into products or services that are practically useable for the intended end users. The presence of Copernicus in Austria is shown to have a rather recent history, considering a national space law was only adopted in 2011 and a space strategy one year later. Having said this, the effort to set up national Sentinel satellite data infrastructure under the auspices of bmvit, and with the involvement of ZAMG and other various stakeholders has resulted in the creation of a free, high-speed and openly available portal LISA and the central processing unit of data; EODC. The EODC is especially relevant for applications in agriculture, as it hosts Sentinel-2 data largely processed to fit customer requirements. In theory the potential applications of Sentinel satellite data when combined with other technological applications as part of precision farming structures, could largely automate the labour-intensive work on farms to unprecedented degrees of accuracy and precision, hence the term precision farming. The seasonal mapping and monitoring of cultivated areas, field scales, crop types and crop dynamics are tools enabled by Sentinel-2 to allow practical applications such as irrigation management, fertilizer management, or the prevention of damages through natural calamities like drought or pests. For the Sentinel satellite data to be in the form of market- and end user ready products, it undergoes various steps of processing, starting from the data procurement to the final end users. Though the end users are a heterogenous group of stakeholders, for the purpose of this master thesis farmers were established as the focal point. Having said this, the practical reality as the findings have shown, largely deviate from the theoretical ideals and possibilities that are proclaimed by the Copernicus Market Report.

Leading up to the research question, chapter 5 described and analysed the practical presence of agricultural Sentinel products and services in Austria, from both the intermediary and end user perspective. Regarding the intermediaries, only three of this kind exist in Austria; EO4Water, Hagelversicherung and AgroCommander. EO4Water has shown to be, from the intermediary perspective, a best-practice example. The demonstration campaign was a key aspect of visualising the processes and efforts associated with setting up a custom-made end user application. Unlike the Hagelversicherung, the EO4Water custom service was a result of intense end user involvement. The case study highlighted in detail the involvement of farmers. To this day, customer service is an important aspect from the intermediary perspective. Concerning the actual irrigation management application, it took years of development for EO4Water to establish a unique irrigation management service that was tailor-made for the agricultural population in Lower Austria, Burgenland and Styria. In addition, the intermediary managed to ‘revolutionize’ their processing chain from having to tediously process and configure satellite data themselves to creating a more-or-less on-demand, automated service. Dr. Vuolo has recognized that the change in the data processing system, and thus the development of value chain structure was largely owed to the availability of Sentinel satellite data and national Sentinel data infrastructures such as the EODC. While EO4Water is considered an intermediary, it is not the last link to the end user. Data is sold to agricultural service providers like RWA Lagerhaus. These service providers were not profiled in the thesis, making it difficult to tell how many customers avail themselves of this service and to what extent they experience an added-value. Unlike ZAMG and Hagelversicherung, EO4Water does not have a comparable visibility on the market and is only offered in three provinces, limiting its market presence. In comparison to EO4Water, Hagelversicherung offers a Sentinel-2 data service directly pulled from ESA with minimal processing requirements. Hagelversicherung is a household name for most farmers as a result of which its products enjoy a high visibility on the service market. Easily accessible to end users, the service is offered for free to already subscribed customers. The dual service characteristic also makes it challenging to tell how many farmers actually make use of the service. The survey answers support the idea that more visible and easily accessible platforms like ZAMG or Hagelversicherung are known and used more than exclusive, spatially bound services like EO4Water. Nevertheless, there are different opinions on the extent to which intended end users exploit and recognize the added value of offered services. Dr. Vuolo, who has worked with, and still enjoys professional contact to farmers, sees a tangible increase in the interest and acceptance of EO-based services in the agricultural population. Having said this, the EO4Water has only recently been launched as a fee-based service. Time will show whether sufficient income can be generated to make the service independent of public funding support. In any case, Vuolo identifies a need for more media-covered advertising and awareness raising on existing technologies. Contrary to Dr. Vuolo, Mr. Fank and Mr. Walter are of the opinion that on the whole the usability and benefit of the Sentinel data for use in their farms is not recognized by the farmers at this point. Mr. Fank has described the farmers’ attitude towards Sentinel services as indifferent. While it is freely available and at most a nice addition that is checked out once in a while, it is largely regarded as a superfluous service with little added value. Mr. Walter on the other hand has observed a veritable gap between the interests and needs of the farmers and the products the PA market offers. While the PA market increasingly offers high-tech products that are not viable given the Austrian farm scales and are technically difficult to integrate into farming structures, the farmers stick to their habitual practices based on inherent knowledge and life long experience. Both Fank and Walter do not see increased media coverage and awareness raising as a solution to increase the use of Sentinel services. While more education and trainings may help, both Fank and Walter agree that at the end of the day farmers have to recognize the added value of Sentinel services on their own.
To offer the insight into the perspectives of the end users, the forum discussion and surveys helped to answer the research question from the perspective of the end users. The provincial representatives of the Chamber of Agriculture could offer little to no information on the current use of Sentinel satellite data by farmers in their respective provinces. On the other hand, the forum thread on Landwirt revealed largely critical responses on the usability of Sentinel satellite data. The main points made in the comments included (i) the inadequate resolution of the Sentinel images and thus the limited accuracy and practical applicability of the parameters shown, (ii) the over proportional costs associated with acquiring (Sentinel) satellite-based precision farming technologies and (iii) concerns regarding data protection and security. All in all, farmers prefer on-site visits and to perceive the state of their crops through their own senses. When deriving to a conclusion, forum comments offer concrete insight into perceptions that are justified in their own right. For most farmers holding land less than 100 hectares, Sentinel satellite data as such will not reveal more about the status of their field than what is already known because the resolution of the data is not high enough to reveal specific nuances on the phenological developments within the field, thus limiting the informative value of the maps. While ZAMG and Hagelversichung offer their services for free, there are various other PA technologies that are tied to high financial investments that are not necessarily feasible for farmers. Finally, concerns about data security and sovereignty seem to indicate lacking information on these matters by the providers. According to Walter, what is needed are easy-to-use, cost-effective, on-demand and field size-independent applications that bring obvious benefits to the farmers. Having said this, he also sees psychological barriers and personally feels resistance to the embrace of technological applications that would require farmers to change their former practices and way of thinking. In addition, it has to be understood that the agricultural holdings and thus their management is, beyond the main income resource, linked to highly personal sentiments tied to the farmers identity as a whole. They base their actions on knowledge acquired as a result of life long experience and ‘intergenerationally-inherited’ information. As such, for some farmers, a serious involvement and integration of (Sentinel) satellite based (precision farming) technology applications may quite literally turn their world upside down. As a result, at this point there is an impeding wedge between the supply and demand side of (Sentinel) satellite based (precision farming) applications.
The results of the survey have shown that the participants tend to lean towards the approval of satellite-based technologies and applications. Most are familiar with the concept of satellite-supported applications in agriculture to varying degrees. Different examples of PA farming applications were familiar to a majority of the survey participants. Mobile apps, online platforms, and GPS are used most with 51.9%, 48.1% and 35.2% while sensors, analytical IT systems and drones are mostly not used at all (3 – 9% usage). This figure clearly shows that the easily accessible and cheap options associated with low costs are used more often. The survey also showed that there was a 52.8% agreement towards the use of satellite data for the monitoring of crops which is possible via online platforms and mobile apps. When it came to the question of knowing providers of satellite-supported agricultural technologies, 69.1% knew at least one provider. This shows that the participants can link concrete providers, such as ZAMG (services used by 82.7%) and Hagelversicherung (services used by 71.2%) to satellite data as the data source. EO4Water and AgroCommander are exclusive services that are barely used. This shows that the free, easily-available and convenient applications as offered by ZAMG or Hagelversicherung, are most commonly used. On the other side, concrete products linked to high investments (drones, robots, sensors,…) or services that are exclusive and based on fees (EO4Water, AgroCommander) are much less or barely used. When it came to identifying advantages and disadvantages of using satellite data on one’s farm, there were no answers that stood out from the others. Additional comments were written for what could be possible disadvantages, which might imply that these individuals felt scepticism stronger than the possible advantages. All in all, 49.1% stated that they could imagine acquiring satellite-based technologies. 27.5% disagreed and the remaining 23.5% remained neutral. The last question is directed towards the survey participants that do not yet use any satellite-supported applications. However, some of the participants that already use for example ZAMG or Hagelversicherung applications may also have answered this question which may explain the percentage of participants that ticked ‘neutral’ as their answer.
As indicated in the survey results, though the participants lean towards the approval of satellite-based technologies and applications, there is a difference between expressing a positive attitude towards satellite-based technologies and actually willing to acquire and integrate satellite-based technologies into one’s farming practices. When comparing the results of the survey and the discussion forum, there is a stark contrast in the opinions and attitudes expressed towards satellite-based technologies. This can partially be traced back to the different methodological means applied in asking participants for their opinions. While the survey included clearly-structured single- or multiple-choice questions with mostly fixed answers, the forum allowed the free expression of opinion. Most of the comments were written by farmers who have experience with satellite-based technologies which might also explain their sometimes strongly emotional responses. When survey participants were asked about the concepts and terms they associated satellite data in the use for applications with, most participants mentioned GPS (26 participants) and weather/meteorology (13 participants). While both can correctly be attributed to PA or smart farming technologies, they are not the functions of Sentinel-2 (producing crop monitoring maps). In fact, only three participants associated satellite data with ‘biomass growth maps’ or ‘crop monitoring’. Two participants correctly identified ‘yield mapping’ and only one person mentioned NDVI and Sentinel-2. The forum commenters showed a much more integral knowledge on the Sentinel-2 crop monitoring function. All in all, the survey was a good tool for testing the overall knowledge status of a random sample group, while the forum allowed for concrete, personal statements. Having said this, the profile of the ‘random sample group’ of 80 survey participants is a factor that influenced the results of the survey. In this case the majority were below the age of 39 and 71% of the participants were male. Having both a higher number of survey participants and involving more farmers in a forum discussion would increase the informative value of the results. Moreover, the survey could be repeated on an annual or bi-yearly basis to observe how the results would change over time. Personal interviews of randomly picked individuals would also be an option to find out concrete information on the knowledge status and opinions expressed.
The remaining question then is what factors could contribute to change the currently limited use of Sentinel agricultural applications?
Certainly, that the gap between the intermediary to end user can only be tackled from both the supply and demand side. On the one hand, the market needs to bring forth products and services that are feasible regardless of farm structure and size. Actively involving farmers in developing applications can be achieved by;
finding out extent to which solutions can potentially reduce inefficiencies in resource use and crop yield quality and productivity
finding out implementation barriers associated with economic, social or environmental factors
find out the extent of the willingness to integrate potential solutions and pay for these
define personalised solutions together and facilitate a gradual change in the mindset of farmers
allow free test trials
possibility to rent and lease costly PA products
reinforce customer service
advertised trainings and information sessions by the Chamber of Agriculture
develop products that will realistically be used by farmers
It goes without saying that public funding to support intermediaries’ in having the freedom to interact with end users would be required. However, if further efforts to involve intended end users in solution-finding render ineffective, the final conclusion drawn would be that there is no future demand for EOS (Sentinel) supported applications. Regardless, the trend of land holdings growing in size are likely future scenarios. This makes the ensuing of competitive PA technologies likely while improving the quality and variability of products and services. In addition, the effects of climate change will increasingly complicate and encumber the cultivation of crops. This may sooner or later render the interest and dependency on technological solutions as imminent. In closing, while the presence of Sentinel in the agricultural sector is recent, the extent to which Sentinel satellites will be reflected in agricultural applications and PA technologies in the future, remains to be seen.

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AppendixGlossary Agricultural holding – a single unit, in both technical and economic terms, operating under a single management, which undertakes agricultural activities within the economic territory of the European Union (EU), either as its primary or secondary activity. Other supplementary (non- agricultural) products and services may also be provided by the holding ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279757655”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eurostat”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-170”, “title” : “Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics. Agricultural production – crops”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f9f91ebd-aa8a-48c4-808c-c8e0eba2d0e8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Eurostat, 2017)
Agricultural income – the main indicator for agricultural income is ‘factor income per labour input’, where labour input is expressed in annual work units (AWUs) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279757655”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eurostat”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-170”, “title” : “Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics. Agricultural production – crops”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f9f91ebd-aa8a-48c4-808c-c8e0eba2d0e8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Eurostat, 2017)
Arable land – land worked (ploughed or tilled) regularly, generally under a system of crop rotation ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279757655”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eurostat”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-170”, “title” : “Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics. Agricultural production – crops”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f9f91ebd-aa8a-48c4-808c-c8e0eba2d0e8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Eurostat, 2017)
Cereals – include wheat (common wheat and spelt and durum wheat), rye, maslin, barley, oats, mixed grain other than maslin, grain maize and corn cob mix, sorghum, triticale, rice and other cereal crops such as buckwheat, millet and canary seed ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279757655”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eurostat”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-170”, “title” : “Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics. Agricultural production – crops”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f9f91ebd-aa8a-48c4-808c-c8e0eba2d0e8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Eurostat, 2017)
Contributing mission data – spaceborne Earth observation data from contributing missions licensed or provided for use in Copernicus (COM(2014) 344 final, Art.3)
Contributing missions – space-based Earth observation missions providing data to Copernicus complementing data provided by the dedicated missions (COM(2014) 344 final, Art.3)
Copernicus data – dedicated mission data, contributing mission data and in situ data (COM(2014) 344 final, Art.3)
Copernicus users :
(a) Copernicus core users: Union institutions and bodies, European, national, regional or local authorities entrusted with the definition, implementation, enforcement or monitoring of a public service or policy in the areas referred to in point (a) of Article 2(2);
(b) research users: universities or any other research and education organisations;
(c) commercial and private users;
(d) charities, non-governmental organisations and international organisations
(COM(2014) 344 final, Art.3)
Copernicus information – information from the Copernicus services referred to in Article 5(1) following processing or modelling of Copernicus data (COM(2014) 344 final, Art.3)
Crop output – comprises sales, changes in stock levels, and crop products used as animal feedstuffs, or for processing and own final use by the producers ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279757655”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eurostat”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-170”, “title” : “Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics. Agricultural production – crops”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f9f91ebd-aa8a-48c4-808c-c8e0eba2d0e8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Eurostat, 2017)
Data reseller – a seller of data coming from another satellite operator ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EARSC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1-16”, “title” : “A Survey into the State and Health of the European EO”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b6c43552-db71-4853-9d1b-231a406acbd2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EARSC, 2017)
Dedicated mission data – spaceborne Earth observation data from dedicated missions for use in Copernicus (COM(2014) 344 final, Art.3)
Dedicated missions – space-based Earth observation missions for use and operated in Copernicus, in particular the Sentinel missions Brussels, (COM(2014) 344 final, Art.3)
Earth Observation (EO) – the gathering of information about planet Earth’s physical, chemical and biological systems. It involves monitoring and assessing the status of, and changes in, the natural and man-made environment ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.earthobservations.org/g_faq.html”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “17” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “GEO – Group on Earth Observations”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “FAQ”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a81fe480-1b93-388b-aaa4-e274b7b40e63” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(GEO – Group on Earth Observations, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(GEO – Group on Earth Observations, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(GEO – Group on Earth Observations, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(GEO – Group on Earth Observations, no date)
Earth-orbiting satellites – are divided into three categories in accordance with their missions.

Transferring information : Communication technology, Communication satellites, Broadcasting satellites
Defining positions : Navigation technology, Global positioning satellites
Measuring objects : Remote sensing technology, Earth observation satellites
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End User – a customer in the public or private sectors which is procuring any geo-information products ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EARSC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1-16”, “title” : “A Survey into the State and Health of the European EO”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b6c43552-db71-4853-9d1b-231a406acbd2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EARSC, 2017)
Farm manager – or manager of the agricultural holding is the natural person responsible for the normal daily financial and production routines of running the holding concerned. There can be only one manager on the holding ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789279757655”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eurostat”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-170”, “title” : “Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics. Agricultural production – crops”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f9f91ebd-aa8a-48c4-808c-c8e0eba2d0e8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Eurostat, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Eurostat, 2017)
Geo-information product – any or all products covered by the terms: satellite data, value added or geospatial products ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EARSC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1-16”, “title” : “A Survey into the State and Health of the European EO”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b6c43552-db71-4853-9d1b-231a406acbd2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EARSC, 2017)
Ground station operator – owner/operator of a ground station acquiring data from 3rd part owned satellite system ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EARSC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1-16”, “title” : “A Survey into the State and Health of the European EO”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b6c43552-db71-4853-9d1b-231a406acbd2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EARSC, 2017)
In situ data – observation data from ground-, sea- or air-borne sensors as well as reference and ancillary data licensed or provided for use in Copernicus (COM(2014) 344 final, Art.3)
Leaf Area Index (LAI) – is defined as the projected area of leaves over a unit of land (m2 m?2), so one unit of LAI is equivalent to 10,000 m2 of leaf area per hectare ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/B978-012370605-8.50007-4”, “ISBN” : “9780123706058”, “abstract” : “This chapter identifies the major components of a hydrologic model that can be linked to carbon and nutrient cycling models. The hydrologic cycle is an important feature of all ecosystems, and particularly forests, which generally grow in climates where precipitation provides more water than the vegetation can use or soils can store. Vegetation is a major factor in the hydrologic cycle. Before precipitation reaches the soil, water is intercepted and evaporated from the surface of vegetation and the litter layer. The rate at which water infiltrates into the soil, runs off the surface, or percolates through to the water table is affected by the density and depth of root channels and organic residue incorporated into the soil. Five meteorological variables drive the hydrologic model: solar radiation, temperature, vapor pressure deficits, precipitation, and wind speed. The soil and snow pack are major sources of temporary water storage. The leafy canopy and surface litter present the main surfaces from which water is transpired or evaporated. The vertical height, seasonal variation in leaf area index (LAI), and rooting depth are important properties of vegetation that affect water movement through ecosystems. By incorporating additional properties of the soil, hydrologic models have wide application. Such models provide insights into the implications of various policies that alter forest composition and structure.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Waring”, “given” : “Richard H.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Running”, “given” : “Steven W.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Waring”, “given” : “Richard H.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Running”, “given” : “Steven W.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Forest Ecosystems”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “page” : “19-57”, “publisher” : “Elsevier”, “title” : “Water Cycle”, “type” : “chapter” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1bb94156-7cc5-3be8-b4a5-56eafffdb552” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Waring <i>et al.</i>, 2007)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Waring et al., 2007)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Waring <i>et al.</i>, 2007)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Waring et al., 2007)
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) – quantifies vegetation by measuring the difference between near-infrared (which vegetation strongly reflects) and red light (which vegetation absorbs) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://gisgeography.com/ndvi-normalized-difference-vegetation-index/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “6”, “17” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “GIS Geography”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “What is NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index)?”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2614e0f3-dbfb-3d88-8f7e-bb0fb6ccabf8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(GIS Geography, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(GIS Geography, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(GIS Geography, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(GIS Geography, no date)
Precision Agriculture – is a whole-farm management approach using information technology, satellite positioning (GNSS) data, remote sensing and proximal data gathering. These technologies have the goal of optimising returns on inputs whilst potentially reducing environmental impacts. The state-of-the-art of PA on arable land, permanent crops and within dairy farming are reviewed, mainly in the European context, together with some economic aspects of the adoption of PA ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EP”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “title” : “Precision Agriculture: An Opportunity for EU Farmers – Potential Support with the CAP 2014 – 2020”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=92e8d024-6dd3-3e75-b89b-0cfe3fc1c79d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EP, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EP, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EP, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EP, 2014)
Radiometric resolution – determines how finely a system can represent or distinguish differences of intensity, the ability of an imaging system to record different levels of brightness or tone. The higher the radiometric resolution, the better subtle differences of intensity or reflectivity can be represented (SWD(2014) 185 final)
Remote Sensing – use of spatial sensor technologies (usually on satellites) to detect and classify objects on earth (SWD(2014) 185 final)
Satellite Operator – owner/operator of a satellite system selling data acquired from the system ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EARSC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1-16”, “title” : “A Survey into the State and Health of the European EO”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b6c43552-db71-4853-9d1b-231a406acbd2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EARSC, 2017)
Satellite system – in contrast to a single satellite, the satellite system can comprise several satellites and the ground segment on earth, were the satellites are operated from and the received data is processed (SWD(2014) 185 final)
Space manufacturing – the processing in space of material, derived from the Earth or procured in space, for use in space or on Earth. Although space methods have immense potential in theory, there are severe economic barriers to the profitable bulk manufacture of goods in space ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.dictionaryofengineering.com/definition/space-manufacturing.html”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “5”, “12” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dictionary of Engineering”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “title” : “Space Manufacturing”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=13eeab35-9682-34b6-a09f-e7f0b3aa0d0f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Dictionary of Engineering, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Dictionary of Engineering, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Dictionary of Engineering, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Dictionary of Engineering, 2015)
Spatial resolution – the size of the smallest geometric structure or detail that can be detected and differentiated in any spatial direction on the data generated by the sensor. For optical images, it is defined by the area represented by each pixel (i.e.: ground area represented by a pixel). Typically expressed in terms of Ground Sample Distance, or GSD. In the case of radar images, the GSD is usually half the resolution (SWD(2014) 185 final)
Spectral coverage – spectral range that can be collected by the sensor, for example UV
(ultra-violet), VIS (visible light), NIR (near infrared), SWIR (short-wavelength infrared), TIR (thermal infrared) or microwaves (SWD(2014) 185 final)
Spectral resolution – determined by the specific wavelength intervals described by the minimum and maximum thresholds between which a sensor is sensitive (refer to a specific wavelength range of the electromagnetic spectrum that sensor can record). Wide ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum correspond to a so called gross/raw spectral resolution and narrow bands of fine spectral resolution. When spectral range is narrower the power of discrimination is bigger, but the number of identifiable objects decreases (SWD(2014) 185 final)
Spectral resolution – is defined as a measure of ability to resolve features in the electromagnetic spectrum (SWD(2014) 185 final)
Temporal resolution – minimum time between the sensing and the re-sensing of the same target area by the satellite system (SWD(2014) 185 final)
Third party data and information – data and information created outside the scope of Copernicus and necessary for the implementation of its objectives (COM(2014) 344 final, Art.3)
Value-adding – this covers the activity of processing satellite data probably combined with other data to generate EO products or application products sometimes referred to also as thematic products ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “EARSC”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1-16”, “title” : “A Survey into the State and Health of the European EO”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b6c43552-db71-4853-9d1b-231a406acbd2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(EARSC, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(EARSC, 2017)
Interview TranscriptsTranscript of Interview with Hagelversicherung Representative Dipl. Ing. Johann Fank, 30th May 2018
There’s a few things I would like to know, however let me start by asking about the motive behind integrating Sentinel-satellite data into the company’s service offer…
The real trigger behind this initiative was when our president got an invitation to a public event by the EU to Prague in June 2014 where the Copernicus programme was presented. I took part in it and there I found out for the first time that the EU would provide these Sentinel data to all end users for free. For us the idea of satellite data has always been interesting but it has never been brought to fruition because of the costs associated with satellite imagery and in fact because we weren’t sure whether this data would even bring benefits. Now, for the first time there is a project where the Union offers these data to all citizens and beyond for free. Since then, we have been occupied with the question of whether we could compress and process this data to an extent that it would be beneficial to our customers. This was the trigger.
According to your website you directly obtain the satellite data from ESA. However considering the size of the data and the specificities required for the end users, it is hard for me to imagine that there are no intermediary steps between obtaining and offering the data.
Well, there are 300km x 300 km tiles that are accessible. The images are recorded in bands in close to 300 km width and are then tiled. One can download a single tile, the data size of which is not that big. We only download the tiles we need and not that of the whole globe. This is a fraction (Central and East Europe) of the world, which is why the data size of the raw data is not that big. So we really directly download the raw data. We only use the data from Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-2B.
EODC -; one of the biggest computers in Europe which stores basically all data of all sentinels
The main focus of the thesis is the creation of a downstream value chain in the agricultural sector based on the Sentinel data. It appears though that the potential of the possibilities is by far not yet reached. It would also be interesting to know the number of clients (farmers) that use your service…
We have about 30 000 users that avail themselves of the weather-service we provide. They can simultaneously use the satellite data service as well. It’s simply a second button where they can, next to the weather prognosis and analysis, look at the satellite data, a year in retrospect for their farming business but also the whole of Austria. This is why we can’t really say how many of the clients avail themselves of the sentinel data.
But do you think all your clients also use the satellite data service?
No, not all.. For small-scale farmers this service is not interesting insofar as the satellite data shows the changes on the land over time, and this is something small-scale farmers already have a sense of anyway. Decisive for the use is when the satellite data shows changes in the chlorophyll, something which the human eye cannot perceive. This is what the infrared channel or the feedback of the plant on the infrared channel is capable of, showing the changes in the chlorophyll before a human being can. I would as a farmer need the technology that would prevent damages due to a drought on my field. The information is here, but the market has to develop a product or service that would allow one to make this information useable. More information on the satellite technology only brings limited benefits to the farmers. This is why we are still at the beginning, because the complete industry has to come up with ideas to make the technology useable to intended end users.
The detection of vegetation change is in theory very valuable information regardless of the size of the fields, especially when it comes to prevent damage due to drought…
Exactly, for the farmers growing in size and the ones that have a large number of leased land this is an interesting tool, as they do not know the new fields as well as the ones they have previously owned for generations. This is also the case for Eastern-European agro-companies that have large-scale areas. For these structures, the information is valuable because an intensified or reduced fertilisation or an intensified or reduced plant protection can optimize the yield of the crops while the effort is minimized. For this however, machines are needed that receive and process signals and give the fertilizer spreaders the ‘instruction’ for the application of fertilizer on the field. These investments are associated with great costs however and therefore only those acquire these technologies that cultivate big enough areas because otherwise it would not pay off.
The question is whether in the coming generations the cultivated areas will increase in size?
Yes, indeed the farms are growing while the small-scale ones are disappearing, while others still are further leasing their land, while in all this the labour force is not increasing. In this case, the use for farmers is evident as they have to cultivate a large area in a short amount of time and we think that the cultivation would probably work better and more environmentally friendly, because the effort where fertilizer input, plant protection and working steps is optimized, using current and verified data to observe the past and current state, so the development of the plant over time. I don’t think the yield can be doubled in doing so however, maybe a single-digit percentage increase in the optimisation possibility.
What you have just described is part of the precision farming concept, is that right?
Yes. However, this is something that people have to realize. For now, satellite data is a ‘nice idea’ that are looked at once, not to be used again. At this point, it does not deliver them more money and the driver is success.
Do you think trainings and education could change something?
Informing and providing trial offers, yes but I think the use has to be so evident and clear that no training or education should be required.
For you the risk management is the main use in all this, does that include the monetary estimation of the damages incurred?
We don’t know that yet, we are hoping for that. For drought caused damages, this is definitely possible because the difference within a field can be recognized very well. for other damages this is not yet clarified because especially moisture damage or hail the problem is that there is always cloud cover present preventing the capture of images. In this we are a bit limited when it comes to the utility of the data and this aspect shouldn’t be overrated. We are currently conducting research in this area. We do think that we can be even more objective in the assessment of damages. But the possibility of a remote assessment in the coming years is still questionable. The images cannot detect a small damage in for example the side of a single pod of a rapeseed or the impact on the skin of a 2 cm apple in an apple plantation. A pixel has 10x10m, I need 3 pixel to generate information which gives 30x10m and I compare that to a product consisting of a few mm. Thus, the satellites give a good oversight but the detail cannot be seen with a 10×10 resolution.
What other countries do you provide this service?
Hungary, Slovakia, Czechia, Romania and Slovenia.
Do SMEs, the agroindustry or public entities also make use of your data?
No it is only farmers.
Does the government support the possibilities due to Copernicus enough?
Yes, I would say the support is big enough in terms of providing the data for free. What is lacking, are the ideas on the profitable use for all, farmers and beyond. This was the problem in the last 30 years in the domain of the satellite data. In reality not a single marketable product has been brought forward, except the GPS navigation that everyone has in their cars or mobile phone. These remote sensing images have been in research facilities for decades but nobody has created a marketable product with a yearly prospect of profits, despite a EUR 100 million research funds flowing into this area. Now we have it on a more or less open-source basis and now ideas of the private sector are required, which are possible because of the free access. Having said that, once there is a group of end users products will emerge from that group. But yes I think the support through the state is enough, this is my personal opinion.
Transcript of Interview with EO4Water Representative, Dr. Francesco Vuolo on the 10th April 2018
I would like to start by asking you what the idea or story behind the project that you started a few years back…
Essentially the ideas are quite old. So there is not much new in the concept itself. We are talking about the late 60s/70s when the first satellites were sent in orbit and scientists realized there was a huge potential in looking at the land from space to monitor crop development and agriculture was one of the main types for boosting the development of remote sensing, on top of military applications. So it took some time to get where we are now mainly because the technical instruments and essentially the data did not exist so that there was no data of quality, enough to do what we can do today. While at the same time models were existing, so the approach, the algorithms that we use today to deliver the information so irrigation and water advice were already in place back in the 60s/70s. In the meantime, in the last 40 years what happens is that on the one hand we had more data mobility especially from satellites, and on the other hand there were some key scientists who understood that models, such as plant physiology could be run with data coming not from the traditional fields or ways of field data but from satellite data. There was this link between the earth observation community and the community of biologists who were working at plant level. So when these two things came together, it was clear that these models could be applied on a much bigger scale so from the plant and parcel level to regional, national and continental scale. All these happened in the last 30/40 years at different levels. There were two main paths of developments, one in the US the other in different countries across Europe. These developments were supported by national but mainly European funds. Some of the projects like the DEMETER and PLEIADES are all precursors of what we are doing today. There is a clear line or sequence of events in DEMETER where essentially the two technologies came together for the first time. These were the first data from Landsat, the US satellite. The focus and effort were mainly on validating the data we get from satellites, and SEOS can be assimilated into models. To validate the results of the combination of the two technologies. With time passing there was, from the European community mainly, but also from our side a wish to connect more and more with users. The research itself was not sufficient anymore and there was a need to deliver products and useful information to end users in order to make benefit on what research was supporting. With the follow-up projects such as PLEIADES there was more emphasis on user interfaces and on getting feedback from users backing these products to working products and maybe develop a market for these. This was done over 20/30 years of work. The methodological framework essentially stayed the same, with some minor improvements. The processing chain evolved a lot. To go from tailor-made products, where someone had to sit at the computer, download the data, processing, quality check and deliver the information to the final users, to something today that is completely automated. We only do the quality check but no person needs to be hired to sit and do all the work. This is the evolution we had over the last years.
You just mentioned the processing chain had to be developed into a fully automated process. How did this come about? What were the changes undertaken?
It is of advantage to have more data but the drawbacks are the need to store, process and enable easy and fast access to the data. Having this data on a conventional computer and desktop is no longer possible. Changing from using Landsat to Sentinel was accompanied by a paradigm shift because the data volume has increased considerably and would become so huge and “explode” so that the download of data would no longer be possible with Sentinel. The data therefore needs to be in a data storage centre that has access to high-performance data. There are several centres in Europe that host Sentinel data, in Austria it is the EODC (Earth Observation Data Centre). We have no ownership in it, but are clients that pay for the use of the resources that they offer. We are primary contributors or partners to this centre. We have a subscription fee and pay for the resources we use but we also contribute with our know-how and discussion in the community that is behind EODC processing. This is the model we have now. The centre hosts data and computers that can be accessed remotely to undertake the processing. This is how we work now. The scene is evolving in the sense that the paradigm shift between getting the data here and bringing your models to the data was realized so that people understood that it is a problem to get the data to the end user. In Europe with the Copernicus programme decided to invest more into the data centres so that more contracts in building up these data centres were granted to other business consortia in Europe. These type of businesses are being developed now in the next year or two there should be more businesses around. We work with the EODC because we know the people and it is easy to discuss with them, it is a nice exchange but this does not mean that this is the only possibility for Sentinel under Copernicus data processing.
You mentioned two things; a lot of financial means flow into these Data Processing Centres, do these include European/national funds?
We, until now have received funding for our research projects. To deliver results, infrastructure is required (in our case data and computer infrastructure). In this project period budget is always allocated for data processing. 10 years ago one would buy a computer and server to process data and lose investment if it remain unused when there are no clients. Today one buys processing power (CPU (hours)). The business has changed as the business itself pays for the resources it uses. You don’t invest much into computers, liabilities unable to use it to the full capacity, loosing the investment with little/no clients. Large scale infrastructures exist where we pay per hour or pay-as-you-go. You can block your maximum requirements and pay for what you have actually used. It becomes very flexible and scalable and reduces that risk from a business perspective into investing into computer resources. What work do you perform after obtaining the data from the EODC for the client? (Main business activity)
As to the commercial processing chains, I have clients and to deliver products to these clients I need to buy services. The EODC is one of my providers and I am a client of the EODC and I pay for processing fees. I get the results and I deliver the results to my clients. In this chain my clients are not farmers but are intermediaries, representing intermediate elements, interfaces between us and the farmers. There are a couple of cases. For instance RWA Lagerhaus are providers of hardware and utilities to farmers. Those are our interface intermediaries with farmers. This is the business model we have. We are a very small team and we don’t do all the customer management. We have one client, and they resell it to their clients who are the farmers. We power their portfolio products with an additional product. My information is useful for farmers but I don’t send it directly to them because it would be too costly and not my business. Of course it depends a lot on the farm scale. If we are talking about a large industrial agro-businesses with 1000 ha ownership, there is an interest to approach them directly removing the interface element. In that case we would directly approach these as being an interface would be more costly. But in our scenario, in the Austrian agriculture, the land is very fragmented. So there is no farm owning 1000 ha but a thousand farmers owning 1 ha. In other places, Australia, South Africa where the farm style / structures are different it might make sense to use different business models and approach the farmers directly. A lot depends on the farm structure. But you do have small scale farmers as the ultimate end user of the chain. How can the data that is processed by the EODC made practically available? If I was a farmer what would I get as a product (GPS, app, computer program) ?
It depends a lot on the product. If you take EO4Water in particular, in fact data is not needed to be send to an intermediary, instead the data are on a server, and those are delivered directly to the final users via web-interface, like smart phones on an app. They log in, get to their accounts, see a list of their parcels and on these they get a daily update on the amount of water the parcel needs for crops to grow efficiently. We deliver the data directly to the end users. There is the water management aspect, along with the yield ; crop monitoring management, as well as weather prognosis… what other parameters or information can farmers get and how can the data you provide them with be combined or made useful in combination with the other equipment they already have?
The physiological models we described before with the water use of plants, they need to know the condition of the plants, soil and weather data. Data needs to be obtained to be “plugged-in” into the models with some coming from satellites, other from soil types, or weather data to combine all these to figure out how much water should be provided to crops. We do all the combination of data into the model to deliver the information. The satellite data comes from Sentinel or Landsat. The data can come from soil maps, if they are available from farmers, from measurements that deliver with soil types. If there are very detailed soil maps and soil type data available, we use those. We assimilate these measurements. If soil maps are not good or farmer knows nothing about the soil, we assume on best possible efforts and averages conditions. It is the same for weather data. If you have weather stations in the field, we are able to connect the weather station into the processing chain and we use this data, or if not available, from weather models. This again depends on where you are. In Austria too you have different data providers. There is a flexibility of connecting different data sources, depending on the situation. What stays mostly the same is the data from satellites covering the globes and there is no great effort there.
Is the assimilation of soil and weather data currently your role?
This is the role we had during several development projects like PLEIADES, SIRIUS, EO4Water. Big effort was put into understanding how to get the data and assimilate these into models. That is no longer the case, as we have self-running and automated process chains, but quality checks still need to be done and you can improve the way of the quality check. Once the system is established in one place, you can run it in self-run mode but of course if you transfer it somewhere else you need to look for the correct data and assimilate the new, place-specific data to make sure everything is working fine together. So our role is also making sure we have the basic elements to run the system in a new place.
So if I rightly understood, the farmers directly request what they need?
What the farmers need stays within our team, our private own know-how, the data centre only provide the processing capacities but they don’t see our algorithms.
The data centre is like a desktop computer without much interaction between our business and the people there. We understand the customer requirements and analyse the data situation, then we study solutions for responding to the requirements and we implement these solutions using the same tools 99% of the time but re-adapting them to run in a different context. The main issue is data availability from the ground, scales and the various practical problems (associated with data procurement).
You also mentioned the SentiCor algorithms which has to be run over the data.. do you also apply an algorithm…? Is that one of your tasks?
Yes the raw data needs to be transformed, for it to be transformed a number of processing steps algorithms need to be applied. So what we do is to apply these algorithms to get data of high quality or processed data. This data further combined with other data in models to deliver the final research. And all these processing chains is what we do in the case with EODC. We take care of the technical part of the value chain.
Coming back to the EO4Water project, I would like to know a little bit about how you approached the farmers (incentives) and what was their attitude…
To develop any product, one needs to talk to the clients to really understand the market. One main point for us was to work with the farmers, sit down with them and see what they need and how they want the information to be delivered. So what we did essentially was to look for them, not necessarily door-by-door but almost… We looked for points of contacts and authorised numbers of farmers. The first approach was a meeting with the farmers, organizing train workshops with the farmers coming because they were interested in coming to the workshop, by the end of which they asked for email contacts to tell them more about what we were doing after which they might respond or not. If they responded we met them one by one. We didn’t have many, maybe 50 in the beginning but this was over the course of a few years we worked on this from 2012 onwards (ongoing). Some of the contacts are lost because a few of them weren’t interested anymore, because they were busy or didn’t provide good feedback. Others are still very interested, they are writing us and we go and visit them and try to find out their problems and solutions. This is a very good way to guide your research in a useful direction or that might be useful for your segment. We get the ideas from them on which direction to do research that has a potential impact on society. Workshops, e-mail, contacts, visiting them sometimes we organize ‘Stammtisch’ where we talk and go step by step, but we didn’t provide any economic incentives. In our case it was not necessary and the farmers were just really interested in what we were doing. What we provided were data and a lot of time, to discuss results and listen to their problems. If you look at the farming community today, the farmers are between 45 and 60 years old. We are dealing with very new technologies like smart phones and internet but we didn’t see a big variety in terms of skills. A lot of them were able to use smartphones and internet so this wasn’t really an issue. In terms of interests the younger generation that perhaps are familiar with remote sensing technologies are of course more motivated and attentive to learn about what we do. The farmer generation is changing with many BOKU graduates that know the technology. This is also an important factor for our business because an informed user community makes it much easier for our business. A few years ago, satellites were perceived as spies observing daily activities and the parameters that can be obtained were not regarded, now these technologies will not be enemies but become friends. They will not be sceptical but embrace the technology with its opportunities. When it comes to the overall proportion of sceptical vs interested farmers, it was 50/50. In fact, it was very difficult to spot a trend because the responses we got were very different.
You have a fully running business now?
The viable business only started in summer 2017. There is an overall increase in these technologies. The customers stem from mostly Lower Austria, Burgenland, Styria. These are dry regions with relatively large proportion of farmers. They are most likely to buy our services. We do offer these services in Germany but at the moment we lack intermediate/interface actors to provide services so it’s on a free basis. France, we offer it too, and we are going to South Africa to demonstrate the technologies. Our main market is in Austria however. If there is a community of users the services will become much more popular. You need to build up a critical mass. I would give the services for free but that doesn’t mean there are no costs of course. But there are models that can be applied to make the data freely available for end users. Publicity for example with advertising to cover the costs. For this to work however, you need many customers. For the time being we have the costs of processing, quality check, delivery of information.
Have you been able to observe tangible differences in terms of quality between Landsat-8 and Sentinel?
Quality improved because of better satellites, higher revisit time, better spectral bands, and so on. You can do things that two years ago weren’t possible. We still use Landsat when there are too many clouds and we want to increase the chance of getting cloud-free images, but in general we rely on Sentinel. Cloud-free images is a critical point. How big is your team currently?
Everything is automated now, so no man power is needed. Knowing that Sentinel is coming we knew that spending money on man power would be expensive. We spent 4-5 years to improve the processing chains and to automate it. This is the biggest innovation we had, thanks to Copernicus and to the cloud processing facilities. In fact, if everything is running smoothly, no people are needed, only in case of a problem, a quality check via backends. Where we still need to invest however, is when we change to other areas. In that case we ask for implementation funds, like in Germany or France (start-up funds) for implementation. Most of the work is IT-level with programming and software developments.
Right now, the nitrogen-fertilizer business is running but the yield forecasting service is not available at this point.

In general, what challenges remain in the intermediary-end user interaction?
There is a lot to do in raising awareness on the potential of these technologies. Hopefully the general media will do more advertising and awareness raising so that the general public becomes more aware. From a technological point of view we are very satisfied but the main point is that technology has to be used.
From the end user perspective, farmers are irrigating and they have no means to say how much they need and they often go to the maximum to avoid they remain without water, so they are very stressed and its not about money. Maybe we wouldn’t save much water or energy but the life and quality of work would be improved. We don’t know if we save considerable amount of water but it is a great relief for the farmers.
Do you know any other intermediary-end user businesses?
Yes in Spain and Italy. I created a start-up in Italy. In the context of this project colleagues have created businesses in France and Spain. Nevertheless this is a niche market, and the market potential is huge.
Are you still dependent on public funding?
EO4 water was supported by FFG and at the moment still underlies public support… one day I hope I will be without. But counselling advice is also subsidized. Europe should continue with programmes to train and educate the final users / user community.

Curriculum vitae Klara Antonia Wuketich, BSc Birthdate: 25.08.1994
Gußriegelstraße 17/5/2
1100 Vienna
Educational Background
2016- 2018European Studies – Managements of EU Projects, Master of Arts in Business, University of Applied Sciences Burgenland
2012 – 2016Environmental Resource Management, Bachelor of Science, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Vienna
2010 – 2012International Baccalaureate Diploma received at the British International School Bratislava, Slovakia
Professional Experience
2016 – Technician at the Vienna BioCenter Core Facilities GmbH, Vienna
2015 – 2017Administrative assistant for general practitioner Dr. Wuketich-Dudas

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