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The forerunners of the movement have thought that language teachings have been beyond teaching grammar rules and translation of written materials

The forerunners of the movement have thought that language teachings have been beyond
teaching grammar rules and translation of written materials. To them, speech patterns, rather than
grammar, were the fundamental elements of language and their teaching methodology was shaped
according to this view. In this regard, Wilhelm Viëtor noted that “Reform must begin with the
provision of accurate descriptions of speech based on the science of phonetics and there must be a
properly trained language teaching profession” (as cited in Howatt, 1984, p.172), and added
“training in phonetics would enable teachers to pronounce the language accurately” (Richards and
Rodgers, 1992, p. 8). Abercrombie also said “the language teacher … will inevitably be a
phonetician” (as cited in Howatt, 1984, p. 179). Klinghardt taught several language courses by
initially introducing English pronunciation (Howatt, 1984). The ideals of the reformists inspired the
basic rules of the Direct Methodists and provided new classroom teaching methods. The effects of
these methods might be discussed even today and therefore, it is clearly beyond this study to cite
and analyse all the methods. This section will mention about “the audio-lingual method” and
“communicative language teaching” which are avowedly two important methods giving priorities to
speech and pronunciation skills, instead (see Melo, 1989; Hi?mao?lu, 2006; Çelik, 2008).

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