Summer Internship Project
A comparative study on Employee Branding
Nirma Ltd Company
Under the guidance of
In partial Fulfilment of the Requirement of the award of the degree of
Master of Business Administration (MBA)
Gujarat Technological University
Enrolment Number: 177250592119
I hereby declare that the Summer Internship Project Report titled “A comparative study on Employee branding ( in Nirma Limited company )is a result of my own work and my indebtedness together work public, company, references, if any, have been duly acknowledged. If I am found guilty of copying from any other report or published information and showing as my original work, or extending plagiarism limit, I understand that I shall be liable and punishable by the university, which may include ‘Fail’ in examination or any other punishment that university may decide.
Enrolment no. Name Signature
177250592119 Rohit .k. Rao
Competition is seen in the economy. Now the present scenario of the business world is quite different from the past . Ethics, conflicts, new ideologies and energy scarcities are just the few of characteristics that present quite different from the past. In order to scope up in the ever changing environment, the knowledge of all aspect of business world is a need today. M.B.A. Programs and management institution provide a global manager to this modern business world. But only knowledge is not for the Business but successful implementation of the knowledge the key to success. Industrial Knowledge is like a coin, which has two sides. One is theoretical and another is practical knowledge. Both are very important for report. But in fact practical knowledge is more important than theoretical. Hence in order to get familiar with the practical knowledge each student is required to implement the theoretical aspects of the subject into the practical life work. It was a purposeful and enriching experience for us. Apart from theoretical aspect, we gained a lot of new things about practical knowledge. We have made this project to implement the theoretical aspects of the subject in to a practical work.
A work is never a work of an individual. We owe a sense of gratitude to the intelligence and co-operation of those people who had been so easy to let us understand what we needed from time to time for completion of this exclusive project. A success is sustained by the hands of more than one person directly or indirectly. “Let us first express thanks to our university GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD and our college KALOL INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT for providing an opportunity to study competitive scenario of employee branding , by the way of preparing project report, in such an esteemed organization. We also express special thanks to our project mentor MR. TEJAS MODI andMS. RINKU SINGH who have gave the necessary information about project report and also gave valuable tips and we would like to give special thanks to MR. JITNDRA MODI ( H R of NIRMA LTD COMPANY , MESHANA ).It is impossible to acknowledge all those who deserve it. There is no one ever known from whom we have not learned something. Thus, we would like to thank to all the RESPONDENTS for supporting us and giving us supportive answer for our project. At last but not least we would like to thank everybody who has directly or indirectly helped us in this project to make it successful.
TABLE OF CONTENT
NO. Particular Page no.
1. Industry Profile 1
2. Company profile
2.4. vision and mission
2.6 DISTRUBTION CHANNEL
2.7 DIRECTORS OF NIRMA LTD
3. LITERATURE REVIEW
4. PROBLEM STATEMENT
5. INTRODUCTION OF THE TOPIC
6. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
7. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
7.1 Research Design
7.2 Research approach
7.3 Data Type
7.4 Method of data collection
7.5 contact method
7.6 Sample design
9. DATA ANALYSIS
13. BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES ; WEBSITES.
14. ANNEXURE / QUESTIONNAIRE
1. Industry Profile
The Indian FMCG sector is the fourth largest in the economy and has a
Market size of US$13.1 billion. Well-established distribution networks, as well
As intense competition between the organized and unorganized segments are
The characteristics of this sector. FMCG in India has a strong and competitive
MNC presence across the entire value chain. It has been predicted that the
FMCG market will reach to US$ 33.4 billion in 2015 from US $ billion 11.6 in 2003.16 the middle class and the rural segments of the Indian population are
The most promising market for FMCG, and give brand makers the opportunity
To convert them to branded products. Most of the product categories like jams,
Toothpaste, skin care, shampoos, etc., in India, have low per capita
Consumption as well as low penetration level, but the potential for growth is huge.20
The Indian Economy is surging ahead by leaps and bounds, keeping pace
With rapid urbanization, increased literacy levels, and rising per capita income.
The big firms are growing bigger and small-time companies are catching up
According to the study conducted by AC Nielsen, 62 of the top 100 brands are
Owned by MNCs, and the balance by Indian companies. Fifteen companies
Own these 62 brands, and 27 of these are owned by Hindustan Unalive.
Pepsi is at number three followed by Thums Up. Britannia takes the fifth
Place, followed by Colgate (6), Nirma (7), Coca-Cola (8) and Parle (9). These
Are figures the soft drink and cigarette companies have always shied away?
From revealing. Personal care, cigarettes, and soft drinks are the three biggest
Categories in FMCG. Between them, they account for 35 of the top 100
The companies mentioned here are the leaders in their respective sectors.
The personal care category has the largest number of brands, i.e.
Inclusive of Lux, Lifebuoy, Fair and Lovely, Vicks, and Ponds. There are 11
HUL brands in the 21, aggregating Rs. 3,799 crore or 54% of the personal care category.
Cigarettes account for 17% of the top 100 FMCG sales, and just below the
Personal care category. ITC alone accounts for 60% volume market share
And 70% by value of all filter cigarettes in India.
The foods category in FMCG is gaining popularity with a swing of launches by
HUL, ITC, Godrej, and others. This category has 18 major brands,
Aggregating Rs. 4,637 crore. Nestle and Amul slug it out in the powders
Segment. The food category has also seen innovations like softies in ice
Creams, chapattis by HUL, ready to eat rice by HUL and pizzas by both
GCMMF and Godrej Pillsbury. This category seems to have faster
Development than the stagnating personal care category. Amul, India’s largest
Foods Company, has a good presence in the food category with its ice-creams,
Curd, milk, butter, cheese, and so on. Britannia also ranks in the top 100
FMCG brands, dominates the biscuits category and has launched a series of
Products at various prices.
In the household care category (like mosquito repellents), Godrej and Reckitt
Are two players. Goodnight from Godrej, is worth above Rs 217 crore,
Followed by Reckitt’s Mortein at Rs 149 crore. In the shampoo category, HUL’s
Clinic and Sun silk make it to the top 100, although P&G’s Head and
Shoulders and Pantene are also trying hard to be positioned on top. Clinic is
Nearly double the size of Sun silk.
The product categories can be classified into three segments; premium (Lux,
Dove), popular (Nirma, Control), and economy (Nirma Bath, Lifebuoy). The
Price differential between the premium and economy segments is about 2X.
The popular and economy segments account for about 4/5ths of the entire
Market for soaps.
Penetration of toilet soaps is high at 88.6%. However per capita consumption
Levels remain low India’s per capita consumption of soap at 460 gms per annum is lower than that of Brazil at 1,100 gms per annum.
Soaps are available in 5 m retail outlets in India, 3.75 m of which are in the
Rural areas. Therefore availability of these products is not a problem. 75% of
India’s population is in the rural areas; hence about 50% of the soaps are sold
In the rural markets.
Rural demand growth is expected to occur mainly with consumers moving up
Towards premium products. But in the past, the proportion of premium soaps
To economy soaps has not changed much, in volume terms. This is because
As some consumers move up the value chain with increase in disposable
Incomes, some consumers move down looking for cheaper substitutes as
Prices move up. This has been the case especially, as growth in soap prices has generally outpaced overall consumer inflation.
The Indian fabric wash market consists of synthetic detergents (comprising
Bars, powder and liquids) and oil-based laundry soaps.
Although the per capita consumption of detergents in India (2.7 kg pa) is
Comparable to some countries like Indonesia, China and Thailand (around 2
Kg pa), it is lower than in others such as Malaysia, Philippines (3.7 kg) and the
USA (10 kg). The Indian detergent market is expected to grow at 7-9% pa in
Volume terms. The synthetic detergent market can be classified into premium
(Surf, Ariel), mid-price (Rin, Wheel) and popular segments (Nirma), which
Account for 15%, 40% and 45% of the total market, respectively. The product
Category is fairly mature and is dominated by two players, HUL and Nirma.
Nirma created a revolution in the market by pioneering the concept of low-cost
High consumer awareness and penetration levels will enable the market to
Grow at an average 8-10% per annum with slightly higher growth in the rural
Areas. Higher penetration stems from popularity of low-cost detergents.
Hence, besides increase in per capita consumption, there is tremendous
Scope for movement up the value chain.
HUL, Nirma and P;G are the major players in the market with 40%, 30% and
12% share, respectively. While HUL dominates the premium segment, Nirma
Is the leader in the popular segment?
2. Company profile
Nirma is one of the few names – which is instantly recognized as a true Indian brand, which took on mighty multinationals and rewrote the marketing rules to win the heart of princess, i.e. the consumer.
Nirma, the proverbial ‘Rags to Riches’ saga of Dr. Karsanbhai Patel, is a classic example of the success of Indian entrepreneurship in the face of stiff competition. Starting as a one-man operation in 1969, today, it has about 18,000+ employee-base and annual turnover is more than 7,000 Cores INR.
India is a one of the largest consumer economy, with burgeoning middle class pie. In such a widespread, diverse marketplace, Nirma aptly concentrated all its efforts towards creating and building a strong consumer preference towards its ‘value-for-money’ products.
It was way back in ’60s and ’70s, where the domestic detergent market had only premium segment, with very few players and was dominated by MNCs. It was 1969, when Karsanbhai Patel started door-to-door selling of his detergent powder, priced at an astonishing Rs. 3 per kg, when the available cheapest brand in the market was
Rs. 13 per kg. It was really an innovative, quality product – with indigenous process, packaging and low-profiled marketing, which changed the habit of Indian housewives’ for washing their clothes. In a short span, Nirma created an entirely new market segment in domestic marketplace, which is, eventually the largest consumer pocket
and quickly emerged as dominating market player – a position it has never since relinquished. Rewriting the marketing rules, Nirma became a one of the widely discussed success stories between the four-walls of the B-school classrooms across the world.
The performance of Nirma during the decade of 1980s has been labelled as ‘Marketing Miracle’ of an era. During this period, the brand surged well ahead its nearest rival – Surf, which was well-established detergent product by Hindustan Lever. It was a severing battering for MNC as it recorded a sharp drop in its market share. Nirma literally captured the market share by offering value-based marketing mix of four P’s, i.e. a perfect match of product, price, place and promotion.
Now, the year 2004 sees Nirma’s annual sales touch 800,000 tones, making it one of the largest volume sales with a single brand name in the world. Looking at the FMCG synergies, Nirma stepped into toilet soaps relatively late in 1990 but this did not deter it to achieve a volume of 100,000 per annum. This makes Nirma the largest detergent and the second largest toilet soap brand in India with market share of 38% and 20% respectively.
It has been persistent effort of Nirma to make consumer products available to masses at an affordable price. Hence, it takes utmost care to provide finest products at the most affordable prices. To leverage this effort, Nirma has gone for massive backward integration along with expansion and modernization of the manufacturing facilities.
The focal objective behind modernisation plan is of up gradation with resource-savvy technology to optimise capabilities. Nirma’s eleven production facilities, located at different places, are well equipped with state-of-art technologies. To ensure regular supply of major raw materials, Nirma had opted for backward integration strategies. These strategic moves allowed Nirma to manage effective and efficient supply-chain.
Nirma has always been practiced ‘value-for-money’ plank. Nirma plans to extend the same philosophy in categories as commodity food products, personal care products and packaged food. Distinct market vision and robust infrastructure allowed Nirma to have cost leadership. Apart from this, lean distribution network, umbrella branding and low profile media promotions allowed it to offer quality products, at affordable prices.
Dr. Karsanbhai K. Patel, a marketing legend and philanthropist, is playing role of key strategic decision-maker, whereas his next generation has already skilled management capabilities. Shri Rakesh K Patel – a qualified management graduate, is spearheading the procurement, production and logistic functions, whereas Shri Hiren K Patel – a qualified Chemical engineer and management graduate, heads the marketing and finance functions of the organisation with hands-on approach. Shri Kalpesh Patel, Executive Director, leads recent diversified sector of Health-care, apart from LAB.
In recent times, through acquiring manufacturing capabilities in Healthcare, Soda Ash, and Boron production facilities, Nirma has surged new corporate success milestones. In near future, the group is also exploring diversification in Cement sector through a Greenfield project.
The man behind the success of Nirma phenomenon – Dr. Karsanbhai Patel is a recipient of various awards and accolades. He has been bestowed with various awards like…
This world has also recognised his ability, acumen and wisdom and in recognition of the services rendered by him in his various capacities. Dr. Karsanbhai Patel has also served as a Chairman for two terms to the Government of India’s Development Council for soaps and detergents, as a Member of Bureau of Indian Standards Committee for Soaps and Detergent Industries and President of Gujarat Detergent Manufacturers Association.
History of company
In 1969, Dr. Karsanbhai Patel, a chemist at the Gujarat Government’s Department of Mining and Geology manufactured phosphate free Synthetic Detergent Powder, and started selling it locally. The new yellow powder was priced at Rs. 3.50 per kg, at a time when HUL’s Surf was priced at Rs 15. Soon, there was a huge demand for Nirma in Ruppur (Gujarat), Patel’s hometown. He started packing the formulation in a 10x10ft room in his house. Patel named the powder as Nirma, after his daughter Nirupama. Patel was able to sell about 15-20 packets a day on his way to the office on bicycle, some 15 km away. By 1985, Nirma washing powder had become one of the most popular, household detergents in many parts of the country.
By 1999, Nirma was a major consumer brand – offering a range of detergents, soaps and personal care products. Nirma’s success in the highly competitive soap and detergent market was attributed to its brand promotion efforts, which was complemented by its distribution reach and market penetration. Nirma’s network consisted of about 400 distributors and over 2 million retail outlets across the country. This huge network enabled Nirma to make its products available to the smallest village.
In November, 2007, Nirma purchased the American raw materials company Searles Valley Minerals Inc. – making it among Top-7 Soda Ash manufacturer in the world. The Logo of Girl which is mostly printed on the bags of detergent is drawn by Mr Khanvilkar who lives in Pune
-The company has recommended Dividend @ 80%
-Nirma have recommended Dividend of Rs 4.50 per share on
Equity shares of Rs 5/- each
Some six years ago, an ACNielsen Retail Audit had ranked Nirma India’s seventh largest consumer brand. Remarkably, this status was achieved entirely on the strength of home-grown research and marketing strategies. Its story of success – from a small, backyard company to one of the largest detergent manufacturers in the world – merited a Harvard Business Review case study. The Nirma success story is the result of its founder, Dr. Karsanbhai Patel’s relentless focus on quality, cost and value. The distribution model, sustained line extensions, innovative packaging, backward integration and umbrella branding strategies have all enhanced the brand’s leadership .To achieve control on cost, size and scale of operations and supply of key raw materials, Nirma pursued a backward integration strategy and established its own soda ash, linear alkyl benzene (LAB), fatty acid, glycerine and huge salt works facilities. It’s a matter of record that Nirma became one of the largest soda ash manufacturers in India and the 7th largest globally. The brand has also given back freely to society. It has established the Nirma University – offering varied academic and doctoral courses in the disciplines of technology, management, diploma studies and pharmaceutical science – besides setting up schools and colleges in rural areas.
? Udyog Ratna by Federation of Association of Small-Scale Industries of Gujarat, New Delhi.
? Outstanding Industrialist of Eighties by Gujarat Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Ahmedabad (in 1990).
? Gujarat Businessman Award in 1998 by Gujarat Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Ahmedabad.
? Excellence in Corporate Governance Award by Rotary International District 2000.
A;M Hall of Fame.
Shri Karsanbhai has been awarded an Honorary Doctorate by Florida Atlantic University, Florida, USA in the year 2001 in recognition of his exceptional accomplishments as a philanthropist and businessman. His contributions are also acknowledged by Govt. of India, and he has been endowed with Padms hri in 2010.
Vision and mission
Nirma is a customer-focused company committed to consistently offer better quality products and services that maximise value to the customer.
This customer-centric philosophy has been well emphasised at Nirma through:
? Continuously exploring ; developing new products ; processes.
? Laying emphasis on cost effectiveness.
? Maintaining effective Quality Management System.
? Complying with safety, environment and social obligations.
? Imparting training to all involved on a continuous basis.
? Teamwork and active participation all around.
? Demonstrating belongingness and exemplary behaviour towards organisation, its goals and objectives.
Nirma is a phenomenon and synonymous with Value for Money. The brand transcends the specific dynamic of any particular product category, which is best captured in its above mission statement – a statement of sustained innovation, an unceasing effort to deliver better value to consumers, through better product quality.
• Edible Salt
• Scouring Products
• LAB ( Linear Alkyl Benzene )
• AOS ( Alfa Olefin Sulfonate )
• Sulfuric Acid
• Soda Ash
• Pure salt
• Vacuum Evaporated Iodized Salt
• SSP ( Single Super Phosphate )
• Sodium Silicate
Bath soap Detergent cake
Nirma Limited markets its products through its fully owned subsidiary Nirma Consumer Care Limited (NCCL), which was incepted in 1985. NCCL in turn resells these products in the market under the umbrella brands “NIRMA” and “NIMA” along with extensions.
The distribution strength of Nirma is based on mutually rewarding and satisfying relationship.
Nirma pioneered the concept of flat distribution network. Nirma Consumer Care Limited operates with two parallel distribution networks. The NIRMA brand is marketed through the first network, which consists of about 450 exclusive distributors. It is one of the lowest cost FMCG distribution channels of the country.
Principal Channel Nirma Products:
• Lowest Cost system in India
• Speed in distribution
The NIMA range of products is marketed through a parallel marketing network that comprises of more than 2000 distributors.
Parallel Channel Nirma Products:
• Wider Reach
• Speedy Market Intelligence
• Competitive edge ; Better focus
• Complementing Principal Channel
All NIRMA and NIMA range of products have a retail reach of over two million retail outlets and more than 40 million loyal consumers spread all over the country. The Company has been successful in establishing an extremely good urban as well as rural presence through the two distribution channels. The distribution channels have played a significant role in making Nirma a household name. The efficient network has made Nirma Washing Powder and Nirma Detergent Cake, the brands with highest penetration in the respective product categories in the market. The network is well equipped to meet the demands of the loyal consumers of the Company across the country.
The robust network ensures the availability of various products at different retail outlets across the nation. The Distribution channel is geared up to enhance trade relations, build up the retailer base by providing various benefits and incentives, organize and implement different activities to generate sales and manage numerous other programmes, schemes and activities concentrated towards business development.
3. ITC Limited
6. Procter and Gamble
7. Dabur India
Directors of NIRMA LIMITED
Director Identification Number Name Designation Date of Appointment
06592025 SHAILESHBHAI VALJIBHAI SONARA Whole-time Director 10 June 2013
00131852 PANKAJ RAMANBHAI PATEL Director 28 October 2006
00145086 KAUSHIKBHAI NANDUBHAI PATEL Director 06 June 2002
00145149 HIREN KARSANBHAI PATEL Managing Director 01 May 2006
00558310 CHINUBHAI RAMANLAL SHAH Director 06 June 2002
00376570 VIJAYKUMAR RATILAL SHAH Director 05 March 2015
00386161 RAJENDRA DAHYABHAI SHAH Director 22 December 1994
00404099 KARSANBHAI KHODIDAS PATEL Director 25 February 1980
00760023 RAKESH KARSANBHAI PATEL Director 04 February 1997
07116166 PURVI ANANTANAND POKHARIYAL Director 05 March 2015
3. LITERATURE REVIEW
Employer branding and its influence on employee retention: A literature review
This research paper examines the influence of employer branding on employee retention within a firm. The concept of employer branding is relatively new, and much of the research has been carried out within the and
Delivered much of the research has been carried out within the last 20 years. Ambler and Barrow (1996, p. 187) were some of the earliest academics to define the topic, and they defined it as: “The package of functional, economic and psychological benefits provided by employment, and identified with the employing company”. Employer branding is an interesting topic as it has integrated two significant organizational fields, branding and human resources, and together they provide a rounded view on how to attract and retain suitable employees (Backhaus & Tikoo, 2004). An employer brand should represent an organization as a potential employer, and the organization should aim to position itself as an employer that provides a superior employment experience against competitors, to enable competitive advantage (Love & Singh, 2011). It has been identified that a strong employer brand should include rewards, salary, benefits, career progression, and scope for added value (Jain & Bhatt, 2015; Lievens & High house, 2003). The concept of employer branding and its ability to retain the right individuals is extremely crucial to companies in regard to organizational success (Backhaus & Tikoo, 2004). Interest into the topic is ongoing, and research suggests that the success of a business can depend on its capability to attract and retain employees, thus identifying the growing importance of employer branding (Burmann & Zeplin, 2005; Gilliver, 2009; Moroko & Uncles, 2008; Sengupta, Bamel, & Singh, 2015).
What is employer branding?
Ambler and Barrow (1996) were some of the first academics to acknowledge the concept of employer branding, acknowledging its ability to attract potential employees and retain current talent. They defined the topic initially as a package of benefits which is provided by an employer during employment (Ambler & Barrow, 1996, p.187). Further research into the concept by Backhaus and Tikoo (2004) stated that employer branding is the process in which an identifiable and unique identity as an employer is built. More recently, Sivertzen, Nilsen and Olafsen (2013) proposed that employer branding is the development of an organization’s image and reputation as a prospective employer, and would affect its ability to retain employees. Employer branding has progressively become a vital factor for success within organizations and has captured significant attention in recent years, being used to appeal to potential employees whilst also engaging current employees within an organization (Gilliver, 2009). Davies (2008) identified the positive influence of employer branding on: employee’s perceived loyalty, retention, satisfaction, affinity with the employer, and differentiation from other competitor brands. Organizations which actively use employer branding are thought to benefit from increased interest from potential employees and higher levels of loyalty and commitment from current employees (Chhabra & Sharma, 2014). The employer brand should initially be communicated through core values and it should represent an organisation’s culture, to enable employers to benefit (Backhaus ; Tikoo, 2004; Collins ; Han, 2004; Fulmer, Gerhart, ; Scott, 2003).
Core values of an organization have to be stable and established in an organization before employer branding is implemented, as these values are what makes up the employer brand (CIPD, 2015; Urde, 2003). Lievens (2007) states that the core values of an organization should be applied using brand personality traits, as this method has shown to be significantly more successful in regard to employer brand attractiveness. Using brand personality traits to form the core values for an employer brand helps potential or current employees assess their suitability to a certain workplace, as employees can see if their own desired self-concepts are consistent with an employer’s brand personality (Backhaus & Tikoo, 2004; Bhatnagar & Srivastava, 2008; ViktoriaRampl & Kenning, 2014). Moreover, additional research into core values identifies that values are vital to an organization and should be ingrained into the organisation’s culture (Burmann ; Zeplin, 2009; Giyani ; Jamshed, 2016; Ind, 1997). Core values should also be internally rooted within an organization, and they should be the hub around which an organisation’s business strategy and culture revolves (Arachchige & Robertson, 2013; Louro & Cunha, 2001; Mark & Toelken, 2009).
Employer branding and retention Armstrong (2007) established that the aim of an employer brand is to become an employer of choice. The importance for organizations to be able to attract, recruit and retain talent has been identified due to the growing shortages within labour markets (Chhabra & Sharma, 2014; Lievans & High house, 2003). Companies should understand employer branding, as it is the instrument that allows firms to show how they differentiate themselves from competitors (Ito, Broth ridge, & McFarland, 2013). Likewise, employer branding helps to improve organizational performance within the context of HR in areas such as recruitment, retention, and engagement, by allowing them to differentiate themselves from competitors (Chhabra & Sharma, 2014; Russell & Brannan, 2016). Fernon (2008) additionally argued that, if done correctly, employer branding has the ability to retain the best people by providing an environment that allows employees to live the brand through various aspects such as training and progression. This increases their satisfaction and likelihood of remaining employed with the organization (Cable & Graham, 2000; Jain & Bhatt, 2015). The positive outcomes that employer branding has on an organization are shown in Gad dam’s (2008, p. 47) ‘Employer Brand Model’ (Figure 1), which identifies that commitment, retention, performance, satisfaction, attraction, and loyalty can all be linked back to the employer brand. Allen, Bryant and Vardaman (2010) support the model by recognizing that employer branding increases employee morale and satisfaction, which in turn improves retention. Moreover, employer branding heightens employee morale, and it has been suggested that employees who enjoy working for an organization subconsciously become brand ambassadors (Holbeche ; Matthews, 2012). Employees then praise and recommend the company to family and friends, but also remain loyal to the organization for a longer period (CIPD, 2015). Employers do this by recognizing the areas in which they provide a unique employment experience, looking at the tangible and intangible benefits they offer (Mosley, 2007).
From this initial review of literature surrounding employer branding, it would be accurate to state that employer branding has a clear impact on the retention of employees (Allen et al., 2010; Ambler ; Barrow, 1996; Armstrong, 2007; Backhaus ; Tikoo, 2004; Barrow ; Mosley, 2005; Cascio, 2014; Chhabra ; Sharma, 2014; Davies, 2008; Fernon, 2008; Gilani, 2011; Gilani ; Jamshed, 2016; Love ; Singh, 2011; Moroko ; Uncles, 2008; Mosley, 2007; Munsamy ; Venter, 2009; Punjaisri et al., 2008; Russell ; Brannan, 2016; Sengupta et al., 2015). Despite much research supporting the relationship between employer branding and retention, there have been no clear attempts undertaking identification of a relationship within a retail set-up. This is in addition to research having slowed within the past five years, and as organisations are having to constantly adapt their employer branding approaches to remain competitive, this could suggest a gap in research. Moreover, the majority of the most recent literature that has been considered throughout this review has been carried out in countries other than the UK (Arachchige ; Robertson, 2013; Edlinger, 2015; Huczynski ; Buchanan, 2013; Sharma ; Kamalanabhan, 2012; Sengupta et al., 2015; ViktoriaRampl ; Kenning, 2014). Therefore, we have identified that there are gaps in this research topic, and recommend further research to attempt to fill
4. Problem statement
As the global economy picks up, there is growing concern among CEOs about finding and keeping the best talent to achieve their growth ambitions. Different surveys show that in 2014, 36% of global employers reported talent shortages, the highest percentage since 2007, and in a more recent 2015 survey, 73% of CEOs reported being concerned about the availability of key skills. So how can companies compete effectively in this new war for talent? First and foremost, it’s time for leaders to focus on strengthening their organizations’ employer brands.
The approach to building a strong employer brand has changed over the last few years—as has its impact on hiring and who’s responsible for overseeing it. The term “employer brand” was first defined in the mid-1990s: it denoted an organization’s reputation as an employer, as opposed to its more general corporate brand reputation. And building a strong employer brand first became a major focus of activity between 2004 and 2008, when in response to the growing competition for talent, leading companies like Unilever, Shell and P;G began to apply the same focus and consistency to their employer branding as they applied to their corporate and consumer branding. This led to the development of an Employee Value Proposition, which defined the key benefits offered by the company as an employer, and the production of employer brand guidelines, which aimed to bring greater consistency to the company’s recruitment advertising. Employer branding was predominantly outward facing and advertising driven, and fell under Resourcing and HR.
Times have changed. The rise of social media has made companies a great deal more transparent. People are far more likely to trust a company based on what its employees have to say than on its recruitment advertising. This means that talent attraction relies far more heavily on employee engagement and advocacy.
To understand how this shift is playing out in organizations, we recently surveyed more than 2000 senior executives about their employer branding activities. Our sample included CEOs and heads of HR and recruiting, employer branding, and marketing, in 18 countries. The data was collected from October to December in 2014, and the results are presented in Universe’s “2020 Outlook, the Future of Employer Branding.”
One of our main findings was that many leaders now place primary responsibility for the employer brand with the CEO or marketing, rather than with recruiters and HR. In fact, 60% of the CEOs we surveyed said this responsibility lies with the CEO (40% of marketing leaders agreed) — which is a strong indication that employer branding is expected to gain greater strategic importance.
Today’s business environment is changing in a high pace and so is the climate on the labor market (c.f. (Buck and Dworschak, 2003; Dew-Becker and Gordon, 2008; Gad dam, 2008)). In 2001 McKinsey & Co stated in their report “War for Talent” that company are facing a difficulty in attracting and retaining great talents and that this will continue for at least two more decades. The brand is considered one of the most important and valuable assets of a company (Backhaus and Tikoo, 2004). To most people a brand is directly connected to the company name, the products, services and the specific logotype. However, branding can also be used as a part of Human Resource Management (HRM) in order to attract new employees and to retain already employed members of the firm (Kunerth and Mosley, 2011). When applying branding to HRM, the concept is entitled “Employer Branding” (EB) (Backhaus and Tikoo, 2004) and the connection between the two concepts, HRM and EB, has been established. In 2001 the Conference Board made a report addressing the concept of EB where they compared the corporate- and employer branding methods. Some key findings from the report are that EB is strongly connected to HRM in transactional aspects, that EB is on a rise and companies were concentrating branding efforts towards employees, instead of solely towards the corporate brand as before. The pharmaceutical sector in Egypt is one of the oldest strategic sectors in the country, founded in 1939 with the establishment of the Misr Company for Pharmaceutical Industries. The Egyptian pharmaceuticals and cosmetics sector is considered the largest in the region with regards to growth capacity and expansion during the coming five years compared to similar sectors in neighboring countries the industry has enjoyed a period of considerable development in recent years. There is a strong domestic production sector and, while the majority is destined for the domestic market and imports play an important role, Egypt has emerged as a leading exporter of pharmaceuticals to Arab, Asian and Eastern European markets. Public production, represented by the state-owned holding company HOLDIPHARMA, accounts for around one-tenth of sales by value and nearly two-tenths by volume. Pharmaceutical prices in Egypt are based on a cost-plus formula, allowing for a profit margin of 15% on essential drugs, 25% on non-essential drugs and 40% or more on over-the-counter products. The formula, managed by the Ministry of Health and Population, guarantees positive returns for all companies operating in Egypt. Nonetheless, the new pricing system will link medicine prices in Egypt to those in 36 other countries, including Canada, European states and countries in the Persian Gulf. Providing the political situation stabilizes and the economy continues to perform well, the Egyptian pharmaceutical market at retail prices is expected to rise by a double-digit CAGR in US dollar terms between 2011 and 2016.Experts agree that, the Egyptian pharmaceutical industry is very positive: Rapid population growth and expansion in healthcare coverage and expenditures are key growth drivers, as are an increasing awareness of health issues and the modernization of the healthcare industry. Egypt’s
What is employer branding?
Ambler and Barrow (1996) were some of the first academics to acknowledge
The concept of employer branding, acknowledging its ability to attract
Potential employees and retain current talent. They defined the topic
Initially as a package of benefits which is provided by an employer during
Employment (Ambler ; Barrow, 1996, p.187). Further research into the
Concept by Backhaus and Tikoo (2004) stated that employer branding is the
Process in which an identifiable and unique identity as an employer is built.
More recently, Sivertzen, Nilsen and Olafsen (2013) proposed that employer
Branding is the development of an organization’s image and reputation as a
Prospective employer, and would affect its ability to retain employees.
Employer branding has progressively become a vital factor for success
Within organizations and has captured significant attention in recent years,
Being used to appeal to potential employees whilst also engaging current
Employees within an organization (Gulliver, 2009). Davies (2008) identified
The positive influence of employer branding on: employee’s perceived loyalty,
Retention, satisfaction, affinity with the employer, and differentiation from
Other competitor brands. Organizations which actively use employer branding
Are thought to benefit from increased interest from potential employees and
Higher levels of loyalty and commitment from current employees (Chhabra
; Sharma, 2014). The employer brand should initially be communicated
Through core values and it should represent an organization’s culture, to
Enable employers to benefit (Backhaus & Tikoo, 2004; Collins & Han, 2004;
Fulmer, Gerhart, & Scott, 2003)
Gilani & Cunningham Employer branding and employee retention 241
Core values of an organization have to be stable and established in an
Organization before employer branding is implemented, as these values are
What makes up the employer brand (CIPD, 2015; Urde, 2003)? Lievens (2007)
States that the core values of an organization should be applied using brand
Personality traits, as this method has shown to be significantly more successful
In regard to employer brand attractiveness. Using brand personality traits
To form the core values for an employer brand helps potential or current
Employees assess their suitability to a certain workplace, as employees can
See if their own desired self-concepts are consistent with an employer’s brand
Personality (Backhaus ; Tikoo, 2004; Bhavnagar ; Srivastava, 2008; ViktoriaRampl
; Kenning, 2014). Moreover, additional research into core values
Identifies that values are vital to an organization and should be ingrained
Into the organizations culture (Burmann ; Zeplin, 2009; Gilani ; Jamshed,
2016; In, 1997). Core values should also be internally rooted within an
Organization, and they should be the hub around which an organization’s
Business strategy and culture revolves (Arachchige & Robertson, 2013; Louro
& Cunha, 2001; Mark & Toelken, 2009).?
Employer branding and retention
Armstrong (2007) established that the aim of an employer brand is to
Become an employer of choice. The importance for organizations to be able
To attract, recruit and retain talent has been identified due to the growing
Shortages within labor markets (Chhabra & Sharma, 2014; Lievans &
High house, 2003). Companies should understand employer branding, as it
Is the instrument that allows firms to show how they differentiate themselves?
From competitors (Ito, Broth ridge, & McFarland, 2013). Likewise, employer
Branding helps to improve organizational performance within the context
Of HR in areas such as recruitment, retention, and engagement, by allowing
Them to differentiate themselves from competitors (Chhabra & Sharma,
2014; Russell & Brannan, 2016). Fernon (2008) additionally argued that, if
Done correctly, employer branding has the ability to retain the best people
By providing an environment that allows employees to live the brand
Through various aspects such as training and progression. This increases their
Satisfaction and likelihood of remaining employed with the organisations
(Cable & Graham, 2000; Jain & Bhatt, 2015).
The positive outcomes that employer branding has on an organisations
Are shown in Gad dam’s (2008, p. 47) ‘Employer Brand Model’ (Figure 1),
Which identifies that commitment, retention, performance, satisfaction,
Attraction, and loyalty can all be linked back to the employer brand. Allen,
Bryant and Vardaman (2010) support the model by recognizing that employer
Branding increases employee morale and satisfaction, which in turn improves
Retention. Moreover, employer branding heightens employee morale, and it
Has been suggested that employees who enjoy working for an organisations
Subconsciously become brand ambassadors (Holbeche ; Matthews, 2012).
Employees then praise and recommend the company to family and friends,
But also remain loyal to the organisations for a longer period (CIPD, 2015).
Employers do this by recognizing the areas in which they provide a unique
Employment experience, looking at the tangible and intangible benefits they
offer (Mosley, 2007).
Organisations are now having to benchmark themselves against rival
Competing employers via means such as surveys, including ISR (International
Survey Research) and Best Employer Survey (Barrow ; Mosley, 2005). This is
To enable retention levels to increase and create a competitive advantage,
To counter the rise in the extensive list of potential employers available
To employees (Love ; Singh, 2011). Morgan (2008) and Backhaus and
Tikoo (2004) support the use of surveys as a way of employers branding
Themselves, and state that surveys should be completed regularly as it
Differentiates the best employers and gives these companies an advantage
When looking for potential talent. Despite this, Mosley (2007) suggested
That although benchmarking is a vital part of developing a strong employer
Brand to ensure a superior employment experience, organisations should
Not become absorbed by benchmarking themselves against competitors. It
Is more important to communicate the values internally and ensure that the
Brand is being managed to meet the needs and desires of employees, and
That the values are being interconnected in the organisations on a daily basis
(CIPD, 2015; Foster, Punjaisri, ; Cheng, 2010; Mosley, 2007
Benefits of Employer Branding
According to Taylor (2010) there are three main benefits of employer branding and those are related to recruitment, retention and performance. The benefit to recruitment is naturally to be able to attract the talents company is seeking. A strong employer brand would help to advertise the job opportunities and convey consisted messages that would reach the best talents. Similarly to consumer marketing campaigns, which aim to reach only certain, proper, consumers, employer branding helps the company to reach the most appropriate talents for them. Recruitment process may be really expensive and possessing a strong employer brand may reduce the costs. A company with strong employer brand has to advertise less and the advertisements do not have to be as tempting that they would have to be if the company name would not attract the candidates itself. The retention of employees is also one of the most important benefits that employer branding may bring. Naturally, if a company has a strong employer brand and it is seen as attractive and desirable employer, it makes it less appealing to look for another place to work at from an existing employee point of view. Another benefit that may be gained from a strong employer brand is enhanced performance. This relates to reduced absenteeism and improved work performance.
The Value of Employer Branding
As with other branding and HR activities it is difficult to measure the actual outcome and ROI; however the business case for applying employer branding is anchored in the attraction, natural selection, and retention of employees. As discussed above, employer branding has become a vital tool in the war for talent to ensure that organizations attract talented employees and retain key employees. Externally, the employer brand functions to at tract employees and to create positive associations and enhance corporate image. Further, it also functions as a “selection tool” to ensure that the right kinds of employees are attracted and that potential employee who does not match the organizations is not attracted. ?
6. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE.
1. A comparative study on employee branding preference towards books and software
2. To analyze the affecting of age on Advocates for purchase of law Books/software.
3. Employee behavior according to gender of using branding value.
4. Demonstrate the change and development in customer perception towards employee branding software and books.
7 Research Methodology
INTRODUCTION OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A research design is a framework or blueprint for conducting the research project. It gives details, of the procedures necessary for obtaining the information needed to structure or solve research problems. Although a broad approach to the problem has already been developed, the research design specifies the details-the nuts and bolts of implementing that approach. A research design lays the foundation for conducting the project. A good research design will ensure that the business research project is conducted effectively. Typically a research design involves the following components, or tasks. Research methodology helps organization to reduce a risk of uncertainty. It helps to focus decision making in a number of situation. Business researcher will know exactly what their organization problem is and design studies to test specific hypotheses. For example a hospital announces a new health check package might want to know package price are equal or really attractive for the public or not. Because of the variety of research activity, it will be helpful to categorize the type of business research. Experiments, survey and observational studied are just a few common research method.
1. Define the information needed.
2. Design the exploratory, descriptive, and/or causal phases of the research.
3. Specify the measurement and scaling procedures.
4. Construct and pre-test a questionnaire (interviewing form) or an appropriate form for data collection.
5. Specify the sampling process and sample size.
6. Develop a plan of data analysis.
Type of Research Methodology
1. Exploratory studies
2. Descriptive research
3. Causal Research
? exploratory studies
Exploratory studies are conducted to clarify ambiguous problems. Management may have discovered general problems, but research is needed to gain better understanding of the
dimensions of the problems. Management needs information to help analyse a situation, but conclusive evidence to determine a particular course of action is not the purpose of exploratory research. Usually, exploratory research is conducted with the expectation that subsequent research will be required to provide conclusive evidence. It is a serious mistake to rush into detailed surveys before less expensive and more readily available sources of information have been exhausted.
? Causal Research
The main goal of causal research is identification of cause and effect relationships between variables. (Exploratory and descriptive research normally precede cause-and effect relationship studies). In causal studies it is typical to have an expectation of the relationship to the explained, such as predicting the influence of price, packaging, advertising, and the like, on sales. Thus researchers must be knowledgeable about the research subject
I did my research on basis of descriptive research methodology. I would like to give a small introduction of other two research methodology as are below.
The major purpose of descriptive research, as the term implies, is to describe characteristics of a population of phenomenon. Descriptive research seeks to determine the answers to who, what, when, where, and how questions. Official statistics on unemployment and other characteristics of the labour force are derived from the current population survey, which is conducted monthly.
Let us consider an example of descriptive research. A university placement service may want to determine if its facilities and services are adequate. A descriptive study might be initiated to determine how many interviews each student desires, whether students are able to schedule appointments with certain desirable organizations, and if there are any problems with physical facilities. It is clear that mere description of a situation may provide important information and that in many situations descriptive information is all that is needed to solve business problems, even though the answer to why is not given.
Accuracy is of paramount importance in descriptive research. Although errors cannot be completely eliminated, good researchers strive for descriptive precision. Suppose the purpose is to describe the market potential of personal photocopying machines. If the study does not present a precise measurement of the sales volume, it will mislead the managers who are making production scheduling, budgeting, and other decisions based on that study.
Unlike exploratory research, descriptive studies are based on some previous understanding of the nature of the research problem. For example, state societies of certified public accountants (CPAs) in America, conduct annual practice management surveys that ask questions such as “Do you charge clients for travel time at regular rates?” “Do you have a program of continuing education on a regular basis for professional employees?” “Do you pay incentive bonuses to professional staff?” Although the researcher may have a general understanding of the situation, the conclusive evidence, answering questions of fact necessary to determine a course of action, has yet to be collected. Frequently, descriptive research will attempt to determine the extent of differences in the needs, perceptions, attitudes, and characteristics of subgroups.
The purpose of many organizational behaviour studies, for example, is to describe the reasons employees give for their explanations of the nature of things. In other words, a diagnostic analysis is performed when employees in the various subgroups are asked questions such as “Why do you feel that way?” Although the reasons employees feel a certain way are described, the findings of a descriptive study such as this, sometimes called diagnostics, do not provide evidence of a causal nature.
METHODS OF COLLECTING PRIMARY DATA
Data collection methods are an integral part of research design as shown in the shaded portion in the figure. There are several data collection methods, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Problems researched with the use of appropriate methods greatly enhance the value of the research.
Data can be collected in a variety of ways, in different settings-field or lab-and from different sources, as we have just discussed. Data collection methods include interviews-face-to-face interviews, telephone interviews, computer-assisted interviews, and interviews through the electronic media; questionnaires that are either personally administered, sent through the mail, or electronically administered; observation of individuals and events with or without videotaping or audio recording; and a variety of other motivational techniques such as projective tests.
Interviewing, administering questionnaires, and observing people and phenomena are the three main data collection methods in survey research. Projective tests and other motivational techniques are also sometimes used to tap variables. In such cases, respondents are usually asked to write a story, complete a sentence, or offer their reactions to ambiguous cues such as inkblots or unlabelled pictures. It is assumed that the respondents project into the responses their own thoughts, feelings, attitudes, and expectations, all of which can be interpreted by trained psychologists.
Although interviewing has the advantage of flexibility in terms of adapting, adopting, and changing the questions as the researcher proceeds with the interviews, questionnaires have the advantage of obtaining data more efficiently in terms of researcher time, energy, and costs. Unobtrusive methods of data collection such as its extraction from company records have the advantage of accuracy. For instance, attendance records will probably give a truer and more reliable picture of the absenteeism of employees than information elicited directly from the respondents. Projective tests are usually administered by researchers who have had training in administering them and interpreting the results. Though some management research has been done using projective techniques, they are more frequently used in marketing research.
Modern technology is increasingly playing a key role in shaping data collection methods. Computer-assisted surveys, which help both interviewing as well as preparing and administering questionnaire electronically, are on the increase. Computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI), interactive electronic telephonic surveys, as well as administering questionnaires through electronic mail (e-mail), are now being used to facilitate data gathering.
The choice of data collection methods depends on the facilities available, the degree of accuracy required, the expertise of the researcher, the time span of the study, and other costs and resources associated with and available for data gathering.
SECONDARY SOURCES OF DATA
Secondary data can be used, among other things, for forecasting sales by constructing models based on past sales figures, and through extrapolation.
There are several sources of secondary data, including books and periodicals, government publications of economic indicators, census data, statistical abstracts, databases, the media, annual reports of companies, etc. Case studies, and other archival records-sources of secondary data-provide a lot of information for research and problem solving. Such data are, as we have seen, mostly qualitative in nature. Also included in secondary sources are schedules maintained for or by key personnel in organizations, the desk calendar of executives, and speeches delivered by them. Much of such internal data, though, could be proprietary and not accessible to all.
Financial databases readily available for research are also secondary data sources. The Compustat Database contains information on thousands of companies organized by industry, and information on global companies is also available through Compustar.
Methods of Descriptive Research Design
1. Evaluating secondary data
Sometimes to collect a primary data it is essential to collect and analyse the secondary data first. In hospitals industries data were collected from previous record, available patient information, old surveys result etc. previous record and experience help an organization to improve a quality of services. Sometimes this kind helps an organization to reduce a cost. Old training data are useful to filter trained employees in company. And those employees who are never participate in training program. Management can organize a special training program to train those employee which are not interested in training.
Survey is a systematic deceptive technique that is conducted to collect the information form sample of individual drawn from a large population. My survey is carried out with the help of well-constructed questionnaire. In my survey I ask question to the employees of the Nirma Company.
One of the most common methods used by researcher to collect data is to observe the situation or phenomenon. Here, it is important to note that observation does not only mean to see things, but to intensively monitor and understand them deeply to interpret about them. An example of observation study can be used to estimate how many employees attend a training program in company.
I did my research with help of descriptive research method. I collect a data of on roll employees with the help of human resource department. Approximately 1000 employees working in Nirma Company excluding regular consultant and contractual employees. In Nirma company in mandali mehasana every employees need to take some mandatory training. Mandatory trainings are as below
Also we can use them to in secondary data source
• Research reports
Hypothesis1: Employer branding positively impacts the employee differentiation
Brand loyalty refers to a customer’s propensity to purchase the same product over time (Jacoby and Chestnut, 1978) and differs somewhat from employer brand loyalty. While there are examples in business-to-business markets of long-standing relationships and examples in employment of short term contracts, switching brands in a consumer market can be done relatively frequently and at little cost to the individual. Switching employers involves far higher costs and is done only every few years (respondents to the study reported here had spent an average of 12.9 years with their employer).
Various factors can influence the employee to leave an organisations, or to remain despite being dissatisfied. Employees who have greater opportunity to voice dissatisfaction are less likely to quit (Spencer, 1986). An intention to quit is related to job stress, lack of commitment to the employer, and job dissatisfaction (Mellor et al., 2004). Most labour turnover models include a significant impact of affective factors, including organisations commitment, well-being and job satisfaction (Steel, 2002; Steel et al., 2002). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment are frequently assumed to influence the decision to leave (Winter ton, 2004) but the influence of the corporate brand on this process, probably the most significant affective factor in an organisations, is never considered. To assess the potential relevance of its role in creating loyalty, a second hypothesis is proposed:
.Hypothesis2: Employer branding positively impacts the employee loyalty
Brand and satisfaction, one role of a brand is to create and enhance satisfaction. Satisfaction predicts future behavior towards the brand (Mittal and Kamakura, 2001) and, as explained above, satisfaction with the job and with the employer are useful predictors of an intention to leave an organisations. Employees who are more satisfied also create better relationships with customers (Heskett et al., 1997). Customer satisfaction is often measured in commercial surveys by using multi-attribute scales, each attribute representing one aspect of the desired product or service (Wirtz, 2003). Work on employment issues tends to focus on job satisfaction and on its links to employee behavior, rather than on satisfaction with the employer, but job satisfaction is less likely to be influenced by the employer brand than will be overall satisfaction with the company. One important role of the employer brand should then be to promote employee satisfaction, hence:
Hypothesis3: Employer branding positively impacts the employee satisfaction
Branding and affinity strong brand elicits an emotional response from a consumer (Yeung and Wryer, 2004). The level of arousal, the quality of consumption experience and the emotional attachment to a brand all influence the consumer’s affective evaluation (Tsai, 2005). The emotional attachment of the employee to their employer is normally assessed by measuring commitment
(Steel, 2002), the desire to maintain one’s membership of an organisation (Meyer and Allen, 1991), or the allied construct of identification (Riketta, 2005), the linking of the organizational member to his/her self-concept by feeling a part of the organization and having pride in membership.
Recognizing the importance of commitment and identification goes some way to recognizing that an organization can be viewed usefully through an emotional lens and not just through the lens of rationality (see, for example, (Fineman, 1993). As the success of branding is concerned with promoting an emotional response from the target, the employer brand should promote an effective response from the employee. Hence:
8. Data analysis
SPSS 16 software was used for the analysis of data, according to the study question: What is the impact of organizational structure dimensions on the organizational trust levels? Which was leaded to use the regression analysis method to build the model through which Employer branding is tested to check their significance and impact on employees’ behaviors? But it was found that there are some variables are not significant, which means that their impact disappears in the presence of other variables.
So stepwise regression procedure was employed to ascertain the proposed relationships between the independent variables and the dependent variable as will be seen in the next section.
The study instrument is a questionnaire consists of 3 parts: 1st part: Consists of 43 statements measured corporate brand personality, 2nd part measured employee behaviour attitudes, 3rd demographic information for the sample. The statements are assessed by using Likert scale of five points scale ranging from 1″highly agree” to 5″highly disagree”. The Corporate Character Scale
(Table I), was used to measure the managers’ brand associations. Perceived differentiation was measured with two items: that the firm had a “distinct identity” and a “unique personality”. Satisfaction with the organization was measured using two items, overall satisfaction and willingness to recommend the company to others. Affinity was measured with two items: “pleased to be associated with” and “I feel an affinity with” the employer. (Davies, 2008)
Cornbrash’s alpha coefficient was applied to estimate the reliability of studied variables, where alpha values reveal the reliability and the internal consistency between the selected dimensions of the studied variables. For the corporate brand personality the agreeableness subscale consisted of 12 items(?=.650),the enterprise subscale consisted of 9 items(?=.704),competence subscale consisted of 8 items (?=.701),chic consisted of 8 items(?=.696),ruthlessness subscale consisted of 6 items(?=899).
While for the employee behaviour the differentiation subscale consisted of 2 items (?=.556), loyalty subscale consisted of 5 items (?=.712), satisfaction subscale consisted of 3 items (?=.596), and affinity subscale consisted of 2 items (?=.712).
Cronbach’s alpha for the 5 corporate brand personality items and employee’s behaviour 4 items were .785 and .717 respectively which are highly reliable.
Table-3. Reliability analysis for study dimensions
Variable Cronbach’s Alpha
The selected sample was a convenience sample of 369 managers working for organizations in Pharmaceutical industry in Egypt, the sample was as follows:79.4% males,20.6% females, 12.7% of sample aged in range 26-30 years, 33.3%% of sample aged in range 30-40 years, 33.3% of sample aged in range 41-45 years, 18.8% of sample aged in range 41-45 years, 6.5% of sample aged in range 46-50yearsThe entire sample working in full time jobs, 88% of the sample had working experiences 16-20years and 12%had working experience more than 20 years. The entire sample married and has children.75% of the sample had bachelor degree in commerce and law, 25%had master. The study conducted in 2 months, the survey yielded a total of 369(51.7%) & returned questionnaires 191 from the whole sample.
According to the survey among the 10 companies the best employer happened to be HUL, an FMCG company and least preference is given it face book (see table 2):
Table: According to Nielsen, top 10 companies in terms of campus recruiter index (year 2013-batch graduating in 2014) are as follows:
Preference number Dream Company name
1 Hindustan Unilever
2 Procter & Gamble
4 McKinsey & Co
6 Aditya Birla group
7 Axis bank
9 Boston Consulting Group
10 Face book
Source: HUL’s the most preferred Employer again’ The Economic Times
One in five (20%) respondents has indicated HUL is a dream company to work for; followed by P&G (12%) and ITC (9%). Seven percent picked Tata Motors, Boston Consulting Group, Accenture and Deloitte Consulting as dream companies.
3. According to survey, the most important factors considered by the respondent were higher degree of independence at work, opportunities to work with and learn from top talent, the company’s reputation, working environment, the offer of a good starting position ; growth prospects within the company and total salary package offered.
Table: Top factors influence the students are as follows:
Factors Respondents in percentage
Higher degree of independence at work 48
Opportunities to work with and learn from top talent 37
The company’s reputation 36
Working environment 36
The offer of a good starting position & growth prospects within the company 31
Total salary package offered 29
Source: HUL’s the most preferred Employer again’ The Economic Times,
From the results analysis, it concluded that employer branding impact employee differentiation, loyalty, satisfaction and affinity. Satisfaction is predicted by agreeableness, enterprising and chic, while differentiation is predicted by a combination of enterprising, chic and ruthlessness, loyalty predicted by enterprising and ruthlessness, and affinity predicted by a combination of all employer branding corporate responsibility.
Also, it is noted from the analysis also the enterprising is the most common element that impact employee differentiation, satisfaction, loyalty and affinity. Enterprising negatively affecting satisfaction, differentiation and affinity.
The study findings contradicted with Davies (2008) as the mentioned that the competence not affect employee behavior .But in our study it is concluded that affinity impacted positively by competence which may be due to the culture.
Brand differentiation in the eyes of customers makes price comparison more difficult and reduces price sensitivity. Is the same true for the employer brand? Are employees willing to trade a lower salary to work for a business they see as being more chic and agreeable? Some employers at least will be interested in investigating such a possibility.
Thus far internal marketing or marketing to employees has had two main foci, especially in service industries:
(1) Aligning employee views of the corporate brand and their behavior to what is being promoted externally to customers (e.g. (Vallaster and De Chernatony, 2005)); and
(2) Treating employees as “customers” who need to be communicated to, so that they have a favorable view of their employer. Clearly managing the employer brand is a complex task, an observation that leads to a final question of relevance to both employers and researchers: who should be responsible for managing the employer brand? There is some empirical evidence as to how to promote the employer brand internally (e.g. (Hickerman et al., 2005)) and how external promotion such as sports sponsorship may also influence employees, but no consensus on the coordination of customer and employer branding. There are various and often competing perspectives, including expanding the role of marketing or a greater understanding of branding issues among HR professionals (e.g. (Martin and Beaumont, 2003)). Others argue for a new role, that of reputation manager (e.g. (Davies et al., 2002)) responsible for co-coordinating internal and external branding and to all stakeholders. Certainly there is value in managing the employer brand and a potential danger if no function accepts or is given responsibility for it.
With regard to limitations faced this study firstly: survey collection problems because it was difficult to collect the whole sample. Second, the scarcity of the previous study in this topic to support the structure of the study.
After making analysis and observation. I would like to suggest the following to make the employee branding better:
1) Nirma company had all best techniques , method, quality, disciplines should always maintained it
2) Marketing efforts such events all department should be increased to create more awareness among employees and company.
3) They should employee who had all qualified and practical knowledge about to handle things.
4) Nirma had worldwide branch and plant , which will be easy for employees to work in Nirma
5) Nirma had made their way to success by facing challenge and difficulties in life.
We should be proud to have such company in India
There is not only the need of creating a satisfaction in minds of employees, but also an urgent need of creating this positivism in the minds of external customers and stakeholders. The created image has to be monitored and sustained in such a way so that it will help in increasing profits as well as would create belongingness, pride, self-actualization and true commitment in true words and spirit .The project says about the prevailing condition and to learn about the needs of employee and an employer. The research shows the challenges faced by many organizations and the strategies adopted. It was also observed that many organizations are still not very much aware of the s concept, though are unknowingly working on employer branding because everyone wants organization to be the best .It will be comparatively easier to welcome the new world of employment brands. Employer branding is a useful tool to help organisations differentiate what they have to offer in the labour market, and recruit, retain and engage the people they need to succeed. Just as marketers seek to understand their customers, HR people will benefit from gaining ’employee insight’ through methods such as employee attitude surveys and focus groups. This insight should inform the HR strategy, influence how internal communications are handled and help in the design of effective people management initiatives .Employer branding presents HR people with an opportunity to learn from some of the techniques of marketing and apply them to people management. New roles have started to emerge in some organisations which draw on skill sets from both disciplines. It is important that HR work s collaboratively, for example with colleagues in marketing and in internal communications, to share expertise and reap maximum benefits from developing an employer brand.
1 Ambler, T and Barrow, S. (1996), the employer brand, Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 4(3), pp. 185-206
2 Barrow, S. and Mosley, R. The Employer Brand, Bringing the Best of Brand Management to People at Work, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.
3 Baruch, Y. (2004), Managing Career: Theory and Practice, Prentice-hall, Harlow.
4 Dawn, S. k. and Biwa’s, S. (2011) “Employer Branding: A new strategic dimension of Indian corporation”, Asian Journal of Management Research, OOAP, Vol 1(1), pp. 21-33. Taken From http://ipublishing. Co. in/ajmrsp1no2011. Html
5 Employer Branding Survey and Poll 2006. NASSCOM HR CONNECT, Issue 2, June 2006. Pp4.
6 Hendry, C. and Jenkins, R. (1997), “Psychological contracts and new deals”, Human resource Management Journal, Vol. 7(1) pp. 38-44
7 Hirschman, E. C. (1980), “Comprehending symbolic consumption”, in Hirschman, E. C. and Holbrook, M. B. (Eds), Symbolic consumer Behaviour, Association for Consumer Research, Ann Arbour, MI, pp. 4-6
8 Krishnan, S. K. “The Importance of ‘Employer Branding'” Retrieved From: http://www. Deccan herald. Com/content/109808/importance-employer branding. Html
9 Lloyd, S. (2002), “Branding from the inside out,” Business Review Weekly, Vol 24 No 10, pp64-66.
10 Levering, R. (1996, September 12): “Employability and trust”. Conference Broad Meeting, Chicago, retrieved frohttp: //thepeoplegroupllc. Com/content/uploads/2008/04/article-employability-and-trust. Pdf
14. ANNEXURE / QUESTIONNAIRE
1. What is your gender?
2. What is your age?
3. How important are the following elements to you when you evaluate the attractiveness of an employer
1= Not at all important
3= slightly unimportant
5= moderately important
6= Very important
7= extremely important
4…Is this a full-time or part-time job?
Full time job
Part time job
5. What city are you from?
6. Condition of the company
Not at all Slightly Moderately Extremely
Not at all Slightly Moderately Extremely
Unimportant Neutral important
Important unimportant important important
A company with an
A company with
A company with a
8. Organisational management
Not at all Slightly Moderately Extremely
9. Short-term experience
Not at all Slightly Moderately Extremely
10. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) associations
Not at all Slightly Moderately Extremely
11. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) participation
Not at all Slightly Moderately Extremely
Unimportant Neutral important important unimportant important important
Not at all Slightly Moderately Extremely
Unimportant Neutral important
Important unimportant important important
Ability to balance the
demands of your work