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PATTERNS OF INSTAGRAM USAGE AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY

PATTERNS OF INSTAGRAM USAGE AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY, ABRAKA
BY
ANTHONY OLUWATOSIN JOY
DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY,
ABRAKA
MAY 2018

TITLE PAGE
PATTERNS OF INSTAGRAM USAGE AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY, ABRAKA
BY
ANTHONY OLUWATOSIN JOY
FSS/14/15/223207
A PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATION, FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES, DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY, ABRAKA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (B.Sc.) HONS IN MASS COMMUNICATION
MAY 2018

CERTIFICATION
This is to certify that this project work was carried out by ANTHONY OLUWATOSIN JOY (FSS/14/15/223207) in the Department of Mass Communication, Faculty of the Social Science, Delta State University, Abraka in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Sciences (B.Sc.) in Mass Communication.
________________________________
Dr. Ufuophu-Biri, Emmanuel Date
Project Supervisor
________________________________
Dr. Ufuophu Biri, Emmanuel Date
Ag. Head of Department
________________________________
External Examiner. Date
DEDICATION
I dedicate this research work to God Almighty the one who has made my dream a reality. I don’t know what I would have done without His grace and Favor.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
My appreciation and gratitude goes to God Almighty for his strength, provision and protection. He is the reason for everything.

With deep sense of gratitude in my heart, I want to acknowledge the many hands God used to play significant roles in my study, both morally and intellectually. Foremost is my supervisor and Head of Mass Communication Department, Dr. Emmanuel Ufuophu Biri, whose tremendous guidance and fatherly affection, contribution, encouragement and love has made this project, come to reality. Special thanks to Dr. Patrick Ijeh for his immeasurable help, contribution and support during the course of this project, and to my wonderful course adviser, Dr. Patrick Akpoghiran I say thank you for your immense contribution to what I am and what I know today. I am also grateful to all the lecturers in the department of Mass Communication for the opportunity to tap from their fountain of knowledge and all are worthy of mention, Dr. Joyce Ogwezi, Dr. Oghogho Osazee-Odia, Assct. Prof. Esurinune Mojaye, Dr Ben Nwanne, Dr Majority Oji, Dr Igben H.G.O, Dr. Lucky Ojoboh, Mr. Tebekeme Perekeme, Ms.Juliana Ogbeni, Mr Umukoro Ese and Mrs. Patience Oziwele.

I am grateful to my godmother, Mrs. Dorcas Aina for her motherly love, care, spiritual and financial support. And To my Dad and mom, Mr Famous Anthony and Mrs. Deborah Anthony, I appreciate your love and support over the years. I acknowledge the unforgettable role of my late grandmother Mrs. Diana Stephen who was a pillar of support to me before her death. Special thanks to my Friends, Eseoghene Ubini, Blessing Timiala, Blessing Elohor Udugbawa, Thomas Ojieh, Edwin Okorocha, Chiamaka Anierobi, Joseph Otite, Henrietta Akpotu and Ochuko Onovwerosohwo who were always there to give me moral support and also intellectually helped build up my research work. I could go on and on, listing all those who were there for me during my stay in school, but for times and space constraints, all I have to say is a big thank you. I love you all
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover page——-i
Title Page——–ii
Certification——–iii
Dedication——–ivAcknowledgement——-v
Table of Contents——-viAbstract——–ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background to the Study——1
1.2 Statement of the Problem——8
1.3 Objectives of the Study——9
1.4 Research Questions——-9
1.5 Significance of the Study——10
1.6 Scope of the Study——-11
1.7 Definition of Terms——-11
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction——–13
2.1. Pattern of Instagram usage among university students-13
2.2. Accessibility to Instagram by university students-18
2.3. Level of Instagram usage by university students-22
2.4. Theoretical framework—–26
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 Research Design——31
3.2 Population of the Study—–32
3.3 Sample Size——– 32
3.4 Sampling technique——- 32
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection—- 33
3.6 Methods of Data Gathering—– 33
3.7 Techniques of Data Analysis and Presentation– 34
3.8 limitations of the study – – – – – – – – 34
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.0 Description of the Sample Returned— 36
4.1 Data presentation ——- 36
4.2 Data Analysis Based on Research Questions– 49
4.3 Discussion of Findings—– 52
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary——- 54
5.2 Conclusion——- 55
5.3 Recommendations——- 56
References
Appendix
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Sex Distribution of Respondents —- 36
Table 2: Age Distribution of Respondents —- 37
Table 3: Level of Study of the Respondents—- 38
Table 4: showing the Respondents Faculty—- 39
Table 5: Respondents Usage of Instagram—– 39
Table 6: Respondents Average daily usage of Instagram– 40
Table 7: Respondents level of attention paid to Instagram– 41
Table 8: Respondents ways of Assessing Instagram— 43
Table 9: Respondents Gadgets for assessing Instagram– 45
Table 10: Respondents purpose of Instagram usage— 47

ABSTRACT
This study examines the Pattern of Instagram Usage Among Undergraduate Students of Delta State University, Abraka. The study was hinged on the Uses and gratification theory which is concerned with what Individuals derive from using a medium and how they use it. The research work was carried out using the survey method with the sample size of 200 drawn from the faculty of Arts, Social Sciences, Science and Education. Two hundred of the administered questionnaire was returned by the respondents, and the data from the questionnaire was collected, collated and analyzed using tables and percentage. The study showed that the pattern of Instagram usage mostly adopted by students was making new friends. Also, the study showed that the student spends moderate time on Instagram, thereby reducing the level of addiction level to the platform. The study also showed that the student does not use much of Delsu internet service to access instagram. It was recommended that the students should use the Instagram network more for supplements to classroom teaching and not only for making new friends and other purposes.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
Instagram is an online, mobile phone, photo-sharing, video sharing and social networking services that allow users to take pictures and videos and share them on their social media platform (Frommer, 2010). He further stated that instagram which can be seen as social media platform is a mobile is a mobile, desktop and internet based photo-sharing application and services that allow users to share pictures and video either publicly or privately.

Stec (2015) also stated that Instagram is a photo-sharing mobile application that allows its users to take pictures, apply filters to them and share them on the platform itself as well as other platforms. In other words, Instagram is a platform where one can share photos, videos, audios and other things to the public. He stated that Instagram, a mobile photo and video capturing and sharing service, has emerged very fast as a new medium in spotlight in recent years.
Wagner (2015), said that Instagram which is now the fastest growing social media platform globally, provides users an instantaneous way to capture and share their moment with friends through a series of (filter manipulated) pictures and videos. Dimico, Millen and Duggan (2008) stated that since its launch in October 2010 by Kelvin Systrom and Mike Krieger as a free mobile application for the iPhone operating system (IOS), Instagram has attracted over 800 million active users with over 95 million photos uploaded by users per day and more than 40 billion photos have been shared so far. Instagram was acquired by Facebook in 2012 for approximately one billion dollars (Rusli, 2012). The extraordinary success of Instagram shows that photos and videos have become the key social change online (Rainie, Brenner and Purcell, 2012).
Joseph Barker (2013), say that there are benefits of using Instagram among student in Nigeria, which include; strengthening interpersonal relationship, education, individual identify and self- expression, social interaction/web engagement and informal knowledge and skills acquisition.

According to Instagram user demographic in Nigeria (2017), there are 3.6 million Instagram users in Nigeria. Only 40% are female, over 80% of all Instagrammer who live in Nigeria are aged 18-44 which are youths. The largest percentage of users in the age range of 18-29 is about 55% of online adults who use instagram (Fitzsimmon, 2017). Not only do young adults use Instagram, but they also rely on it as a form of self-expression and discovery (Fitzsimmon, 2017). Teens and age 20 and above are spending less time on Facebook and more time on social network like Instagram (Melanie Shreffler of smarty pants, a youth and family research form).

Instagram reaches a younger, more diverse audience than other social network. Instagram users skew much younger than Facebook users, which mean that every incoming undergraduate students are bringing with it a pool of Instagram users (Association of College and Research Libraries, Vol. 78, No. 8, 2013). Instagram is the most overall used social networking sites by undergraduate students (Jasmine, 2016). Research conducted by various scholars like Sheldon and Byrant (2016),Michikyan (2015), Heffner (2016), Manovich (2013), Silva (2013) and so on, have shown that most undergraduate students that uses Instagram are those with lower GPA’s than students with higher GPAs (Michikyan, 2015). However, students who are experiencing difficulties at college and who are not fully engaged in their studies are those who are most likely to turn to Instagram for distraction and entertainment or even to cope with their frustrations. Instagram allows student to either get connected with other students which can be very beneficial because it can allow them to discuss class materials as well as help them network (Heffner, 2016). Ahn (2011) added that the use of Instragram among undergraduate students can be deemed useful when it comes to making connection with lecturers and other course mates.

In Ahn’s study of Instagram usage, she stated that one of the impact of Instagram as social media network is social connectedness and cognitive abilities. A study by Ikehi (2014), found out that the highest users of Instagram within the academic system are youths between the ages of 18-29 are mostly undergraduates in Nigeria. In another study by Ahn (2011), she found out that Nigerian youth who are preferably students spend a considerable part of their daily life interacting through Instagram. Instagram is being used increasingly by students thereby promoting virtual learning environment for expanding learning among them (Hussain, 2005). In another study by Armstrong and Franklin (2008), they said that undergraduate students use Instagram in different ways to enhancing and strengthening their learning through collaborative activities. They further stated that the ever increasing use of Instagram by undergraduate student seems to be transforming through the way they acquire knowledge.
Karlis (2013), said entertainment, medium appeal and self- documentation have become more rampant usage pattern among undergraduate students who use Instagram. Students use Instagram as a way of escape and adapt to developmental stressor (Christos, 2010). Mishra (2009) also stated that undergraduates use Instagram to access advertisement on products and services posted on it.
Sheldon and Bryant (2016) asserted that the motive for using Instagram include surveillance and knowledge gathering about others, documentation of life events, self-promotion, personal identity, general coolness and displaying creativity such as photography skills. In another study by Rubin and Rubin (1982), element such as physical health, mobility, life satisfaction, interpersonal interaction, social activity and economic security are more informative than just demographics in explaining interpersonal needs for Instagram usage. On their part, Hochman and Manorich (2013), Silva (2013) in their study said Instagram provides a wide range of popularity to students and also act as a link to connecting students from different countries. Researchers have applied virtualization and cultural analytics on Instagram photos from different cities in the world to trace their social and cultural differences. It cannot be over-emphasized that undergraduate use Instagram for different reasons, which can be social relationship, businesses online dating, information dissemination, personal identity, and self- promotion (Whiting and Williams, 2013). Therefore, the pattern of Instagram usage can be said to be entertainment, businesses, social relationship, communication, enlightenment and social interaction.

However, this study focused particularly on the patterns of Instagram usage among undergraduate students, Delta State University, Abraka as a case Study.

Delta State University, Abraka is a Nigerian (Delta State) University which was founded in the year 1990 from the defunct Bendel State University.

The University was established in the year 1992, with its main campus at Abraka and a Campus at Anwai, Asaba. With 1995 Amended Edict, the University now has a campus at Oleh. The University runs at multi-campus system with three campuses within a distance of about 200km apart.

Currently with a student population of about 36,000 (In 2008/2009 session), the University offers a range of programmes from the full time. The current population as estimated by the institution registrar is about 16,900 population in the 2015/2016 academic session.

Certificate diploma and degree programme to weekend degree programme. The university also offers post graduate programmes up to a doctoral level.

A staff/student counseling centre, an e-learning center, students accommodation and sporting facilities amidst others are available support services. (Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/delta state university Abraka).Statement of the Problem
There is a paradigm shift from other forms of social media which include Facebook, Twitter, Whatsapp, Youtube to Instagram which has become one of the most popular forms of the new media. According to research by various scholars, there are different motives for instagram usage. Despite the various research carried out on the motives, need and social cultural differences for Instagram usage among undergraduate students, the researchers have not done anything on the patterns of Instagram usage among undergraduate students of Delta State University, Abraka. However, one may wonder how appreciable this part of the world and Delta State University Students, Abraka campus use Instagram for different purposes and reason, the pattern in which they also use Instagram cannot be overemphasized, therefore, this study sees it necessary to know the pattern of Instagram usage among undergraduate students of Delta State University, Abraka, the level of accessibility of Delta State University, Abraka undergraduate students to Instagram and the level of Instagram usage among undergraduate students of Delta State University, Abraka. However, the above mentioned posers have not been answered by previous research, hence this study wish to fill the knowledge gap which has not been carried out or done by any researcher on the patterns of Instagram usage among undergraduate students of Delta State University, Abraka.

Objectives of the Study
The following are the objectives of this study:
To find out the pattern of Instagram usage among undergraduate students of Delta State University, Abraka.

To examine the accessibility of Delta State University, Abraka undergraduate students to Instagram.

To ascertain the level of Instagram usage among undergraduate students of Delta State University, Abraka.

Research Questions
What is the pattern of Instagram usage among undergraduate students of Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria?
What is the level of accessibility to Instagram by undergraduate students of Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria?
What is the level of Instagram usage among undergraduate students of Delta State University, Abraka?
Significance of the Study
By reviewing the available literature, collecting and analyzing data and making recommendations from the findings, the study will be relevant to stakeholders: Students and lecturers, universities and the researcher. It will enable the student to know the pattern of Instagram usage among students. The findings from this study will enable us to know the level of accessibility by undergraduate students of DELSU, Abraka towards Instagram usage.

Also, the study is significant to student and lecturers. This study will enable them to know the level of the usage of Instagram among students. Findings and recommendations emerging from this study will be of immense benefits to the academic community as it will expand the body of knowledge that has been done on Instagram. No research has been carried out on the patterns of Instagram usage among undergraduate students; this prompted the essence of this study.

Scope of the Study
Conceptually, the scope of the study is on pattern of Instagram usage among undergraduate students of Delta State University, Abraka. The geographical area of the study was Delta State University Abraka Campus. The students of this institution that are 18 years and above are the scope of the study. This is because that is the age range according to research that uses Instagram more. However, this study covered the pattern of Instagram usage among the students, the level of accessibility of Instagram to the students and the level of Instagram usage among the Students.

Definition of Terms
The following are the definitions of some operational terms which was used in the course of this study.

Instagram: This is a mobile, desktop and internet based photo-sharing application and services that allows users to share pictures and videos either publicly or privately.

Patterns: This is a regular and intelligent form or sequence discernible in the way in which something happens or is done. Chambers 21st century dictionary define it as a “model, guide or set of instructions for making something.

Usage: This refers to the action of using something or the fact of being used.

Undergraduate: University students who has not yet taken a first degree; someone studying for a first degree in a higher institution/establishment
Student: A person who is studying at a university or other place of higher learning; someone who is learning to enter a particular profession
Pattern of usage: This is the sequence in which something is used or done
DELSU: Delta State University.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
This chapter is a review of related studies to the patterns of Instagram usage among undergraduate students of Delta State University, Abraka. The chapter is organized under the following sub headings:
Pattern of Instagram usage among university students
Accessibility to Instagram by university students
Level of Instagram usage by university students
Theoretical framework
2.1Pattern of Instagram Usage among University Students
University students are considered as the largest and the most frequent users of Instagram (Medwell Journal, 2017).
Canbaz (2009) found that a high percentage of Instagram users are the university students which is 88% compared to other groups. These groups of users are also known as the digital natives as they have been growing up with the digital technologies throughout their life. The increase usage of Instagram among students is also contributed by the advanced development of network construction in universities that emphasizes on learning, entertainment and research (Anwar, 2014). Growing within the rapid development of internet-based technology, Instagram have become part of their life (Sharifah, 2009). A number of studies stated that young generation from 18-29 years are facing a high risk of Instagram addiction problem (Canbaz, 2009). Thus, it is important to identify their level of using Instagram as well as the pattern of Instagram usage so that proper measures can be taken to curb the problem of Instagram addiction. Several studies have investigated the Instagram usage pattern among university students based on their interest for the purpose of identifying whether the use of Instagram can lead to harmful effect on its users (Adekunmisi, Ajala and Iyoro; 2003). Several studies have reported that university students are among the highest users of Instagram in comparison to the other groups of social media users (Bankole and Oludayo, 2012; Omotayo, 2006). With respect to the use of Instagram based on different gender, Haq and Chand (2012) concluded that there is a different gender pattern among the Instagram users as the number of female students is higher than the male students in socializing with friends online.

Emphasizing the students usage pattern of Instagram, there are three main aspects of using Instagram namely the time spent, the purpose and the location of accessing Instagram (Medwell Journal, 2017). Vijay Kumar claimed that 48% of student use the Instagram for 2 to 3 hours a day. While Bankole and Oludayo (2012) asserted that more than half of the university students spend time accessing Instagram from 1-5h/week with the average time spent of 4.6 hours. Kubery (2001) asserted that students who uses Instagram heavily for social purposes have the potential to be affected in their academic performances as they tend to spend long hours on Instagram which later makes them feel tired and miss their classes the next day.

Adekunmisi (2013) found out that most of the university student use Instagram for seeking information, chatting for communication and other related activities. Further, Christos (2010) stated that students use Instagram for chat rooms, advertisements and online goods distribution. Several researchers (Omotayo, 2006; Otunla, 2013) argued that there are limited studies on the location where students access Instagram. Otunla (2013) stated that half of the university students access Instagram through their mobile phones followed by the laptop.

A study conducted by Hyllegard, Ogle, Yan and Reitz (2011) sought to understand university students’ motivation in using Instagram and fanning or liking, particular brands on the social media site. The researchers found that students use the site to establish personal connections with others and use the site to create affiliations with brands that define who they are and help them establish a sense of self (Hyllegard et. al., 2011). Thus, these motives are similar to the “social benefits” motive discovered by Hennig-Thurau (2004), the desire for self-expression by Pempek, Yermolayeisa, and Calvert (2009). In addition, Hyllegard et. al., (2011) found that students “fanned” companies and brands to become market mavens who could receive and disseminate information about brands. Thus motivation discovered by Hyllegard et. al., (2004) is consistent with the “concern for others” motive and “self-documentation” motives discovered by Hennig-Thurau (2004) as students could improve their knowledge about a product (self-enhancement) and then share this information with friends (concern for others). Smock, Ellison, Lampe and Wohn (2011) asserted that university students are motivated chiefly to use Instagram for expressive information sharing, relaxation, entertainment, companionship and social interaction.

According to Osazee-Odia (2018), research on Instagram is gradually gathering steam and as such the pattern of Instagram usage in the context of university students came from diverse sources, from observers to researchers on Instagram. The pattern of usage by university student can be said to be divided into two sections and are: Instagram advertisement/marketing and Instagram sociability. Liu and Ying (2010) point to the significance of Instagram in driving businesses, helps to inspire products promotion, consumer’s receptivity and competitors marketing strategy. The platforms popularity in business marketing and sales drive is spreading around the world with 25 million businesses on the network and 1 million monthly active advertisers (Chaykowski, 2017; Ingram, 2007). Lee (2017) found that 80 % of university students follow business of choice on instagram, with complimentary videos with sound-on and stories-on-camera in content advertisement and information flow. Sociability on instagram has advanced users self –presentation and connectivity to a new form of social life (Osazee-odia ,2018). Ellison and Boyd, 2013) said concept of sociality in social networking sites emphasizes the importance of friending relationships and technologies as critical factors of engagement with individual profile formation, uploading photos as a process of commuicat6ion and self-performance. Research by Brown(2017) indicate the following reasons why student engage in self-presentation and are: to facilitate social interaction to enable them gain material and social rewards, to enable them create impression of self and constructive identity. For instagram usage among university students, self-presentation is becoming a sociability performance which allows them to interact, connect and communicate with other users in the network, and a platform for constructing personal identity for the likes of others (Kneidinger, 2012). Finding from the study from Sarita and Suleiman,(2017) shows that the need for relative ingratiation was a major benefit of Instagram self-presentation among university students and the numbers of followers and uploading photos is a routine practice of self-presentation among them.

2.2Accessibility to Instagram by University Students
According to Pew Research Centre (2011), 95% of undergraduate student have access to Instagram and when it comes to accessing it, they connect mostly through their mobile phone usually smartphone, laptops, or desktop computers.

Specifically undergraduate students or university students are more likely than both college students and college aged non-students to own a laptop computer, smartphone or Ipad to access Instagram (Pew Research Centre, 2011). Instagram has introduced new concepts of connectivity and is recasting the roles played by students in the educational process (Omotayo, 2006). Still, while many university student or undergraduates use Instagram, there are many who may not. Aguolu and Aguolu, (2002) averred that information on Instagram may be available and yet not accessible. This could be due to the student’s ignorance of Instagram connectivity and proper access channels. There are many surveys on access to Instagram, and nearly all found out that Instagram access is a huge problem among students (Otunla, 2013). Such access problems include below average computer literacy slow connectivity and downloading and severe network failure (Fasae and Aladeniyi, 2012). The use of Instagram can be of prime benefit to students. It is very useful by allowing students to access different types of information and communicates it to their peers across the globe (Eyitayo, 2008); Eyitayo further asserted that Instagram has become the most popular form of social media that students use to locate and retrieve information. Abubakar and Bada (2005) observe that Instagram provides facilities and capabilities to browse through a list of subject headings on celebrities, gossips, news, advertisements, to get an idea of what is available in other places. Hanauer, Dibble, Fortin and Col (2004), in their study asserted that 83% of Instagram users have access to Instagram at their home and 51% access Instagram at the college or library. Instagram is very useful to university students in Nigeria because it enables them to have access to timely, accurate and relevant information (Bankole and Oludayo, 2012). Access to Instagram through the internet in Nigeria is rather slow and connectivity is slow. Emejo (2009) reported that about 70% of Nigeria’s internet capacity has been disrupted following a reported damage of one of the landing cables of SATs submarine system which makes it almost impossible for university students to have access to Instagram.

Ajegbomogun (2011), stated that financial constraints on the part of higher institution to provide 24 hours daily and 7 days a week Instagram access connectivity the deplorable infrastructural facilities, insufficient Instagram facilities, low bandwidth and limited computers terminals among others are added obstacles compounding meaningful access to information on Instagram and utilization by students. Tella (2007) associated the low Instagram usage in developing countries universities to restriction pertaining the time of access. While Ojedekun (2001) relate it to lack of adequate computers with internet facilities. Nadku (2013) reported that a large number of students in the university have access to Instagram. University student have access to a variety of devices for Instagram usage in the course of the average day usage including desktop computers, laptops, tablets, smartphones and so on (Aramide, K. A, Ladipo S. O and Adepoju T. O, 2015). In a study conducted by Aramide et. al., (2015), just over half of the student population surveyed spend an average, between four and seven hours daily using digital technologies visiting/browsing and/or engaging on Instagram, with one third spending between one and three hours, and almost 10 percent spending at least eight hours or more. Less than four percent of students spend little or no time using Instagram (Ladipo et. al.,2015). As of 2016, daily Instagram usage of global internet users amounted to just under 2 hours per day, up from 1.8 hours in the previous year (Statista, 2006). Instagram access and use is widespread among first year undergraduate studies and is thoroughly embedded in their daily lives. (Patricia Kettle, Naill Gilmartin, Mary P. Gorcoran, Delma Byrne and Tianhung, Sun, 2016). However, continuing changes in the nature, frequency and quality of access indicate fast-rising standards skills and expectations, as well as diverse experiences and outcomes in Instagram accessibility (Patricia et. al., 2016). In a survey by Delma et. al., (2016), students were asked specific questions about how they use and access Instagram for both learning and general purposes (on a daily, weekly, and monthly basis), recognizing that it is possible that varied access and usage is associated with different objectives, experiences and outcomes. The findings of this survey illustrate that levels, access and patterns of Instagram usage among students are diverse.

2.3Level of Instagram Usage by University Students
In recent years, Instagram has become a huge and integral component of how students spend their time online (Lenhart, 2005). Unlike Facebook, twitter and many other social media platforms, students are spending enormous amounts of time on Instagram to share information and connect with people (Acar, 2008). Not surprisingly, students are easily connecting with others and sharing information more than ever before (Boyd, 2008). Many students get news, gossip and friendship updates via Instagram, sometimes even before their breakfast from the convenience of their mobile phone or laptop (Bryd, 2008). Today’s students integrate Instagram into all aspects of their lives for multiple purposes, particularly socializing entertaining and shopping (Asselin and Moayeri, 2008) as well as academic research i.e assignment (Lenhart, Madden and Hitlin, 2005). Selwyn (2007) argued that social media network like Instagram has become an important site for the informal, cultural learning of ‘being’ a student with online interactions and experiences allowing roles to be learned, values understood and identities shaped.
Selywn further stated that Instagram have also been found to be able to offer a unique opportunity to promote socialization to the institution’s environment as it can help students learn about their peers and college which in turn can create satisfaction and affiliation with the university. However, although use of the social media network site like Instagram by students is on the rise, Spenal and Gitimu (2011) emphasized concerns that heavier use of Instagram otherwise called social media addiction, by students might interfere with academic achievement, conventional social interaction, and exposure to undesirable cultural experience. Rose (2012) in her study found that students who spend more time on Instagram are more likely to have high and positive perception about their ability to be more acceptable than others.
Also, Williams (2012) reported that Instagram use and addiction can have a positive influence on college student’s self- perception, though this may be because users can shape their image and social interactions on the platform. However, a university of Houston study (2008) found a correlation between those who frequently use Instagram and those who suffer from depression tended to compare themselves to others, which added to their negative self- perception. In university setting, anecdotal evidence of problems stemming from excessive use of new technologies has been reported on various campuses (Cabral, 2010). In a study by Boyd and Ellison (2007) reported that 50% of students interviewed after dismissal for academic failure listed excessive level of usage of Instagram as a reason for their problem. In a study by Ahn (2011), found out that Nigerian youths who are preferably students spent a considerable part of their daily life interacting through Instagram and also have lower Grade Point Average (GPA) than those who are not users of the site. Karpinski (2009) noted that university students in Nigeria who uses Instagram spend too much time online and less time studying.

Among the university students Instagram users, 24% are said to use the platform several times a day (the demographics of Instagram users, 2017). Instagram is being used increasingly by students thereby promoting virtual communities and virtual learning environment for expanding learning among them (Hussain, 2005). Stanley (2015) found out that students frequently use Instagram than other social media platform and expressed motivations to increase networking when joining Instagram. Karlis (2013) stated that students spend the greatest amount of time on Instagram. Bankole and Oludayo (2012) asserted that more than half of the university students spend time accessing Instagram about 1 to 5 hours/week with average time of 4.6 hours. One research showed that around 85% to 90% of the university and college student use Instagram along with other social media (Hargittai, 2008). American Journal of Psychiatry (2008), highlighted traits associated with Instagram addiction such as excessive use, often associated with a loss of sense of time or a neglect of basic drives, withdrawal, with feelings of anger, tension and/or depression when the computer is inaccessible, tolerance, with the need for better computer equipment more software or more hours of use and negative repercussions, with arguments, lying, poor achievement, social isolation, fatigue as capable of modifying behavior of individuals. An early study found that 79% of university students engage on Instagram for five hours a week on average (Bahk, Sheil, Rohm and Lin, 2010). Junco (2014) notes that frequent Instagram users have a greater involvement in campus activities and organizations.

2.4Theoretical Framework of the Study
Theories drive practice, hence the need to articulate a theoretical framework for this presentation. Theories are conjectural statements about happening in the society. They tactically explain events, occurrences etc in their simplest terms.
According to Severin and Tankard (2001), theory is “a set of systematic generalizations based on scientific observations and leading to further empirical observations”. Given the nature of this work which focuses on the pattern of instagram usage among undergraduate students, it would be pertinent to particularly explore the uses and gratification theory below, among other theories.

Uses and Gratification Theory
According to Katz, Blumer and Gurevitch (1974), Uses and Gratifications theory establishes a phase in mass media research challenging the traditional focus of what the media do to the audience to what the audience does with the media. It further focuses on why the audience uses the media and the purposes for which it is used (Baran , 2006). The theory holds that people have preconceived needs, which they bring to the communication process. Expatiating on the theory, McQuail (2010, p. 423) states that ?the central question posed is: why do people use the media, and what do they use them for? The theory has been identified as a ?model of communication research which seeks to explain issues on the basis of the audience’s subjective account of the media experiences and the functions a particular kind of content serves in particular circumstances (Orewere, 2006).
The theory is approached from the view that, for the audience, the mass media are a resource that is drawn upon to satisfy needs. The theory recognizes and maintains that the audience has various needs that prompt them to expose themselves to any media or media content. Therefore, the theory establishes that there are distinct benefits a consumer expects to get from any medium and failure to deliver these expectations will lead to the audience deserting such medium. Social media has become a supplement to audience access to information, entertainment, and enlightenment. With tweets from subscribed websites, blogs, individuals, celebrities and so on, information savvy people satisfy their needs with the support of what the mainstream media provide. Gratification is even better achieved with the mobile notification activation on social media a function that allows a user get all tweets on his/her social media account direct on his mobile phone as text message at no cost through a free short code 40404.

Justification of the theory
The Uses and Gratifications Theory is grounded in the idea that users have reasons for selecting certain media and intentionally choose a message source that best fits their personal needs. This theory assumes that audiences are active with goal-driven media usage and the media possesses the ability to fulfill users’ needs. This audience-centered approach says that audiences actively seek out specific media to gratify their needs and desires such as cognitive needs, affective needs, personal integrative needs, social integrative needs and tension free needs.

The theory emphasis that audiences actively search out media messages to satisfy their certain needs, thus the audience is active and goal directed. This according to Kaye and Johnson, (2004) means, people are not only impacted by the message sent from media, they also actively seek for certain media and media content to satisfy particular needs. The uses and gratifications theory assumes that people are self-aware to know, and to articulate, their reasons for using the media and that they view the media as at least one avenue to gratify their needs.
Finally, the uses and gratification theory is important and related to this study because the users (audience) of instagram (Delsu undergraduate student) in this context choose the pattern and kind of message they want to expose themselves to and not instagram choosing for them
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1Research Design
The survey method was adopted for the study. Tejumaye (2003), described survey research methodology as such that involves interviewing of people (respondents) asking them for information about their perception, opinion, attitude and behavior. It was done with representative samples of a population being studied and it was assumed that information obtained from the sample is valid for general population. The survey method was considered appropriate and thus chosen for this study because the population in view was relatively large to be observed directly. This method was chosen to enable the researcher collect primary and reliable data. And more to be observed in this research was the fact that with questionnaire, large amount of data can be collected with relatively ease from variety of people which allowed the researcher to examine many variables (demographics, and lifestyle information, attitudes, motives, intentions and so on) and to use multivariate statistics to analyze the data. Also, geographic boundaries do not limit most survey.

3.2Population of the Study
This is a reflection of the cases or individuals that fits a speciation (Ohaja, 2003). The 16, 900 undergraduate students of Delta State University, Abraka formed the population. For the purpose of effective coordination and to reduce population to a manageable size, post graduates and other degrees have been excluded.

3.3Sample Size
A sample size is a small representation of a population used in examining the population as a whole. Based on this, a sample of 200 was drawn from the faculties of Arts, Science, the Social Sciences and Education of Delta State University, Abraka.

3.4Sampling Technique
Sampling technique is the most used when taking any portion of a population as a representatives of that population. The stratified random sampling was adopted for this study. That is, the random sampling of the students (undergraduates) of the university. However, this was done after carefully grouping them into their various faculties, departments, levels and sexes. The 200 students were administered the copies of the questionnaire. From each faculty, five departments were randomly selected. 50 students were selected among the five departments, thus a total of 10 students per department, with at least two students from each level of study.

3.5Instrument of Data Collection
The research instrument used for this study was questionnaire, because of its strength in being able to collect information on a large number of scale.

3.6Methods of Data Gathering
The researcher administered the questionnaires using the personal delivery of questionnaire method based on the face to face contact with the respondents. The questionnaire was distributed among the different departments from each faculties which include Faculty of Arts, Sciences, the Social Sciences and Education. 50 questionnaires were given to 50 students selected among the five departments of each faculties. The researcher administered the questionnaires and waited for a long time for completion of questionnaire. This however enabled the respondents fill the questionnaires at their own comfortable time.

Techniques of Data Analysis and Presentation
Frequency tables and simple percentage was employed in the presentation of data analysis of this study. This enabled the relationship between the independent variable (Instagram) and the dependent variables (the undergraduate students).

3.8 Limitations of the Study
In the course of conducting this study, certain impediments militated against the researcher, some of which include lack of text books and insufficient materials. The researcher found it challenging to gather enough materials for the research.
Reluctancy of students to fill the questionnaire was equally another challenge encountered in the course of carrying out the research.

Lack of understanding by the respondent was another factor that militated against the research.
Insincerity of respondents in answering the questionnaire was also a major setback of the research.

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION, DATA ANALYSIS AND
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE SAMPLE RETURNED
This chapter deals with the analysis and presentation of data obtained from respondents based on research questions at the beginning of the study.

A total of two hundred (200) copies of the questionnaire were distributed with all copies dully filled and returned to the researcher, thus, shows a 100 percent success.

The questionnaire contains 34 items and four sought to elicit respondents’ demographic variables and the other 30 formulated and grouped appropriately to answer the research question by this study.

4.1DATA PRESENTATION
The data were analyzed with tables and simple percentages
Table 1: Sex of respondents
SEX NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
Male 95 47.5%
Female 105 52.5%
Total 200 100%
The table shows that out of the 200 who responded to the questionnaire 95 respondents representing 47.5% were males while 105 representing 52.5% were females indicating that majority of the respondents were females.

Table 2: Age of respondents
AGE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
16-20 55 27.5%
21-25 112 56%
26-30 32 16%
Above 30 years 1 0.5%
Total 200 100%

Table 2 shows that 55 (27.5%) of the respondents were within the age range of 16-20 years,, 112 (56%) were within the age of 21-25 years range, a further of 32 (16%) confirm their ages to be between 26-30 years while 1 (0.5%) of the respondents is of the age range of 30 and above.

Table 3: Respondents level of study
LEVEL FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
100 39 19.5%
200 44 22%
300 58 29%
400 59 29.5%
Total 200 100%
From the above table, the respondents level of study were distributed as thus: 39 (19.5%) people from 100 level, 44 (22%) from 200 level, 58 (29%) from 300 level and 59 (29.5%) from 400 level. This shows that students were represented from all level of study.

Table 4: Respondents Faculty
FACULTIES FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Arts 50 25%
Social science 50 25%
Science 50 25%
Education 50 25%
Total 200 100%
From the above table, the respondents were 50 (25%) students from Arts, 50 (25%) students from Social science, 50 (25%) students from Science and 50 (25%) students from Education. This shows that all students from these faculties were duly represented.

Table 5: Respondents usage of Instagram
RESPONSES FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Yes 131 65.5%
No 69 34.5%
Total 200 100%
Table 5 shows that most of the students use Instagram with 131 Yes (65.5%) number of respondents and 69 NO (34.5%) respondents.

After asking respondents screener questions, it was discovered that only 131 uses Instagram while the remaining 69 respondents does not. However, the analysis of the remaining questions on the questionnaire was based on the number of respondents that use Instagram this helped to achieve the objectives of the research.

Table 6: Respondents Average daily usage of Instagram
RESPONSES FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Over 12 hours 11 8.4%
4-8 hours 45 34.4%
1-4 hours 48 36.6%
Less than 1 hour 27 20.6%
Total 131 100%
This total shows that 11 (8.4%) respondents use Instagram for over 12 hours daily, 45 (34.4%) respondents use Instagram for 4-8 hours daily on the average, while 48 (36.6%) respondents use Instagram for 1-4 hours daily and 27 (20.6%) respondents use Instagram for less than 1 hour on the average daily. This implied that most of the respondents use Instagram for 1-4 hours daily as this had the highest number of respondents.

Table 7: Respondents level of attention paid to Instagram
RESPONSES FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Very much 19 14.5%
Much 33 25.2%
Moderate 52 39.7%
Little 16 12.2%
Very little 11 8.4%
Total 131 100%
From the above table, the respondents level of attention paid to Instagram are thus, 19 (14.5%) respondents paid very much attention to Instagram, 33 (25.2%) respondents paid much attention to Instagram, a further of 52 (39.7%) paid moderate attention, which is the highest number of respondents, while 16 (12.2%) paid little attention and 11 (8.4%) paid very little attention as this had the lowest number of responses and percentage.

Table 8: Respondents ways of Assessing Instagram
F=1 F=2 F=3 F=4 F=5 F=6 F=7 F=8 TOTAL PERCEN-TAGE
Ways for Assessing Instagram F F F(x) F F(x) F F(x) F F(x) F F(x) F F(x) F F(x) F F(x) F F(x) 1. My personal data subscription 3 3 1 2 1 3 8 32 6 30 4 24 6 42 102 816 131 952 17.1%
2. Sharing friends wifi connection 11 11 10 20 12 36 17 68 13 65 5 30 32 224 26 208 126 662 16.4%
3. Delsu internet access 50 50 3 6 8 24 3 12 4 20 8 48 0 0 4 32 80 192 10.4%
4. Public cyber cafes 46 46 12 24 4 12 8 32 8 40 4 24 0 0 4 32 86 210 11.2%
5. Unsecured unknown public wifi connections 31 31 12 24 11 33 13 52 9 45 10 60 2 14 2 16 90 275 11.7%
6. Bonus data only 17 17 9 18 5 15 9 36 12 60 5 30 1 7 17 136 75 319 9.8%
7. Social media subscription 20 20 11 22 9 27 10 40 12 60 10 60 3 21 19 152 94 402 12.2%
8. Night subscriptions 26 26 4 8 6 18 4 16 12 60 9 54 8 56 17 136 86 374 11.2%
768 3386 100%
The above table show that a larger number of respondents with the aggregate score of 952(17.1%) assess Instagram network through their personal data subscription more followed by sharing friend’s Wi-Fi connection with the aggregate score of 662(16.2%), and they also access Instagram through Delsu internet service with aggregate of 192(10.4%), public cyber café’s with aggregate score of 210(11.2%), unsecured unknown public Wi-Fi connection with the aggregate score of 275(11.7%), a further aggregate score of 319(9.8%) access the Instagram network through bonus data only, they also access the Instagram through social media subscription only with the aggregate score of 402(12.2%) and finally they access the Instagram through Night subscription only with the aggregate score of 374(11.2%). This however showed that many of the respondents access the Instagram most through their personal data subscription followed by sharing their friend’s Wi-Fi, social media subscription only, night subscription only, bonus data only, unsecured unknown public Wi-Fi connection, public cyber cafés and with the least of it which is through Delsu internet access. This table also shows that the respondents have access to Instagram by using all the ways on the table to access the medium.
Table 9: Respondents Gadgets for assessing Instagram
F=1 =F2 F=3 F=4 F=5 F=6 F=7 F=8 TOTAL PERCEN-TAGE
. Gadgets for Assessing Instagram F F(X) F F(X) F F(X) F F(X) F F(X) F F(x) F F(X) F F(X) F F(X) 1. Personal smartphones 2 2 2 4 0 0 1 4 5 25 7 42 9 63 105 840 131 980 22.2%
2. Personal laptop computers 22 22 4 8 3 9 3 12 6 30 4 24 27 189 19 152 88 446 14.9%
3. Personal desktop computers 26 26 1 2 1 3 1 4 3 15 14 84 5 35 5 40 56 209 9.5%
4. Friends smartphone 26 26 3 6 4 12 6 24 14 70 4 26 0 0 15 120 72 282 12.2%
5. Friends laptop computers 31 31 2 4 3 6 10 40 4 20 3 18 2 14 11 88 66 221 11.2%
6. Friend’s desktop computers 32 32 1 2 8 24 1 4 1 5 3 18 4 28 5 40 55 153 9.3%
7. Delsu cyber café computers 46 46 4 8 0 0 1 4 2 10 0 0 1 7 5 40 61 91 10.3%
8. Public cyber café computers 44 44 8 16 0 0 1 4 3 15 1 6 0 0 5 40 62 125 10.4%
591 2507 100%
This table shows that the number of respondents with the aggregate score of 980(22.2%) access Instagram with their personal smartphone gadget, respondents with the aggregate score 446(14.9%) access the Instagram with their personal laptop computers, also the respondents with the aggregate score of 209(9.5%) access Instagram with personal desktop computers, so also respondents with the aggregate score of 282(12.2%) access Instagram with their friend’s smartphone, a further respondents with the aggregate score 221(11.2%) access the Instagram with their friend’s laptop computers while respondents with aggregate score of 153(9.3%) access with their friends desktop computers while respondents with the aggregate score of 91(10.3%) access Instagram with Delsu cyber café computers and finally the respondents with the aggregate score of 125(10.4%) access Instagram with public cyber café computers.

Table 9 shows that a higher number of respondents with the highest aggregate score of 980(22.2%) access Instagram through their personal smartphones, and the next one to it was personal laptop computers, followed by the friends smartphones and friends laptop computers, friends desktop computers, public cyber café computers while Delsu cyber café computerswas the least used gadgets for assessing Instagram by the respondents with the score of 91(10.3%) which was the lowest of all the aggregate scores. This simply means that majority or most of the respondents assess Instagram more with their personal smartphones.

Table 10: Respondents purpose of Instagram usage
F=1 F=2 F=3 F=4 F=5 F=6 F=7 F=8 F=9 F=10 F=11 TOTAL PERCEN-TAGE
Use of Instagram F F(X) F F(X) F F(X) F F(X) F F(X) F F(X) F F(X) F F(X) F F(X) F F(X) F F(X) F F(X) 1. Supplement to classroom lectures 20 20 4 8 4 12 3 12 6 30 4 24 5 35 2 16 1 9 5 50 11 121 65 337 6.9%
2. Research for assignment, project 26 26 5 10 7 21 1 4 1 5 1 6 2 14 7 56 3 27 5 50 10 110 68 329 7.2%
3. Course related information sharing 29 29 1 2 6 18 4 16 4 20 4 24 1 7 2 16 6 54 1 10 6 66 64 265 6.8%
4. Exhibition of academic creative works 28 28 3 6 6 18 5 20 7 35 6 36 2 14 4 32 7 63 5 50 11 44 84 346 8.9%
5. Exhibition of non-academic creative works 16 16 6 12 1 3 7 28 2 10 5 30 8 56 11 88 8 72 13 130 21 231 98 676 10.3%
6. Advertisements and business promotion 4 4 5 10 0 0 1 4 6 30 7 42 3 21 7 56 9 81 6 60 51 561 99 869 10.4%
7. Propagation of religious beliefs (evangelism) 18 18 6 12 5 15 6 24 4 20 7 42 2 14 5 40 7 63 8 80 13 143 81 471 8.6%
8. Finding old friends 3 3 6 12 4 12 6 24 8 40 3 18 5 35 10 80 12 108 10 100 37 407 100 839 10.6%
9 Making new friends 8 8 3 6 4 12 4 16 4 20 6 36 5 35 14 112 12 108 29 290 31 341 120 984 12.7%
10 Building relationships 8 8 10 20 9 27 4 16 7 35 8 48 7 49 12 96 8 72 5 50 18 198 96 610 10.1%
11 Flirting 32 32 11 22 2 6 4 16 2 10 2 12 3 21 2 16 3 27 2 20 9 99 72 281 7.6%
947 6016 100%
This table shows that the respondents use Instagram for different purposes which includes: supplement to classroom with the aggregate score of 337(6.9%), while they use it for research for assignment/projects with the aggregate score of 329(7.2%) and for course related information sharing with the aggregate of 265(6.8%), also for exhibition of academic creative works with aggregate of 346(8.9%), and for exhibition of non-academic creative work with aggregate of 676(10.3%), a further of aggregate score of 869(10.4%) for advertisement and business promotion, the respondents also use Instagram network for propagation of religious beliefs (Evangelism) with aggregate of 471(8.6%), so do the respondents use Instagram for finding old friends with the aggregate of 839(10.6%), while the respondents also use Instagram for making new friends with aggregate of 984(12.7%), and building relationship with the aggregate of 619(10.1%) and lastly the respondents use Instagram to flirt with the aggregate of 281(7.6%). It was however noted that many of the respondents use the Instagram network to make new friends as this had the highest aggregate score. Also, the respondents use Instagram for advertisement as this was the second highest score of 869(10.4%), following by finding old friends with aggregate of 839(10.6%) and the least of purpose of Instagram usage according to the information sharing as it had the lowest score among its purpose of usage.

4.2DATA ANALYSIS
Answers to Research Questions
Research Question One:
What is the pattern of Instagram usage among undergraduate students of Delta State University, Abraka Nigeria?
The reaction of respondents to this question reflected in table 10. Most students use Instagram for making new friends i.e 984(12.7%) aggregate score of the respondents showed that they use Instagram to meet new people and make new friends with them. It was also discovered that apart from using Instagram to make new friends, the students also use it for advertisement and business promotion 869(10.6%) aggregate score of the respondents as this advertisement and business promotion expose them to new products and services on this medium.

Moreso, a major population of respondents with the aggregate score of 839(10.6%) also stated that they use Instagram to find old friends whom they have lost contact with over time. Moreover, it was also discovered that students does not use Instagram for all purposes. This was discovered with the least aggregate score of 281(7.6%) by respondents on its usage for flirting. This shows that they do not use more for flirting but for other purposes. The students also use Instagram for building relationships with other friends as this also has a higher number of respondents with the aggregate score of 619(10.1%).

Research Question Two
What is the level of accessibility to Instagram by undergraduate students in Delta State University, Abraka Nigeria?
This reflected in table 8 and 9, where most of the respondents with the aggregate score of 952(17.1%) and 980(22.2%) claimed assess the Instagram network through their personal data subscription with their personal smartphones. A number of them also said that assess it by sharing their friends Wi-Fi connection by using their personal laptops computer as it also has the aggregate score of 662(16.4%) and 446(14.9%) respectively. Many of them also have access to Instagram by using social media subscription with their friend’s smartphones with the aggregate score of respondents 402(12.2%) and 282(12.2%). They do not assess the Instagram through only night subscription data; the students also have access to it through their friends laptop computers with an aggregate of 374(11.2%) and 221(11.2%). This indicated that the students have access to Instagram by using various gadgets to assess the medium.

However, despite the fact that the students have access to Instagram, they do not access it through Delsu internet access neither do they use Delsu cyber café computers to access it as this has the lowest number of respondents with the aggregate of 192(10.4%) and 91(10.3%) respectively in table 8 and 9. This shows that only a few students depend on Delsu internet access and cafes computers to access Instagram.

Research Question Three
What is the level of Instagram usage among undergraduate students of Delta State University, Abraka Nigeria?
The reactions to this question is reflected in table 6 and 7 where most of the respondents (48{36.6%) said they use Instagram for about 1-4hours daily. And they also use it for 4-8 hours on the average daily with a few persons spending over 12 hours daily (8.4%). Table 6 shows that most of the students spend a total of about 5 hours on the platform daily. Table 7 made it known that a number of the students use Instagram moderately with a frequency of 52(39.7%) and about 33(25.2%) use it much while 19(14.5%) use Instagram very much. This indicated that the students use the platform moderately and not turning into an addict by spending more time on Instagram.

4.3 Discussion of Findings
The study was aimed at finding answer to the research questions related to the pattern of Instagram usage by undergraduate students of Delta State University, Abraka. Having presented, interpreted and analyzed the data collected through the administered questionnaires, the researcher discovered that both male and female students use Instagram. This was revealed through the demographic data that was filled.

Moreso, it was discovered that the students assess Instagram through various ways and gadgets. The research found out that many students assess Instagram through their personal data subscription as this had the highest number of aggregate score by the respondent. However, personal smartphones happened to be the most used gadget for assessing Instagram.

Furthermore, most students claimed that they do not use Delsu internet access much to assess Instagram as it had the lowest aggregate score. It was also discovered that the students use less of Delsu cyber café computers to assess Instagram network.

From the findings, it was observed that most students use Instagram majorly for making new friends, advertisement and business promotion and finding old friends as these had the highest aggregate score by the respondents. Also, the least purpose of Instagram usage by the students is for sharing course related information as this had the lowest aggregate score by the respondents.

Finally, it was observed that the student pays a moderate level of attention to Instagram network as it has an average daily usage by the respondents.

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1Summary
The research work focused on the “pattern of Instagram usage among undergraduate students of Delta State University, Abraka”. Some of the factors that necessitated the research include: finding out the purpose of Instagram usage by the students, to examine the level of accessibility of Instagram by the students and to ascertain the level of usage by the students. In order to achieve the foregoing, the researcher posed the following research question; what is the pattern of Instagram usage among undergraduate students of Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria? What is the level of accessibility to Instagram by undergraduate students of Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria? What is the level of Instagram usage among undergraduate students of Delta State University, Abraka?
The researcher’s scope of the study was on the undergraduate students of Delsu, Abraka. The survey research method was used for the study and questionnaire was used to gather data from two hundred respondents with the two hundred copies that were distributed. The respondents were undergraduate students of Delsu, Abraka. The questionnaires were self- administered by the researcher.

The simple percentage and presentation of tables were used to analyze data that were gathered from respondents. The three major finding from the exercise were:
Most students use Instagram more for the purpose of making new friends, and for advertisement and business promotion. Also, they use it for other purposes which include; finding old friends, building relationships, flirting exhibition of non- creative works amongst others.

That majority of the student claimed that they assess Instagram through their personal data subscription with their personal smartphones. Though a less significant number of the population also claim that they use less of Delsu internet access to assess the platform.

That most students pay moderate level of attention to Instagram which indicated that the students are not addicted to the platform.

5.2 Conclusion
The study has shown that students use Instagram for several purposes. It was also observed that the students assess the Instagram network in various ways and with different gadgets. The study still shows that the students pay a moderate level of attention to Instagram as this indicated that there was less addiction level by the students to the platform.

5.3Recommendations
Based on the findings during the course of this study, I would recommend that:
The students should use the Instagram network more for supplements to classroom teaching and not only for making new friends and other purposes.

The students should use Instagram to share course related information by creating group chart rooms for the messages related to their courses.

The school authority should also provide Wi-Fi connections apart from the cyber café to the students which will aid their accessibility to Instagram in order to share information related to their course and also majorly for research, assignments and project.

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APPENDIX
Department of Mass Communication,
Delta State University,
Abraka, Delta State
February, 2018
Dear Respondents,
A REQUEST FOR COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE
I am a final year student of the above named Department. I am conducting a research “Patterns of Instagram usage Among Undergraduate Students of Delta State University, Abraka”.

Kindly provide accurate and sincere response to the various issues addressed in the questionnaire. I assure you that every information given will be treated in strict confidence and used purely for academic purposes.

Thank you for your anticipated co-operation.

Yours sincerely,
Anthony Oluwatosin Joyce
INSTRUCTIONS:
Please tick ? in any of the boxes for the appropriate answer for each question and fill in where necessary.

Sex: Male Female
Age: 16-20 21 – 25 26-30 above 30 years
Level of Study:100 200 300 400
Faculty: Arts Social Science Science Education
Do you use Instagram?Yes No
How much do you use Instagram on the average daily?Over 12 hours
4 – 8 hours 1 – 4 hours Less than 1 hours Never
How do you rate the level of the attention that you pay to Instagram?
Very much Much Moderate Little Very Little
What are the ways you use to gain access to the Instagram network? Kindly rank them in the order of access on a scale of 1-8. Where 1 is the lowest and 8 is the highest
Ways of Assessing Instagram 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
My personal data subscription Sharing friend’s wifi connection Delsu internet access Public cyber cafes Unsecured unknown public wifi connections Bonus data only Social media subscription only Night subscription only Gadgets you use to connect to Instagram network?
Kindly rank in the order of access on a scale of 1-8 where 1 is the lowest and 8 is the highest
Gadgets for Assessing Instagram Rank
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Personal Smartphones Personal Laptop Computers Personal Desktop Computer Friend’s Smartphone Friend’s Laptop Computers Friend’s Desktop Computers Delsu Cyber Café Computers Public Cyber Café Computers
For what purpose do you mostly use Instagram?
Kindly rank them in the order of pattern of usage on a scale of 1-11. Where 1 is the lowest and 11 is the highest
Uses of Instagram Rank
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Supplement to classroom lectures Research for assignment/project Course related information sharing Exhibition of academic creative works Exhibition of Non-Academic Creative Works Advertisement and Business Promotion Propagation of Religious Beliefs (Evangelism) Finding Old Friends Making New Friends Building Relationships Flirting