TOC o “1-3” h z u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc509068444 h 3Structure PAGEREF _Toc509068445 h 4Portico PAGEREF _Toc509068446 h 4Rotunda4Interior PAGEREF _Toc509068448 h 5Modifications7Popular Contemporary Impacts7Ravages of Time8Conclusion9References PAGEREF _Toc509068453 h 11
IntroductionArchitecture is one of the most important parameters on the basis of which the culture and the renaissance of the race or ethnic group can be judged. It is a true fact that architecture is one of the best mirrors that reflects the true colors of the culture and the heritage of a group if people. Every ethnic group that has an individual and strong character has definite architectural traits. The British and the colonial rule lefts its own marks in their architecture, so did the Mughals and the Arabs. The same also can be said about the Italian architecture.
The Italian renaissance was the oldest cultural movements that have been witnessed by the history of the world. Traits and reflections of this revolution can be seen in the literature and the architecture of the ages.
Amongst the different specimen of Italian architecture the name of the Pantheon happens to be the most eminent one. It is one of the best preserved specimens of the ancient roman architecture. The Pantheon in the initial era served to be one of the most prominent temples in Rome. It is now a church and a site of historical significance. The initial temple was made by Marcus Agrippa during the rule of Augustus CITATION Mar132 l 1033 (Cartwright, 2013).
In the later ages the Pantheon was dedicated to St. Mary and the martyrs. In the contemporary times the Pantheon is one of the most eminent tourist attractions and an epitome of the Italian culture. As a state property it is one of the highest pullers for international tourists who pour in from the different parts of the world. .
StructureThe architecture of the Pantheon gives us a brief idea of the popular architectural styles that had been in vogue in the yesteryears in medieval Rome. It is a fine piece of Ancient Roman building that gives us a glimpse into the culture, religion and the asocial structure of the contemporary times. The Pantheon’s architecture consists of mainly three important parts – the Portico, the Rotunda and the Interior.
PorticoIn the initial stage the building had been approached through a flight of steps. However in the later times the level of the ground has been rose which eliminated the steps to the portico. You can find relief sculptures that decorated the pediment. They were probably made of gilded bronze. The holes that mark the spot of the clamps indicate at the fact that the sculptures exhibited eagles.
Mark Wilson Jones has opined that the pantheon’s porch was initially made on the design of monolithic granite column’s It has shafts that were fifty feet tall. The style reflected storing traits of the Corinthian architecture. The builders have however made a number of awkward adjustments so that the Roman shafts can be accommodated within the construction CITATION Fre09 l 1033 (Parker, 2009). You can also see niches on the back walls of the pantheon’s portico CITATION Sta1752 l 1033 (Staff Reporter, 2017). These images were those of Augustus Caesar, Julius Caesarand Agrippa. The current doors that can be seen ion the frames are not the original ones that were believed to be framed in gold.
RotundaThe rotunda is the other very important and also highly significant parts of the architecture of the Pantheon. It would indicate at the large dome that sits as the crown of the architecture/ the rotunda has a majestic dimension of 4535 tubs in its weight. The dome is supported by a ring of voussoirs that are 30 feet in diameter. Thedownward thrust is supported by eight barrel vaults that are 21 feet thick. The thickness of the dome varies between 21 feet that is the highest and a3.9 feet that are near the region of the oculus.
The material that has been used to make the dome also happens to vary to a large extent. And different materials have been used in the making of the dome like pumice, terracotta, tufa, light stones etc. The architecture shows marvelous understanding of distribution ofweight. The absence of concrete throughout has measurably reduced the stress on the dome by 80%. Instead less dense aggregate stones gave been used like small pieces of pumice and small pots. There are hidden chambers within the rotunda that adds to the sophistication of the structure. This technology has reduced the weight that has been put on the roof of the building.
The entire structure of the rotunda of Pantheon is much larger when compared to the other domes of the roman architecture. The height and the diameter of the rotunda happen to be exactly 142 ft. this helps to make a perfect cube. The precision of the measurements of the dome is much beyond what has been expressed and explained in the roman architecture history CITATION DrP15 l 1033 (Ranogajec, 2015).
InteriorThe interiors of the pantheon are one of the most iconic aspects of the architecture that symbolizes the visions of the heaven. The entry door to the pantheon and the dome’s oculusarethe only entrances of natural light. Throughout the daytime the natural light through the oculus travels in the opposite direction of the sundial. The oculus is also the space through which ventilation is provided to the interiors of the pantheon. There is a drainage system that runs below the floor which takes care of the water that accumulates during the rains, that enters the interior of Pantheon through the oculus.
The dome of the pantheon has five rings of sunken panels. These panels are also known as coffers. There are 28 such coffers. These coffers have been evenly distributed and could have been done on the basis of geometric, numerical or even lunar considerations. These coffers could have originally contained rosettes, bronze stars or other types of ornamentation.
The floor has a checkerboard pattern and one can observe Uniform Square and circle patterns in the interior of the pantheon. There are hence difference designer zones of decoration within the Pantheon CITATION Sam17 l 1033 (Kress, 2017). These non aligned designs within the interior of pantheon have always not been appreciated by all. It exhibits a pong trend of the neoclassical taste that was predominant in the 18th century.
Blue Print Plan Of The Pantheon
There are a large number of blue prints of pantheon available at various art and architecture centers of the world. It is one of the greatest specimen of Roman architecture that was later transformed into a catholic Church. The huge porch of the temple initially faced a rectangular colonnaded temple. There was a great circular room inside. The interior space is on the form of a cylinder that has a hemispherical dome on the top of it. On the opposite side of the door you will see recessed semicircular shaped apse. On each of the sides there are additionally three recesses. They are alternatively semicircular and rectangular in their shapes. They are separated by pairs of monolithic columns under the dome. There is an unglazed oculus in the center of the dome through which the light enters. This is the sole point from where the light can enter.
ModificationsGoing by the religious importance of the place, the Pantheon was sure to attract the attention of the later day religious leaders. This was exactly what happened and Pantheon as anarchitecture did happen to see to a large number of modifications that were done from the Christians point of view.
The present day apses and the high altars are a contribution of Pope Clement. High on the apse the altar bears the foreboding statue of Virgin Mary and the Child. This is an important impression of the Christian culture and marks the beginning of a new era.
There is also the paintings of St Nicholas of Bari and that of Madonna of the Girdle. There is also the chapel of Annunciation that has the fresco of Melozzo da Forli. There is also a fresco that depicts the Coronationof the Virgin CITATION Ger14 l 1033 (Berndt, 2014).
The prominent influence of Christianity on the architecture of the pantheon has been reinstated by other names that came into the lineage of the architecture in the later times. These names include eminent people like Bernardino Cametti, Francesco Cozza, Baldassare Peruzzi, Arnaldo Zocchi etc.
Popular Contemporary ImpactsIt has been mentioned in the beginning of the discussion that architecture is often influenced by a large number of aspects. The factors and the forces that influences architecture of any period happens to be that of religion, popular culture and the heritage of the ethnic group. The same can be said about the Roman people back in the age of the Renaissance.
The nature of the architecture of the pantheon clearly reveals the fact that the pantheon is an architecture that has a prominent religious depiction. Hence it can be said that this is a building that did have religious connotations in the ten contemporary times. However the building does not exhibit any image or statute of the ancient roman gods CITATION Jon14 l 1033 (Jones, 2014). Hence it is not clear that which are the specific gods to whom the architecture or the building had been dedicated.
The very look of the porch and the decorations of the pediment also indicates at the fact that the building could have been used by the ancient kings to call for assembles for meeting their special nobles or even a large crowd of the general masses. In this context it can be said that the Pantheon did have social, cultural and also political importance and implications.
The pantheon is the first example of classic architecture. This is a building where the interiors of the building have received more attention that the exterior of the building. It is a fine specimen of ancient roman architecture that has been influenced by the Greek architecture to a great extent. The yellow marble that has been applied to the outer steps is a fine example of Greek influence on the designs and the layout of the temple CITATION Wil02 l 1033 (MacDonald, 2002).
Ravages of TimeThe Pantheon is a structure or is a building that has seen a number of changes. In factor the building that we see in the present times is not the original one. It has been made in the exact place where the previous two pantheons existed. The first two had been ravaged by forces such as fire and has been broken down by forces that can as alien invasions or even internal rebels.
Quintessentially we can understand that the architecture of the Pantheon has seen a large number of changes. Many of the changes have been brought with new icons of the forthcoming ages. This is why it can be said that different cultures and ages did contribute to shape the present pantheon. Hence it is a structure that commands attention from scholars and investigators studying world culture and heritage.
It stands tall as one of the most important structures of the Italian monarchy and embodies the undying spirit of the Italian Renaissance and royalty CITATION Pet041 l 1033 (Wilkins, 2004). Till date the Pantheon is considered to be one of the most important specimens of Roman culture and architecture and reflect the popular spirits of ancient Roman heritage. No doubt it is under the strict maintenance of the government of the nation and attracts a larger number of global tourists from the various parts of the world.
ConclusionThe Pantheon is one of the living examples that quantify the place and the status of architecture in the culture of any nation. It would not be wrong to establish the fact that architecture is one of the best ways through which you can get an insight into the life and the culture of the people of the yesteryears. It is the aspect of architecture that gives you an idea of the level of sophistication and urbanization that the people of the earlier times did gain in their own era. This has been the practice since the very dawn of history with the ancient civilizations of prehistoric ages, continued and followed in the study of the history of every race, ethnicity and nationality CITATION Fre09 l 1033 (Parker, 2009).
A close study of the architecture of a nation or race and a keen observation of the minute and the subtle changes can give you an idea of the various changes that the people and their lives whet through in the earlier times. It is one of the best ways through which you can make out the number of external influences that affected the lives and the people of the earlier times.
The Pantheon is a great example that helps us take a look at the life and culture of people who existed nearly 2,000 years back. The building is still as enthralling as ever giving us inspiring insights into the life and culture of ancient Rome.
References BIBLIOGRAPHY Berndt, G. G. (2014). Decoding the Pantheon Columns. Architectural Histories, Vol-2 , 1-10.
Cartwright, M. (2013, 06 12). Pantheon. Retrieved 03 05, 2018, from https://www.ancient.eu/Pantheon/: https://www.ancient.eu/Pantheon/
Jones, T. A. (2014). The Pantheon- From Antiquity to the present. Cambridge University Press.
Kress, S. H. (2017). Interior of the Pantheon, Rome. Retrieved 02 28, 2018, from https://www.nga.gov/collection/art-object-page.165.html: https://www.nga.gov/collection/art-object-page.165.html
MacDonald, W. L. (2002). The Pantheon: Design, Meaning, and Progeny. In W. L. MacDonald, The Pantheon: Design, Meaning, and Progeny (pp. 27-90). Harvard University Press.
Parker, F. (2009, 05 13). The Pantheon – Rome – 126 AD. Retrieved 03 05, 2018, from http://www.monolithic.org/domes-more/the-pantheon-rome-126-ad: http://www.monolithic.org/domes-more/the-pantheon-rome-126-ad
Ranogajec, D. P. (2015, 12 11). The Pantheon (Rome). Retrieved 03 06, 2018, from https://smarthistory.org/the-pantheon/: https://smarthistory.org/the-pantheon/
Staff Reporter. (2017). History of Structural Engineering: The Pantheon. Retrieved 03 04, 2018, from http://www.aleckassociates.co.uk/structural-engineering/history-of-structural-engineering-the-pantheon/: http://www.aleckassociates.co.uk/structural-engineering/history-of-structural-engineering-the-pantheon/
Wilkins, P. (2004). The Pantheon as a Globe-Shaped Conception. Nexus Network Journal; Vol-6; Issue-1 , 78-84.