More than two decades after Apartheid socio-economic inequality still persists in South Africa. The increased youth unemployment has developed in a national crisis impacting on the social and economic welfare of people – the Northern Cape Province and specifically the Namaqualand Constituency, is no exception.
Solving this unemployment crisis lies in coordinating attractive legislative and economic conditions, together with partnerships between private businesses ( incentivizes the private sector to implement skills development programmes) and the non-profit sector and implementing skills development programmes with the focus on the youth via government initiatives. By creating innovation hubs unemployed youth can obtain marketable skills to support them in finding employment or to motivate them to take the initiative to create their own employment in which they can utilize these skills.
Digital migration offers hope for developing countries like South Africa by creating the possibility for systemic change and to improve the situation through opportunities of economic development, improvement in governance and ultimately better service delivery. The paper will evaluate the empowering possibilities of skills development of unemployed youth in Namaqualand through digital migration.
2. RESEARCH CONTEXT: BACKGROUND
South Africa is amidst the 4th Industrial Revolution- a technological revolution shifting from digitization (the Third Industrial Revolution) to innovation based on combinations of technologies, but the country still has a long way to go, lagging behind the rest of the world in terms of providing affordable and reliable access to telecommunications and the internet.
According to the South African government “This ecosystem of digital networks, services, applications, content and devices, will be firmly integrated into the economic and social fabric of the country. Together, these broadband elements provide an enabling platform for economic enterprise, active citizenship and social engagement and innovation. It will connect public administration to the active citizen; promote economic growth, development and competitiveness; drive the creation of decent work; underpin nation-building and strengthen social cohesion; and support local, national and regional integration.” (National Development Plan 2030 Our Future-make it work; 2012 : p.189)
The uneven distribution of access to ICT`s, however, separates individuals who are able to access computers and the internet from those who have no opportunity to do so, benefiting those provided with information to grasp opportunities created by this platform. Closing the digital exclusion to inclusively provide every member of a society with an equal opportunity to benefit from digital development, also in Namaqualand in the Northern Cape, should be the goal. Barriers are the high costs of data and lack of infrastructure. Access to the internet does not only mean being in possession of the device that can connect to the internet, but also having the opportunity to acquire the skills and expertise to be able to use the internet.
South African television is currently broadcasted in an analogue format. Digital Terrestrial Television (or Transmission) refers to the terrestrial, or land-based, broadcasting of digital television /data, rather than analogue waveforms. With digital migration the analogue format is replaced with the digital format, resulting in more efficient bandwidth usage freeing up more spectrum, providing a higher quality signal. Conversion will contribute in making broadband internet accessible to the entire country as freed-up spectrum can be used for non-broadcasting services like mobile services, wireless broadband and satellite /terrestrial services. Not having access to information technologies creates economic and social disadvantages.
Unemployed youth can benefit positively from the opportunities created by digital migration through the accessibility of broadband internet. The focus of this study will be to evaluate the impact DTT roll out and digital migration has on the unemployed youth in Namaqualand, often excluded from the online world due to their socio-economic conditions, focusing on the rural NamaKhoi Municipal area.
Government in has a responsibility to challenge the bridge of digital divide. It should create an environment/infrastructure to make ICT available whereby young entrepreneurs can be empowered with requisite skills that will enable them to actively participate in an inclusive digital society where people can benefit from opportunities offered by digital migration.
3. THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
South Africa ranked relatively low in the Networked Readiness Index (NRI) Report 2015 -75th out of the 143 countries in terms of capacity to prepare for, use and leverage ICTs. Affordability landed the country in 107th place and the general state of ICT readiness in 102nd place- an indication that government will have to make a continuous effort to address the digital divide. (http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Global_IT_Report_2015.pdf)
To ensure ICT transformation benefits everyone, also those in rural areas, policy makers and governments need to understand the role ICT plays in growth, competitiveness, socio-economic development and the progress towards knowledge-based societies. Policies should adapt to support ICT investments and growth. The research will evaluate South Africa`s regulatory and business environment as well as ICT readiness—as measured by ICT affordability, skills and infrastructure. It will determine if DTT in its current form is inclusive.
As a developing country, digital migration can create opportunities in South Africa to enhance skills and employability for young people in disadvantage rural areas like in the NamaKhoi municipal area, residing within the greater Namakwa District Municipal area.
The impact and challenges of digital migration nationally, but also in the Northern Cape and the selected municipal area will therefore be explored, as well as how rural areas, like the NamaKhoi municipal area is affected by digital migration. The evaluation will determine if government awareness programmes creates the enabling frameworks to encourage innovation and opportunity, also if the unemployed youth is informed properly to enable them to make informed choices and explore the possible opportunities as a result of digital migration.
With continuous urbanisation, rural areas hold the key to growing the economy, especially if new technologies can be adopted with support of government. Basic ICT skills knowledge is important to participate in an inclusive digital society. According to Buchanan et al.( 2010); Bhorat and Jacobs (2010); Kraak (2009); Kelly and Lewis (2003) and Rupasingha et al. (2000) rural skills development forms an integral part of a broader system, which includes economic, social and political factors and deserves to be conceptualised as such.
Digital migration further creates an opportunity for the development of local software and content, as well as infrastructure to meet the needs for digital migration. Spectrum wil come available with the switch to digital broadcasting and the demand for local content once the DTT roll out is implemented, will be huge. National Government should have structures in place to address services and applications and these institutional directives will be investigated, including whether government has developed an e-governance approach in building digital and IT skills.
The evaluation will determine the relevance of the DTT role out and digital migration on unemployed youth in the NamaKhoi municipal area and if there is social relevance. Figure 1 illustrates a non-alignment with social cohesion – this will be explored.
4. AIM OF THE STUDY
The aim of the study is to investigate governments approach to create opportunities for unemployed youth in the NamaKhoi municipal area, within the digital environment through awareness programmes, accessibility (infrastructure) and skills development and to establish a clearer relation between government and the people.
The study will contribute to the broader literature of the DTT programme within the context of South Africa as a developing country and the effectiveness of digital migration in a rural context such as the NamaKhoi municipal area.
The impact of the DTT roll out in terms of opportunities like skills development to empower unemployed youth through expanding trade, creating jobs and increasing access to public services, while also promoting social and economic inclusion will be evaluated.
5. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The objectives of the study is to:
•Determine the impact of DTT roll-out (digital migration) in creating opportunities for unemployed youth in the NamaKhoi Municipality, within the broader Namaqualand District Municipality in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa.
•Explore government commitment to integrating rural communities against the NDP goals of sustainable and inclusive growth by 2030 in rural areas supported by skills development to empower unemployed youth within an inclusive digital environment;
•Explore whether the South African legislative, policy and regulatory environment is adequate and conducive to support an inclusive society, especially in relation to ICT skills development.
•Evaluate findings of the research in the NamaKhoi Municipality; Northern Cape.
6. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.To what extent has DDT been rolled out in NamaKhoi Municipality?
2.Is the concept “digital divide” applicable in the NamaKhoi Municipality?
3.Is there an interrelation between SKA and DTT programmes of national government and if so, how has it impacted the NamaKhoi Municipality?
4.Are there DTT skills development programmes set up by government to support DTT rollout in NamaKhoi Municipality? To what extent do the youth of in NamaKhoi Municipality know about these programmes?
5.What is the role of local government in the rollout of the DTT programme in NamaKhoi Municipality?
6.Are there DTT programmes in place to support e-government? To what extent are the youth of in NamaKhoi Municipality integrated into these programmes?
7.Are there adequate legislative, policy and regulatory support to ensure successful integration of youth in the implementation of the DTT programme in NamaKhoi Municipality?
7. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will contribute to the broader literature of the DTT programme roll out within the context of South Africa as a developing country.
The Government DTT programme will be studied with reference to the effectiveness of the roll out in the rural NamaKhoi municipal area in the Northern Cape and the implications / impact on unemployed youth (skills development, employment prospects etc.) and how digital migration can contribute to empowering unemployed youth through expanding trade, creating jobs and increasing access to public services while promoting social and economic inclusion.
8. LITERATURE REVIEW
Technology has become the driving force of change in the modern world. It has altered our economic structures and the ways we communicate. It has even changed how we relate to one another. Examine how technology — even in small amounts — is helping developing nations and communities overcome convention and tradition to take leaps forward.
This opening spiel of the documentary “Virtual Villages: Technology and the Developing World” aired by CNN in June 2000, today still refers.
Potential markets in this mentioned study showed dramatic results because of the introduction of information and communication technology to the poor and displays how the same impact can be created in rural areas through government support of the ICT sector and skills development, like in the NamaKhoi Municipal area (Figure 1), a B category municipality, within the Namakwa District Municipality (Northern Cape) to enhance lives.
(Source: Municipal Demarcation Board. (2018). Shapefiles. online Available at: http://www.demarcation.org.za/site/shapefiles/ Accessed 16 May 2018.)
8.2DTT / Digital Migration
Digital migration is a process of moving (migrating) from the use of analogue forms of broadcasting to digital ones. Analogue broadcasting limits the availability of radio / broadcasting frequency spectrum. According to an article by PPM Attorneys (2015), “on terrestrial networks, 6 or more services can multiplexed in the bandwidth provided for a single analogue service” – the digital dividend created by refers to the electromagnetic spectrum freed up by migration. This spectrum can be used for other wireless services like cellular cell phones, satellite television, GPS units, wireless keyboards, headphones and Bluetooth and other devices.
The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) to which South Africa is an affiliate, recommended an international deadline of June 2015 for Africa and Europe to migrate to digital broadcasting. Broadcasters, who were still transmitting their broadcasting signal after this switch off date, using the analogue technology, would no longer be protected from harmful interference of their broadcasting services- resulting in picture distortions and degradation to black TV images. South Africa `s status will be evaluated in this research.
In SA in order for people to have access to service offerings from DTT they will be required to have set-top boxes. Households depending on social grants and those with an income below R3500 would benefit from a commitment by the South African government to supply 5.2 million free STBs to convert digital broadcasting signals on analogue TV sets. Bridging the digital divide requires making internet accessible for the poorest people through adequate infrastructure and services. Another definition of poverty sees it as “being deprived of information needed to participate in wider society, at the local, national and global level” (Harris, 2004).
The research will explore whether unemployment and poverty impact on the NamaKhoi population, more specifically on the unemployed youth, with regards to accessibility to ICT. Also if this area benefits from spectrum freed up by DTT/digital migration.
8.2.1Advantages of digital migration
“Digital technologies have fundamentally reshaped our lives by expanding the base of information, reducing the costs for information sharing, transmission and acquiring, and bringing innovation that lead to the greater connectivity among people, businesses and governments.” (World Bank, 2016).
DTT is important to reduce the digital divide and will ensure that all of the population have access to a variety of television and radio services and move towards the modern information society. To get wide adoption, DTT must offer quality content, affordable equipment and reliable signal access. The research will determine whether the government has done enough with regards to consumer education and awareness and has created for public support and liaised with stakeholders, especially in the NamaKhoi Municipality. It will evaluate if the advantages of ICT have an impact on unemployed youth in the said area.
18.104.22.168 Advantages of DTT for South Africa, is:
•that broadcasters and operators can offer new services and generate new revenue
•clearer and sharper pictures (enhanced picture quality) and content quality (in support of
education, health, poverty eradication, crime prevention and rural development)
•offers a wide screen format
•and multiple language offerings per channel (can cater for South Africa’s pluralistic
society – all benefitting from the different languages and cultures)
•allows for the transmission of a greater number of channels than traditional analogue
•freeing up the frequency spectrum and increase the amount of data that can be transmitted
• freeing spectrum, will create an opportunity for content development
• make spectrum for internet available – important to be digital inclusive
•manufacturer benefit from increased receiver sale – development of hardware and software
8.3 ICT, Digital Divide and Development in (rural) South Africa
ICT has the potential to raise global income levels and improve the quality of life for populations around the world, changing the way people live, work and relates to one another, create opportunities like “products-as-services, the sharing (collaborative) economy, and digital services and digital exports”. (Naude; 2017)
According to Idowu ; Awodele (2010:30), ICT may include the use of computers, mobile phones, e-business or commerce, video-conferencing and the internet. “Globally, revenue from Internet advertising exceeded that from TV advertising for the first time in 2016.” (E and M outlook: 2017 – 2021; p.14) According to the World Economic Forum (2014), each additional 10% of internet penetration can also lead to a 1.2% increase in per capita GDP growth in emerging economies. Internet penetration in South Africa in the past few years, particularly with regards to mobile access and use, has flourished. (Lewis, 2005; Kreutzer, 2009; Longe et al., 2009; Insight Africa, 2012) That is why, according to Dr Kingsley Makhubela, the chief executive of Brand South Africa, both the public and private sector in South Africa are investing in the development of skills and human resources to harness these opportunities. He reflects that it is only in this way that the true potential of integrating technologies into development policies, especially in health, education, agriculture and other important measures of economic progress, will be fully realized.
It is thus important to explore if rural areas, specifically those like in the Namakwa District Municipality (Northern Cape), benefit from ICT development and if not, what the reasons are and how can it be addresses to empower young unemployed people.
o8.3.2 Digital Divide
A previous Minister in the South African Presidency, Trevor Manuel stated, “The truth of the matter is that inequality will grow because ICT does not wait until the laggards are ready.” (Jansen, 2014) Internet has a clear potential for improved quality of life and social inclusion among users (Oyedemi, 2015; Kelly, Kennedy ; Britton, McGuire ; Law, 2016).
“Young men and women today face increasing uncertainty in their hopes of undergoing a satisfactory entry to the labour market, and this uncertainty and disillusionment can, in turn, have damaging effects on individuals, communities, economies and society at large. Unemployed or underemployed youth are less able to contribute effectively to national development and have fewer opportunities to exercise their rights as citizens. They have less to spend as consumers, less to invest as savers and often have no “voice” to bring about change in their lives and communities.” ILO (KILM 2014)
According to Nagamani and Veni (2016) information has become the principal determinant of the progress of nations, communities and individuals. Access to digital technologies brings more choices and provides opportunities that were previously out of reach to the poor and disadvantaged. Due to its impact on society and on economic development (Alam ; Imran, 2015; Harris, 2015), the digital divide is still recognised as an important research topic (Srinuan, ; Bohlin, 2011).
ICT distribution is SA is uneven because of demographical, socio-economic and cultural factors such as ethnicity, income, education, language and gender. This digital divide separates individuals who are able to access computers and the internet from those who have no opportunity to do so. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (Mwim and Kritzinger, 2016) have defined the term digital divide as the “gap between individuals, households, businesses and geographic areas at different socio-economic levels with regard both to their opportunities to access ICTs and to their use of the Internet for a wide variety of activities” as well as gaps between developed and developing nations.
Research shows also that the Internet has a tremendous effect on the way human beings resolve their educational, social and economic desires (Harris, 2015), therefor it is important to close the digital gap. The term digital divide is also defined in this research as an inequality in access to ICT device and the Internet that exist between countries, individuals, households, businesses and geographic areas at different socio-economic levels (OECD, 2001; Srinuan and Bohlin; Mwim and Kritzinger, 2016).
In observing the IDP of the municipality an understanding will achieved on the poverty situation in the area of study, also the age and gender most affected within the group- unemployed youth.
8.3.3 Development in (rural) South Africa
Humans can only be capacitated in an environment where people have access to (affordable) information and where skills development takes place. The DTT roll out /digital migration in SA creates this opportunity for government to include skills development and specifically digital skills development for the unemployed youth to support capacity building throughout the value chain.
The National Development Plan (NDP; 2012) states “no political democracy can survive and flourish if the mass of our people remain in poverty, without land, without tangible prospects for a better life…attacking poverty and deprivation must therefore be the first priority of a democratic government”. “ICT is not a panacea for rural development problems, but it has the potential to help the rural poor to leaping some of the traditional barriers to development, by improving access to information, expanding the market base, enhancing employment opportunities and making government services work better.” (Swanson ; Rajalathi, 2010) Castells and Himanen (2014; p.269) reflect as follow on the relationship between informational and human development namely “the challenges of global change require an intellectual renewal able to associate human development with informational innovation and… with the needs of the network society theory.” Digital migration resulted in a shift towards developing “human skills infrastructure” (Cukier, Smarz ; Grant, 2011, p. 1) frequently referred to as electronic skills (e-skills).
According to Baker et al. (2003) and Chavula (2010) the internet is an essential mechanism for transforming various aspects of human life, for instance in the medical, social and economic spheres. At the IDC Directions 2018 event, Mark Walker, associate vice-president for Sub-Saharan Africa said that “compared with high growth economies globally, South Africa would need to significantly increase investment in both technology itself, and importantly, training and skills, to utilise the technology investment to maximum effect.” (https://www.itweb.co.za/content)
Of concern is the country’s relatively low ICTs ranking in the Networked Readiness Index (NRI) Report 2015 -75th out of the 143 countries, which contributes to the increasing awareness in South Africa that ICT should be used more widely (Bilbao-Osorio et al., 2014; Gillwald, Moyo & Stork, 2012). The Department of Communication and the e-Skills Institute (2010) concludes, however, that providing access to ICT to people, without the necessary and appropriate skills to be able to use it, has proved to be a largely ineffective means of inclusion.
According to Weiss (2011) and Oyedemi (2015) information offered by the internet plays a vital role in social equality, human development and successful socio-economic improvement of any community. ICT in rural areas include community radios, like Radio NFM98.1 in the town of Okiep (NamaKhoi Municipality) which will participate in the research to evaluate the impact of the community radio on awareness, educational value, as well as the impact of digital migration on the radio station in terms of digitizing and effectiveness to interact with the communities. Furthermore community televisions, participatory video, internet services like ICT hubs in libraries where communities have access to internet – all contribute to including community members in an inclusive digital environment; useful for the illiterate.
Not only does radio and TV enhance national identity, but it also provides an outlet for domestic media content. It informs the public about important news and information – important in rural areas where the population is spread over vast areas and in times of emergencies. The research will try to establish how relevant ICT is in the NamaKhoi municipal area, also with regards to e-governance and if it is actively implemented and useful to the communities.
Namaqualand is a well-known tourist destination. Tourism and small scale farming are ways of making a living for many, especially after the downscaling of mining activities like the OCC copper mining (Okiep-ward 6, Nababeep- ward 9), De Beers mine at Koingnaas and Kleinzee (most workers in the NamaKhoi municipal area were from Komaggas (ward 8) and Steinkopft (Ward 2 and 3) – ICT can benefit the community in developing and growing these business opportunities and establishing SME`s to challenge unemployment. Therefor the Tourism Office will be included in the research to see if DTT actually do impact or can impact on youth development in the sector and how skills development can contribute to better the lives of young people.
The Internet has the capacity to have a tremendous transformational impact on society and commerce (Kelly, Kennedy, Britton, McGuire and Law 2016). Ismail et al. (2011) reveals that SME`s in South Africa invest in general use ICT technologies like the internet, bulk SMS, VoIP, organisational websites and intranets. Awareness was identified as one of the underlying factors affecting the level of the Internet non-use in developing communities (Ting, 2016). Other factors that may impact on the Internet usage and connectivity in rural areas include language, access and skill. The barriers to ICT usage in the NamaKhoi Municipality will be explored.
Various studies reflects on the benefits of the internet in society, skills and awareness (Helsper and Reisdorf, 2013; Zillien and Hargittai, 2009; Wei and Hindman, 2011; Van Deursen and Van Dijk, 2014; Ting, 2016). It can, however, not be seen as a stand-alone – in this regard the EDP and IDP of the municipality is a guide line to get a background on the population and to see what needs of the community are addressed or needs to be prioritized. The research will analyse the information presented by these documents to get a clear understanding of the background of the NamaKhoi Municipality and circumstances for this research area. The local government needs to consult with communities to determine what local activities need be supported by ICT`s, also to get support for any training or actions involved initiatives.
8.4. Interrelation between SKA and DTT
President Ramaphosa in an article in ITWeb (February 2018) reflects on the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) radio telescope in the Karoo (Northern Cape) -“Our SKA project where our scientists and our young people are just excelling beyond any imaginable limit is already demonstrating to all and sundry across the world that South Africa and South Africans are well attuned to innovation and technology.
The research will explore if there is any relevance between the DTT/digital migration and the SKA project and how, if the SKA project impact on the rural area of NamaKhoi.
8.5 Adequate legislative, policy and regulatory support
Azari (2009) and Pick (2008) present results that show that technology utilization can be influenced by policies that promote an open society, investment in ICTs and improved general and technology-focused education. A country needs a favourable business environment, strong human capital and good governances to observe the positive impacts of ICT as emphasized by the World Bank (2016). By taking advantage of benefits that ICT`s have to offer, the growth potential of the country can be accelerated. ICT is a tool for driving socio?economic development such as poverty reduction.
While Wim Naudé, the Dean of the Maastricht School of Management, argues that the 4IR offers opportunities for “new forms of manufacturing that would trigger a period of valuable growth”, SA needs, however, to coordinate attractive legislative and economic conditions, together with partnerships between private businesses ( incentivizes the private sector to implement skills development programmes) and the non-profit sector to help address socio-economic inequality that still persists in South Africa after more than two decades of the Apartheid era.
The research will explore if there are adequate legislative, policy and regulatory support to ensure successful integration of youth in the implementation of the DTT programme in NamaKhoi Municipality.
9. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
9.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The general approach to the research design will be a Qualitative Study that seeks to understand the impact of the rollout of DTT/digital migration in the rural NamaKhoi Municipality on the unemployed youth.
Grounded theory is a systematic methodology which operates inductively (analysis and development of theories happens after you have collected the data). This social science research collects non-numerical data. As it involves collecting and analysing of data it is said that the theory is “grounded” in actual data. This data will be interpreted and evaluated to understand social life through the study of the targeted population, in this case the unemployed youth. Qualitative research allows the researcher access to the respondents’ experiences from their own perspectives and experiences. This will be achieved through interviews and focus groups in order to get a better understanding. “Interviews are, therefore, most appropriate where little is already known about the study phenomenon or where detailed insights are required from individual participants…” (Silverman; 2000) Questionnaires will also be used in this research. The literature review gives an overview of relevant resources, books and scholarly articles on the topic that were studied by the researcher relevant to a the area of research and an evaluation of these works in relation to the research problem that is being investigated.
This non-empirical study will focus on life / people’s experiences (the unemployed youth in the NamaKhoi Municipality) and with the data gathered and analysed the researcher will be able to construct a theory to explain her findings.
9.2 SAMPLING STRATEGY
Polit and Hungler (1999:37) refer to the population as an aggregate or totality of all the objects, subjects or members that conform to a set of specifications. The targeted population in this qualitative research will be unemployed youth and how they are impacted by DTT rollout /digital migration in the NamaKhoi Municipality, Northern Cape, as this is the criteria put out by the researcher.
The sample for this research will be from the accessible population in the NamaKhoi Municipality. The sample frame will be including unemployed youth (15-35), with the sample size 8-10 people. A random selection process will be followed in order to ensure that each individual in the population has the same chance of being selected for the sample. The researcher will make use of community radio to select random and willing participants – a probability sample method.
The impact of the roll out of DTT / digital migration on the local community radio station as well as Tourism Office will also be included in the evaluation. Target groups will thus be:
oUnemployed youth (15-35)
oThe community radio in Namaqualand, Northern Cape
oTourism Office -Namaqualand Municipality Target Group
The findings of the survey data will provide evidence whether there is a lack of awareness of the benefits of the internet in this rural area, contributing to a digital divide- “a generation gap between those who master and do not master digital technology, or “the difference between those who know and those who do not know how to act in a digital environment” (Aarsand 2007:235,236) This will have social and economic implications, therefor the inclusion of the community radio station and Tourism Office, because both can contribute to close the digital divide gap.
Access to internet enables information sharing, connectivity and participation in the economy. The area is a popular tourism destination and there are opportunities for unemployed youth to create small enterprises. They can link with the tourism office if they have access to internet and have the necessary skills. There are also prospects for content development in the local creative sector-not only to benefit local tourism, but also the local community radio station, creating employment opportunities. There has been much recent focus on the role of the cultural industries, or cultural sector, in local and regional economic development (Sacco et al., 2014). It is further important to establish the radio`s contribution to create awareness, inform communities and educate them in line with the government who support community radios through the Media Diversity Development Agency and if government support the community radio and used this medium to create awareness of the roll out of DTT in the communities. In the information age we live, the lack of awareness of internet benefits among the participants in developing communities, such as in the NamaKhoi Municipality will have implications on how human activities are carried.
It will be determined if the participants unemployment / poverty status influence their perception of awareness benefits and the use of the Internet.
9.3 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS
In this research the researcher will make use of community radio to select random and willing participants – a probability sample method.
A program on the local community radio station NFM98.1 on the roll out of DTT/ digital migration, before the end of June, will give the opportunity to invite prospective participants to send their number and names to the radio station. Participants will be informed that the information will be used confidentially. The criteria for these participants are that they need to be unemployed, in the age group 15-35 and live in the NamaKhoi Municipality.
The researcher will apply the interview format using semi-structured interviews / focus group and the researcher will be engaging a small group of participants. The intention with this conversation is that it will be designed to generate data relevant to the research question. Focus groups can contain anywhere from 5 to 15 participants. The interview combined with a questionnaire will consist of several key questions that will help to define the areas to be explored. The questionnaire will have some open-ended questions to ensure that the youth get the opportunity to voice their opinion and elaborate on personal experience. It will provide participants with some guidance on what to talk about, which many might find helpful and will allows the interviewer or interviewee to diverge in order to pursue an idea or response in more detail.
Study details will be given to respondents before interviews take place to put them at ease. Ethical principles like confidentiality and anonymity will be emphasized. Kvale (1996) states that” the fundamental purpose of the research interview is to listen attentively to what respondents have to say, in order to acquire more knowledge about the study topic.”
According to Silverman (2000) there are a variety of methods of data collection in qualitative research, including observations, textual or visual analysis (e.g. from books or videos) and interviews (individual or group).The literature review in this research design also includes examining various texts, relevant books, journals, legislation and publications, to provide a clear understanding of thoughts and discussions/feedback on the topic.
The choice of the province and community were based on the following reasons:
oGovernment started the DTT roll out/digital migration in the Northern Cape
oThe SKA project, the world’s largest radio telescope, with eventually over a square kilometre (one million square metres) of data collecting area, is in the Northen Cape and it is important to know how this might impact on the DTT roll out /digital migration, if.
oNamaKhoi Municipality is in a rural area and (youth) unemployment is a serious problem, therefor it is important to establish if the youth have access to the internet and realise the opportunities it is able to create.
oIt is also important to explore the barriers that exist for these young people being unemployed in a rural area and if government creates an environment that empower them, like through skills development.
oNo previous studies of this sort has previously been conducted in the NamaKhoi Municipality and because of the location of the municipality it bears potential for economic growth through tourism, small farmingg and other probabilities that can be created by access to internet that will enable an environment for economic growth and employment.
9.4 DATA ANALYSIS
The process of examining, transforming, arranging and summarizing raw data in a specific way to generate useful information from it is called data analysis- it is the activity of making sense of, interpreting and theorizing data that signifies a search for general statements among categories of data. (Schwandt, 2007:6) Analysing Qualitative data is to offer an explanation or interpretation to descriptive information.
Tuckman and Harper (2012:387) state that a qualitative study involves an inseparable relationship
between data collection and data analysis in order to build a coherent interpretation of data. Qualitative methods use words (concepts, terms, symbols, etc.) to construct a framework for communicating the essence of what the data reveal… (Sesay, 2011:74). Qualitative research is a more subjective form of research and the analysis relies on the researchers’ impressions therefor it must be systematic and transparent to ensure that it is reliable as it often investigates people’s experiences, meanings and relationships, also their knowledge and understanding of a given issue or programme, like the DTT roll out / digital migration process.
There are two ways of analysing qualitative data. One way is to examine the findings with a pre-defined framework, which reflects the aims of the study, objectives and interests and allows the researcher to focus on particular answers and abandon the rest- the ‘framework analysis’ (Pope et al 2000) The second approach takes an exploratory perspective, encouraging the researcher to consider and code all the data, allowing for new interpretations – the thematic network analysis (Attride-Stirling, 2001).
?If the study is qualitative- refer to the specific type of analysis that will be used (for example, content analysis, thematic analysis, narrative analysis, grounded theory, and so forth). Also describe how the data will data be transcribed.
“Do not take the risk. Pilot test first.” (Van Teijlingen ; Hundley, 2001:2). A pilot study in social science research can refer to so-called feasibility studies which are “small scale versions, or trial runs, done in preparation for the major study” (Polit et al., 2001: 467). According to Baker (1994: 182-3) it can also be the pre-testing or ‘trying out’ of a particular research instrument. It follows after the researcher has a clear vision of the research topic, questions, techniques and methods.
Some have argued that in qualitative approaches separate pilot studies are not necessary (Holloway; 1997: 121). It is however, important to conduct a pilot study because it may identify potential practical/logistical problems in following the proposed research procedure. For this qualitative research study 1-2 people will be doing the pilot study on the interview questions to develop and test the research instruments and collect primary data. The pilot subjects will conduct the questionnaire in exactly the same way as it will be administered in the main study and be asked for feedback to see if they experienced any difficulties and to identify ambiguities and difficult questions-the questionnaire will be tested for validity and reliability. Participants in the pilot study`s non-verbal behaviour may give important information about any embarrassment or discomfort experienced concerning the content or wording in a questionnaire. Furthermore the researcher will be able to measure the time to see whether the time allocation for the research questionnaire is appropriate.
Doing a pilot study helps the researcher determine what resources are needed for the planned research and to assess the feasibility of a (full-scale) study/survey, although completing a pilot study successfully is not a guarantee of the success of the full-scale survey. A pilot study gives the researcher an opportunity to design a research protocol that is realistic and workable. It also assists the researcher to assess if the sampling frame and technique are effective. It is argued that”an essential feature of a pilot study is that the data are not used to test a hypothesis or included with data from the actual study when the results are reported” (Peat et al. 2002: 57)
The pilot study will be done in order to see if there are potential problems that can arise from the research questionnaire.
10. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Ethical considerations in research are important as ethics help to determine the difference between acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. They are the norms or standards for conduct that distinguish between right and wrong.
The sample selection will be done by inviting prospective participants via a radio talk show to forward their names and numbers to the radio. A letter was already written to the radio station which confirmed that all is in order for the planned programme. Participants will be made aware of the purpose of the project so that they can make informed decisions on whether they want to participateand that their information will be kept confidential. They also have the opportunity to decide for themselves whether they want to participate or not –
A discussion on the following aspects should be considered:
?Ensuring participants have given informed consent;
?Ensuring no harm comes to participants;
?Ensuring confidentiality and anonymity; and
?Ensuring that permission is obtained.
When discussing the ethical considerations, it is important that you state how these considerations will be maintained in the current study.
starting point in considering ethical
concerns is the four principles of Tom
Beauchamp and Jim Childress (1983):
Autonomy; respect the rights of the
individual Beneficience; doing good Non-maleficience; not doing harm
Justice; particularly equity
Consider carefully the context in which
you will be working, the aim of your
research and how sensitive the topic might
be. Might the questions that you will be
asking be traumatising or might they make
your respondent(s) uncomfortable/fearful
Remember that asking a person to talk
about experiences that were frightening,
humiliating and painful can cause or increase
anxiety. It may not only create distress
during an interview, but may also emerge
after2. It is therefore very important that
you take care in how you ask a question
and where you choose to ask questions.
Two key ethical issues that should be
considered in any project are consent and
Everyone who participates in your study
should have freely consented to
participation, without being coerced or
unfairly pressurised. This means they
should be well-informed about what
participation entails, and reassured that
declining will not affect any services they
receive. While written consent may in
some situations frighten the individuals
you are talking to, you should at the very
least obtain verbal consent.
It is not always easy or even possible to
measure the dangers of a certain context
to a given population, let alone to
individuals. It is therefore essential to
protect the identity of the person from
whom you gather information. If collected,
the identity of the participants must be
protected at all times and not be left
lying around in notebooks or un-protected