Many drugs that are currently available for usage do not work in the same way for everyone, no one can predict who will accept the drug and who will experience negative side effects which can lead to his death. Healthcare provider has suggested a new test and method for discovering how specific medications work for specific person only, this test is called pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics is a new field results from the combination between pharmacology and genomics. Genes are made up of DNA which found in every cell’s nucleus and some genes code for specific proteins which allows the cell to be alive. Everyone has variations in his genes and this what make every person differ and unique from others. Although genes determine a lot about the appearance of a person, they also play an important role in pharmacogenomics field and this will help in developing the drugs and allow the treatment of a wide range of health problems.
Many drugs are synthesized with the consideration that each drug works in a similar way in everybody. Depending on the genetic variations, drugs may work less or more helpful and effectively for some persons than others. And accordingly, doctors can determine the positive and side effects which result from specific medication. Pharmacogenomics is the field of study the way that genes affect our body in responding to medical drugs. This field can help doctors to determine the suitable types of medications and the suitable amount of the dose for each patient. (Corrigan, O. P. ,2005) has reported that a new ethical issue about pharmacogenomics has been developed, this report discussed many points and the most important one is that pharmacogenomics is still in its embryonic stage and it will give inequality in health care and treatment because some companies might not want to develop new drugs and not help a few people because they do not have enough money. So, the use of this field is still quite limited and under recent studies.
Drug design and development is an important application for pharmacogenomics. For example, when doctors wanted to treat people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). before they synthesized and developed the antiviral drug (Ziagen), they test the HIV- infected patients who have genetic variants that make them more likely to have a bad reaction to that drug. Cancer also is a very active field in pharmacogenomics for examples, breast cancer drug (Herceptin) works for specific women whose tumors have specific genes that increase the production of HER2 protein and, in 40% of colon cancer patients whose tumors have a genetic change, they cannot respond to panitumumab drug very well. Pharmacogenomics also helps in quickly development and identification of drugs used in mental disorders for example, some patients who suffer from depression may respond to the first drug they use, and others may not respond and because each drug takes weeks to provide its full effect, patients’ depression may get worse so, doctors have to find a new drug quickly for them. Also, this field might help in discovering new drugs on its way to develop specific drugs to be suitable for some patients.
The inherited genes are the most important factor in influencing pharmacogenomics and determining the importance of its products or not to a person. In light of this fact, it is possible to develop the drugs to become suitable for the same person. Pharmacogenomics is a new field involving the study of two important fields which are pharmacology and genomics. It has a lot of applications in medicine and diseases such as HIV and cancer, also it has a big role in Psychiatric treatment. Finally, more studies and additional research are used in improving pharmacogenomics and provide new treatments for health care problems in the future such as Alzheimer disease.