Managers have always been aware that motivational aspects are becoming increasingly important in modern management. Staff motivation is the main means of ensuring the optimal use of resources, mobilization of existing human resources. The main goal of the motivation process is to get the maximum benefit from the use of available labor resources, which allows to increase the overall efficiency and profitability of the enterprise.
The peculiarity of personnel management in the transition to the market is the increasing role of the employee’s personality. Accordingly, the ratio of motives and needs, on which the motivation system can rely, is changing. Today, the company uses both financial and non-financial methods of remuneration to motivate its employees. Meanwhile, neither the theory of management nor the practice of personnel management gives a certain picture about the ratio of certain aspects of the motivation sphere of employees today and the most effective methods of their management. Gerchikova I. I. Management: Textbook / I. I. Gerchikova. – Moscow: Banks and exchanges, unity, 1995. – 521 p.
The relevance of the problem is due to the fact that the transition to a socially oriented market implies the need to create an adequate mechanism of motivation. Without this, it is impossible to consider in practice the objective prerequisites for improving the efficiency of production – the basis for the growth of real incomes and living standards of the population. At the same time, the final point of implementation of all reforms is the organization, where the labor force is directly connected with the means of production, the labor process is carried out. Recognition of the determining role of the motivational mechanism in the context of the reforms makes the authors ‘ appeal to the topic of internal motivation of staff particularly relevant.
The problem of staff motivation is widely considered today in the scientific and journalistic literature. However, attempts to adapt the classical theories of motivation to the present are largely not systematized, which complicates the practical use of technologies and methods of motivation. The complexity of the practical organization of the personnel motivation system is also determined by the weak study of the peculiarities of motivation of employees engaged in certain sectors of the economy and types of production. Although a number of works on this subject published. Some help in the study of the structure of incentives and motivations of staff managers can provide ongoing sociological research on the features and trends of development of the motivational sphere of work today.
Human resources management includes many components. Among them: personnel policy, relationships in the team, social and psychological aspects of management. The key is to identify ways to increase productivity, ways to increase creative initiative, as well as to stimulate and motivate employees.
The evolution of the application of different models of motivation has shown both positive and negative aspects of their application, and this is a natural process, as in the theory and practice of management there is no ideal model of motivation that would meet a variety of requirements. Existing models of motivation are very different in their focus and effectiveness.
The results of the study of models of motivation do not allow from a psychological point of view to clearly determine what motivates a person to work. The study of a person and his behavior in the process of work gives only some General explanations of motivation, but even they allow to develop pragmatic models of employee motivation in a particular workplace.
The purpose of this work is to study the theoretical foundations of motivation and consider the application of the theory of motivation of employees in practice.
lto study the concepts of “motivation” and ” to motivate»;
llearn techniques to motivate staff;
lconsider a concrete example of successful motivation of staff in the organization;
The subject of the course paper is the principles and methods of motivation used in personnel management.
1. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF PERSONNEL MOTIVATION MANAGEMENT
There are a large number of motivational trends, from which the concept of motivation is formed, and which are more or less characteristic of each person. Unfortunately, there is no clear and generally accepted definition of motivation. Different authors give a definition of motivation based on their point of view. For example, G. G. Zaitsev has such a definition: “Motivation is an incentive to the activity of individuals, groups, associated with the desire to meet certain needs.” From the point of view of B.Yu Serbinsky.: “Motivation is the motivation of people to work.” However, all the definitions of motivation are similar in one way or another: motivation is the active driving forces that determine the behavior of living beings. On the one hand, it is a compulsion imposed from the outside, and on the other hand, it is self – condemnation. It should be noted that human behavior is always motivated. To motivate employees means to affect their important interests and needs in something. Violations in motivation can have several reasons that are rooted in interpersonal conflicts between employees. Exemplary, the company reaching significant results in encouraging the tens and even hundreds of people, commitment to work and tendency to constant innovation, show that there are no reasons why you cannot create a system that allows the majority of the staff feel like winners. Tsvetayev V. M. Personnel Management/ V. M. Tsvetayev. – SPb: Peter, 2002 – p. 563
In my opinion, the concept of motivation, the following definition of E.A. Utkin, is more widely revealed: “Motivation is the state of the individual, which determines the degree of activity and direction of human actions in a particular situation.” Encyclopedic sociological dictionary/ Under the editorship of V. Osipov. – M., 1995. – 625 p.
It should be noted that activity does not provide the necessary motivation. A person can work diligently, be active, but there can be no positive results if he directs his activities in the wrong direction. Such a situation occurs when the subordinate does not represent the final goals of the work. The reason may be lack of awareness, insufficient control, poor management of its activities. Because of incorrect direction of labor actually also the appearance of conflict between their human needs and goals of the team. V. V. Glukhov Fundamentals of management: textbook for universities / V. V. Glukhov. – S. Peterburg.: «Spec.literature”, 1995.
Motivation is the process of influencing a person to induce him to take concrete actions by inducing certain motives in him. An interesting question is the ratio of “internal” and “external” motives. Practical personnel management/ V. R. Vesnin. – M., Lawyer. 1998 Human Activity is influenced by the motives arising from the closed interaction of man and the problem, but it happens that the motives arising from the open interaction of man and the problem (the external environment involves motives that encourage man to solve the problem). In the first case, the motive is called “internal”, because the motives are generated directly by the person facing the task. An example of such motivation can be the desire for a specific achievement, completion of work, knowledge, etc. Otherwise, the motives of activities related to the solution of the problem are caused from the outside. This motive can be called “external”.
Sometimes a person focused on the quality of the work assigned to him, has worse results than a less motivated employee. The lack of a direct link between motivation and the end result of work is due to the fact. The latter is influenced by many other factors, such as the skills and abilities of the person, the correct understanding of the task and much more. The most elementary model of the motivation process has only three elements:
1.needs, which are desires, aspirations to certain results. People need things like clothes, a house, a personal car, etc. But also “intangible” things like a sense of respect, the possibility of personal professional growth, etc.
2.purposeful behavior-in an effort to meet their needs, people choose their line of purposeful behavior. Work in the company is one of the ways of purposeful behavior. Attempts to move to a leadership position is another type of targeted behavior aimed at meeting recognition needs.
3.satisfaction of needs-the concept of “satisfaction of needs” reflects a positive sense of relief and comfort that a person feels when his desire is realized.
2.METHODS OF MOTIVATION OF STAFF
The methods of personnel motivation can be very diverse and depend on the elaboration of the motivation system in the enterprise, the overall management system and the characteristics of the enterprise itself.
There are the following methods of motivating effective work behavior:
lmoral-psychological. Udaltsova M. V. Motivation Theory: textbook/ M. V.
The most common form of material motivation is an individual award. It is advisable to pay it once a year, otherwise it will turn into a salary and lose its motivating role. It is advisable to determine in advance the percentage of the award for the year and adjust it in accordance with the achievements of the employee. According To F. Taylor the amount of the premium should, as a rule, be at least 30% of the basic earnings, while at the lowest level of management the premium should be 10-30%, on average 10-40%, at the highest 15-50%. Practical personnel management/ V. R. Vesnin. – M., Lawyer. 1998
The effectiveness of bonuses is largely determined by the correct choice of indicators, their differentiation depending on the role and nature of the units, the level of positions, focus on real contribution and final results, flexibility of criteria for assessing employee achievements.
Needs are constantly changing, so you can not expect that the motivation that worked once will be effective in the future. With the development of personality, opportunities and needs for self-expression are expanding. Thus, the process of motivation by meeting needs is endless.
As noted, in addition to economic (material) ways of motivation, there are not economic, namely: organizational, moral and psychological.
Organizational ways of motivation include:
lparticipation in the affairs of the organization (usually social);
lthe prospect of acquiring new knowledge and skills;
lenriching the content of work (providing more interesting work with job prospects and professional growth).
Moral and psychological methods of motivation include:
lcreating conditions conducive to the formation of professional pride, personal responsibility for work (the presence of a certain share of risk, the opportunity to succeed);
lthe presence of a challenge, providing opportunities to express themselves in work;
lrecognition (personal and public) (valuable gifts, certificates of honor, honor board, etc. For special services-awarding orders and medals, badges, conferring honorary titles, etc.;
lhigh goals, encouraging people to effective labor (any task must contain an element call);
lthe atmosphere of mutual respect and trust. Ivanov V. Yu. Manager’s Career Management : The need and most content/ V. Ivanov// Management in Russia and abroad. – 1998. – ?? 5
In modern society, motivation is based on the knowledge and mechanisms of psychology. Different theories of motivation are divided into two categories: substantive and procedural. Meaningful theories of motivation are based on the identification of those internal motivations (called needs) that make people act one way, not the other. In this regard, we will describe some aspects of the theories of Abraham Maslow, David McClelland, Frederick Herzberg and some other researchers. More modern procedural theories of motivation are based primarily on how people behave in view of their perception and knowledge. The main procedural theories that we will consider are the theory of Vrum’s expectation, the theory of justice and the porter – Lawler motivation model.
The first approach to focus on the psychological characteristics of human activity began to navigate the content of the theory of motivation, which arose soon after the theories of “carrot and stick” and the like. Since then, motivation theories have sought to take into account as much as possible the different needs and motivations of people’s activities, constantly trying to identify new and preferential motives, motives and needs.
Modern content theories of motivation focus on the definition of the list and structure of people’s needs.
Procedural theories of motivation are considered the most modern theories of motivation, they also recognize the motivating role of needs, however, the motivation is considered in them in terms of what makes a person to direct efforts to achieve different goals. The most common meaningful theories of motivation are those of Maslow, McClelland, and Herzberg. Majort N. The problem of motivation in the workforce/ N. Majort// personnel Management.- 2002.- ?? 7
Abraham Maslow’s theory of motivation
The first of the theories under consideration is called Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. The essence of it is reduced to the study of human needs. That’s an earlier theory. Her supporters, including Abraham Maslow, believed that the subject of psychology is behavior, not human consciousness. At the heart of the same behavior are human potre6nosti, which can be divided into five groups:
lphysiological needs necessary for human survival: in food, in water, in rest, etc.;
lthe need for safety and confidence in the future-protection from physical and other hazards from the world around us and confidence that physiological needs will be met in the future,
lsocial needs-the need for a social environment. In communication with people, the feeling of “elbow” and support;
ldemand respect, recognition of others and pursuit of personal achievements;
lthe need for self-expression, i.e. the need for self-growth and the realization of one’s potential.
The first two groups are primary and the next three are secondary. According to Maslow’s theory, all these needs can be arranged in a strict hierarchical sequence in the form of a pyramid, at the base of which are primary needs, and the top is secondary.
It is the duty of the Manager to closely monitor his subordinates, to find out in a timely manner what active needs are driving each of them, and to make decisions on their implementation in order to improve the efficiency of employees. Gutgarts R. D. the Evolution of approaches to management personnel of the company/ Gutgarts R. D.// Management in Russia and abroad. – 2001. – ??5
David McClelland theory of motivation
With the development of economic relations and the improvement of management, a significant role in the theory of motivation is given to the needs of higher levels. The representative of this theory is David McClelland. According to him, the structure of the needs of the highest level is reduced to three factors: the desire for success, the desire for power, for recognition. In such a statement, success is not seen as praise or recognition by colleagues, but as personal achievements as a result of active activity, as a willingness to participate in complex decisions and to be personally responsible for them. The desire for power should not only talk about ambition, but also show the ability of a person to work successfully at different levels of management in organizations, and the desire for recognition – his ability to be an informal leader, to have his own opinion and be able to convince others of his correctness.
According to McClelland’s theory, people who seek power must satisfy this need and can do so when they hold limited positions in the organization. To manage such requirements, preparing workers to drill for new posts with the help of their certifications, referrals to courses, etc. These people have a wide circle of friends and seek to expand it. Their leaders should contribute to this. Alekhina O. E. Encourage the development of the organization’s employees/ E. O. Alekhine / / Personnel Management. – 2002. – ?? 1. – P. 50-52
Frederick Herzberg’s theory of motivation
This theory appeared in connection with the growing need to find out the influence of material and immaterial factors on the motivation of a person. Frederick Herzberg created a two-factor model that shows job satisfaction.
The first group of factors (hygienic factors) is related to the self-expression of the personality, its internal needs. As well as the environment in which the work itself is carried out. The second group of motivation factors is related to the nature and essence of the work itself. Head here should remember about the necessity of generalization of the content of the work.
Hygienic factors of F. Herzberg, as seen, correspond to physiological needs. The need for security and confidence in the future.
The difference in the considered theories is as follows: according to A. Maslow, after motivation, the worker necessarily begins to work better, according To F. Herzberg, the worker will begin to work better only after he decides that the motivation is inadequate. Thus, meaningful theories of motivation are based on the study of needs and identify the factors that determine human behavior.
The second approach to motivation is based on procedural theories. It refers to the distribution of efforts of employees and the choice of a certain type of behavior to achieve specific goals. Such theories include the theory of expectations, or the model of motivation by V. Vroom, the theory of justice and the theory or model of Porter – Lawler. V. R. Vesnin. Basics of management / V. R. Vesnin. – M.: Triada-LTD, 1996. – 384 p
Motives play an important role in human labor activity. Without them, their work in General may not be appropriate. But motives are different and can act with different force, causing directed or non-directed human activity.
The practical function of motivation is the selection of different ways and methods of effective impact on the staff in order to focus on performance, taking into account the motivational attitudes of employees and their professional and personal potential.
The effectiveness of a motivational system in practice depends largely on the management, although in recent years, certain steps have been taken to increase the role of the enterprises themselves to develop their own motivation systems, which at a specific period of time allow to implement the goals and objectives of enterprises in the conditions of market relations.
There are no uniform methods of motivation of the personnel, effective at all times and under any circumstances. However, any method used by the Manager is based on the company’s chosen strategy of human resources management. This means that the choice of a specific method of motivation should, first of all, determine the overall strategy of personnel management, which followed or wants to follow the firm.
Having studied a small part of the management-staff motivation, we found that motivation significantly increases productivity, which leads to an increase in profits.
The functioning of motivation systems, their development mainly depends on the employees of the management apparatus, their qualifications, business qualities and other quality characteristics.