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INTRODUCTION The greenhouse effect is a natural process that warms the Earth’s surface

INTRODUCTION
The greenhouse effect is a natural process that warms the Earth’s surface. The term “greenhouse effect” arose from a faulty analogy with the effect of sunlight passing through glass and warming a greenhouse. The way a greenhouse retains heat is fundamentally different, as a greenhouse works mostly by reducing airflow so that warm air is kept inside
When the Sun’s energy reaches the Earth’s atmosphere, some of it is reflected back to space and the rest is absorbed and re-radiated by greenhouse gases. The absorbed energy warms the atmosphere and the surface of the Earth. This process maintains the Earth’s temperature at around 33 degrees Celsius warmer than it would otherwise be, allowing life on Earth to exist.

Greenhouse effect is primarily a problem of too much carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. This carbon overload is caused mainly when we burn fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas or cut down and burn forests. There are many heat-trapping gases (from methane to water vapour), but CO2 puts us at the greatest risk of irreversible changes if it continues to accumulate unabated in the atmosphere.
Earth’s natural greenhouse effect is critical to supporting life. Human activities, mainly the burning of fossil fuels and clearing of forests, have strengthened the greenhouse effect and caused global warming.

4362450128905Based on the graph of global greenhouse gas emissions by gas from 2014 show that CO2 contributed the most in greenhouse gasses.

Unfortunately, these gases especially CO2 are accumulating in the atmosphere at increasing concentrations due to human activities such as the burning of fossil fuel in cars and power plants industrial processes, and the clearing of forests for agriculture or development.

As a result, the insulating is getting too thick and overheating the Earth as less energy (heat) escapes into space.

00Based on the graph of global greenhouse gas emissions by gas from 2014 show that CO2 contributed the most in greenhouse gasses.

Unfortunately, these gases especially CO2 are accumulating in the atmosphere at increasing concentrations due to human activities such as the burning of fossil fuel in cars and power plants industrial processes, and the clearing of forests for agriculture or development.

As a result, the insulating is getting too thick and overheating the Earth as less energy (heat) escapes into space.

CO2 AND GREENHOUSE EFFECT

2.2 ECONOMIC SECTOR THAT CONTRIBUTES GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS
32099251438910Electricity and Heat Production 
The burning of coal, natural gas, and oil for electricity and heat is the largest single source of global greenhouse gas emissions.

Industry 
Greenhouse gas emissions from industry primarily involve fossil fuels burned on site at facilities for energy. This sector also includes emissions from chemical, metallurgical, and mineral transformation processes not associated with energy consumption and emissions from waste management activities
Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use Greenhouse gas emissions from this sector come mostly from agriculture(cultivation of crops and livestock) and deforestation. This estimate does not include the CO2 that ecosystems remove from the atmosphere by sequestering carbon in biomass, dead organic matter, and soils, which offset approximately 20% of emissions from this sector.

Transportation 
Greenhouse gas emissions from this sector primarily involve fossil fuels burned for road, rail, air, and marine transportation. Almost all (95%) of the world’s transportation energy comes from petroleum-based fuels, largely gasoline and diesel.

Buildings 
Greenhouse gas emissions from this sector arise from onsite energy generation and burning fuels for heat in buildings or cooking in homes.
00Electricity and Heat Production 
The burning of coal, natural gas, and oil for electricity and heat is the largest single source of global greenhouse gas emissions.

Industry 
Greenhouse gas emissions from industry primarily involve fossil fuels burned on site at facilities for energy. This sector also includes emissions from chemical, metallurgical, and mineral transformation processes not associated with energy consumption and emissions from waste management activities
Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use Greenhouse gas emissions from this sector come mostly from agriculture(cultivation of crops and livestock) and deforestation. This estimate does not include the CO2 that ecosystems remove from the atmosphere by sequestering carbon in biomass, dead organic matter, and soils, which offset approximately 20% of emissions from this sector.

Transportation 
Greenhouse gas emissions from this sector primarily involve fossil fuels burned for road, rail, air, and marine transportation. Almost all (95%) of the world’s transportation energy comes from petroleum-based fuels, largely gasoline and diesel.

Buildings 
Greenhouse gas emissions from this sector arise from onsite energy generation and burning fuels for heat in buildings or cooking in homes.
When people burn fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas there is increased level of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere which is a major contributor to global warming and greenhouse effect. The emissions basically trap heat close to the surface of the earth. If people are to reduce the greenhouse effect, then they have to reduce the demand for fossil fuels. Moreover, because of the greenhouse effect, there is rapid increase in the earth’s temperature leading to high sea levels and extreme storms together with other climatic problems. If people work together to address this problem then we can help fight global warming and reduce our carbon footprint.

2.2.1 WAYS TO MINIMIZE GREENHOUSE EFFECTS
Reduce, Reuse, RecycleBuying products with minimal packaging will help to reduce waste. By recycling half of your household waste, you can save 1million cm3 of carbon dioxide annually.

Use Less Heat and Air ConditioningAdding insulation to your walls and installing weather can lower your heating costs more than 25 percent, by reducing the amount of energy you need to heat and cool your home. Turn down the heat while you’re sleeping at night or away during the day, and keep temperatures moderate at all times. Install a programmable thermostat because setting it just 2 degrees lower or higher in cold or hot weather could save about 900cm3 of carbon dioxide each year.

Drive Less and Drive SmartLess driving means fewer emissions. Besides saving petroleum, walking and biking are great forms of exercise. When you do drive, make sure your car is running efficiently. Every litre of gas you save not only helps your budget, it also keeps 9000cm3 of carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere.

Buy Energy-Efficient ProductsHome appliances now come in a range of energy-efficient models, and compact florescent bulbs are designed to provide more natural-looking light while using far less energy than standard light bulbs.

Use the “Off” SwitchSave electricity and reduce global warming by turning off lights when you leave a room, and using only as much light as you need. And remember to turn off your television, stereo and computer when you’re not using them.

Plant a Tree          If you have the means to plant a tree, start digging. Trees absorb carbon dioxide and give off oxygen. A single tree will absorb approximately one ton of carbon dioxide during its lifetime.

2.3 The Greenhouse Effect and Climate ChangeEven slight increases in average global temperatures can have huge effects. Perhaps the biggest, most obvious effect is that glaciers and ice caps melt faster than usual. The meltwater drains into the oceans, causing sea levels to rise.Glaciers and ice caps cover about 10 percent of the world’s landmasses. They hold about 75 percent of the world’s freshwater. If all of this ice melted, sea levels would rise by about 70 meters (230 feet). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change states that the global sea level rose about 1.8 millimetres per year from 1961 to 1993, and 3.1 millimetres per year since 1993. Rising sea levels could flood coastal cities, displacing millions of people in low-lying areas such as Bangladesh, the U.S. state of Florida, and the Netherlands. Millions more people in countries like Bolivia, Peru, and India depend on glacial meltwater for drinking, irrigation, and hydroelectric power. Rapid loss of these glaciers would devastate those countries.Greenhouse gas emissions affect more than just temperature. Another effect involves changes in precipitation, such as rain and snow. Over the course of the 20th century, precipitation increased in eastern parts of North and South America, northern Europe, and northern and central Asia. However, it has decreased in parts of Africa, the Mediterranean, and southern Asia.As climates change, so do the habitats for living things. Animals that are adapted to a certain climate may become threatened. Many human societies depend on specific crops for food, clothing, and trade. If the climate of an area changes, the people who live there may no longer be able to grow the crops they depend on for survival. Some scientists also worry that tropical diseases will expand their ranges into more temperate regions if the temperatures of those areas increase.

References
BIBLIOGRAPHY Engineering, I. (n.d.). Top 5 Ways to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Retrieved from Interesting Engineering: https://interestingengineering.com/top-5-ways-to-reduce-greenhouse-gas-emissions
Fischer, D. (n.d.). Why Carbon Dioxide Is a Greenhouse Gas. Retrieved from Scientific American: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-carbon-dioxide-is-greenhouse-gas/
Geographic, N. (n.d.). Greenhouse effect. Retrieved from National Geographic: https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/greenhouse-effect/
Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data. (n.d.). Retrieved from United States Environmental Protection Agency: https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/global-greenhouse-gas-emissions-data
Lallanila, M. (n.d.). What Is the Greenhouse Effect? Retrieved from LiveScience: https://www.livescience.com/37743-greenhouse-effect.html
Raymond Chang; Kenneth Goldsby . (2016). Chemistry. Mc-Graw Hill Education.

The Discovery of Global Warming. (n.d.). Retrieved from History: https://history.aip.org/climate/co2.htm

KAMPUS JENGKA
CHM131
PRINCIPLE OF GENERAL CHEMISTRY
CASE STUDY
TOPIC CO2 AND GREENHOUSE EFFECT
DATE OF REPORT SUBMISSION 23 NOVEMBER 2018
MEMBER 1 AIDA MAISARAH BINTI ABD RAHMAN
20184188622
MEMBER 2 AIDA NAJWA KHADIJAH BINTI MOHAK
2018421152
MEMBER 3 AFIQAH IZZAH BINTI AZNAN2018633158LECTURER MISS SARAH LAILA