Introduction Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder caused by several factors like impaired insulin production, increased hepatic gluconeogenesis, decreased peripheral glycolysis resulting in the formation of hyperglycaemia.
Classification of Diabetes Mellitus
Type Pathology Age of onset Treatment
Type 1 DM Autoimmune destruction of ?-cells of the pancreas leading to insulin deficiency.
Most commonly below age of 20. Insulin therapy
Type 2 DM Insulin resistance and reduced insulin secretion Most commonly above the age of 40. Pharmacotherapy with or without insulin
Gestational DM Insulin resistance Occurs only during pregnancy period Diet and glycemic control
Other specific forms of DM resulting from
• Genetic defects of ?-cell mutations,
• Genetic syndromes like Wolfram’s, Down’s, Turner’s, Prader-Willi.
• Endocrinopathies like Acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome,
• Diseases like Pancreatitis, Hemochromatosis, Cystic fibrosis,
• Infections like Congenital rubella, cytomegalovirus.
• Drugs like Glucocorticoids, atypical antipsychotics, thiazides, ?-agonists.
• Transient neonatal diabetes.