In this fast growing environment, change is inevitable and companies have to adapt all the time. Globalisation is one of the biggest factor that leads to change in the business environment.However, it is important for organisation to find a ways to respond to change, first of all to remain competitive within the market and for the business to survive. According to Jones (2007), organisational change is defined as the way in which organisations move from one state to another to increase their effectiveness, it involves a re-distribution of power, information and skills (Greenan ,2003) . Similarly, Saif et al (2013) assert that effective change management is essential for organisational development and ultimately survival.There is a force that drives change and there is a process to achieve it. To understand the nature of change, the motor that drives it and the process of it, number of models and theories have been developed.
yet studies have shown that around 60% of change initiatives fail (CIPD, 2015). How do do we measure how different models of change work? And how do we hat model of change fit what type of organisation?
The essay will evaluate various model of change and discuss on how companies deal with change in a short and long term.
According to david E.Hussen (2000, p.1) ”change is one of the most critical aspect of effective management”. nowadays there is an increase within the unpredictability of the various factors that motive organization to change and an increase in the pace which corporations need to reply for them to remain in the gamet.
There is change in the day to day life of a company, those changes are caused by different forces. Technological change is one of the big factor that leads organisation to change the way they normally operate, technology is there to make life easier and make the process of production faster. Therefor for an organisation to meet the demand and stay in competition, it is mandatory for to start using new technologies or incorporate new technology in their ways of doing things. An example will be with bank, due to the development of technology, the is no need for client to go to the bank everyday to ask for their services, there are now mobile applications and website that customer can use. This means that the bank have to change its structure, the way they operate and the job distribution. Competitions can also leads organization to change they do thing. With the intensification of competition, change is inevitable. According to David E.Hussen(2000, P.2), ”more organisation are served on a word basis, and in these conditions it is no longer sensible to think in simple country isolation.” Also with the evolution of our living environment, customer tend to be more demanding,they want quality services, so companies have to understand what customer really want and change their products or ways of production according to customer needs, this will enable them to meet the demand and satisfy customer. Many other factor such as privatisation of public owned business, change in the demographic profile of the country the organization operate in, increase of shareholder demand value can lead to organisation change.
All the points cited above are forces that can lead to organisational change and there are different process to achieve change within the organisation. Before implementing any change, the manager need to ask questions such as: are people motivated enough to participate? Is the change going to affect the company culture or does the change fit the company culture? And how confidential is the change?
To manage change within the organization, different model have come to life. There are 4 model of change (Shawn)2015:The model of Kurt Lewin, The ADKAR model, The Kotter model and kubler-Ross 5 steps model.
The kurt lewin model is a change model developed by Kurt Lewin back in the late 1940s, the motive behind this model is that “motivation for change must be generated before change can occur”(lewin kurt,1947). Organisation development expert acknowledge that change in culture is and human behaviour are hard to accomplish. The Kurt lewin approach focus more on culture and human behaviour. This approach is more a a long term approach to organization change because the new behaviour will be part of the new culture and culture is something that normally stay with the company and it is part of the organization identity. Despite the model has been accused of being “quaintly linear and static”, “wildly inappropriate” (Kanter et al, 1992) and simplistic, but the model still remain relevant.
The kurt model propose 3 distinct step in achieving behavioral and cultural change: first unfreezing, then changing and refreezing(Richard L. Daft, , Martyn Kendrick, and Natalia Vershinina, 2010, p.414). During the first step, unfreezing, people are inform about the problem face by the company and the need to change. ”one way manager sense the need for change is through performance gap”(Richart L.daft.,2010) There is a change agent involve who gather and analyse data through questionnaire and interview, communication in very important during this stage . During the second step, after recognising the problem, change is imply through the training of manager and employees to new cultural approach.The more prepare people are for change, the easier this second step will be. And then the last step refreezing is refere by Lewin Kurt as the stage of reinforcing, stabilizing and solidifying the new state after the change. In this last stage, individu have acquired new attitudes and value and are rewarded for them by the organisation. And the change agent has to provide new data that shows positive changes. People are often afraid of change and want to stay in the comfort zone, therefore the big challenge in this approach is to make everyone understand the need of change because without understanding that something is bad you will never fill the need to change.
This approach is more a a long term approach to organization change because the new behaviour will be part of the new culture and culture is something that normally stay with the company and it is part of the organization identity. Despite the model has been accused of being “quaintly linear and static”, “wildly inappropriate” (Kanter et al, 1992) and simplistic, but the model still remain relevant.
The second change model organization can use to stimulate change according to grand Shawn(2015)is called the Kotter’s 8 step model which was introduced by John Kotter (1996) after his analyse of 100 changing organizations.Dr. Kotter (1996) observed that the rate at which our world is changing is increasing, but our ability to keep up with it is not. This model will is more favorable to large organization, small company can find it because the model seek to change organisational culture which might face resistance by employees.The strength of this model is that it is easy to follow and to implement. Also, this approach has been criticized because it assumes logical and rational sequence of changes. Thus, it is considered as too simplistic.And in today society, Change or often not linear, they come in a more complex ways. Appelbaum et al (2012) denounce this model to be time consuming.
This model has 8 steps( Kotter,2014).The first step is to create a sense of urgency, second step is to build a guideline coalition. The third step is to look for strategic vision and initiatives, here strategic initiative is define as “activities that, if designed and executed fast enough and well enough, will make your vision a reality.” (Dr Kotter, 1996). The fourth step is to unleash a volunteer army, ”Large-scale change can only occur when very significant numbers of employees amass under a common opportunity and drive in the same direction.”(Kotter international,2017). The fifth step is to enable action by removing barriers, by removing barriers, leader provide the necessary freedom for employees to work across boundaries and create real impact. The sixth step is to generate short-term wins, in this progress the organization can track the progress made, by collecting wins data. The seventh step is to sustain acceleration, here manager have to adapt quickly to the change in other to maintain their speed. The eighth and last step of this model is Institute Change: ”To ensure new behaviors are repeated over the long-term, it’s important that you define and communicate the connections between these behaviors and the organization’s success”(Kotter international,2017). This model will is more favorable to large organization, small company can find it because the model seek to change organisational culture which might face resistance by employees.The strength of this model is that it is easy to follow and to implement.
Another model of change is the ADKAR model used for the first time by prosci in 1998. The basis of this model is that change happen at an individual level. Each employee must participate for change to be successful. It take into account the technical and people side of change. The process of this model is made in 5 step. The first step is creating AWARENESS about the problem and the need for change.The second step is called DESIRE, in this step, the desire to support and participate in the change have to be developed by employees. The third step is called KNOWLEDGE(knowledge on how to change). Fourth step is called ABILITY, this step is more about how prepare and what is the ability of employee to implement the change. And finally the fifth and last step REINFORCEMENT, in this last step manager have to make sure that different mesure are put in place the sustain the change.
The ADKAR model is similar to the the Kurt Lewin model the only difference is the in the process, ADKAR model process is longer and requires more time.
There are some critics about the efficiency of this this model, first tof all,
The last model change according to Shawn(2015) is kubler-Ross 5 steps model. This model was developed in 1960 by kubler ross. ”The Change Curve isn’t an independent change model but rather a model to help you empathize with your employees as you implement change.”(Shown 2015). The first step of this model is called denial, in this stage people tend to say ”NO, not me”, according to Kubler Ross(1960),it serve as a defense mechanism. Saying help ease fearful though and anxiety. The second step is anger, the third step is bargaining, the fourth step is depression and then the last step is accepting.
This model provide a useful approach to help bereaved persons. Despite , this model is criticised for being passive and allowing time to pass and heal the wounds of grief, it is also criticized for making assumptions about broad applicability. Critics say it’s impossible that people all over the world experience the same reactions and emotions. This approach will mostly help company to solve make change in a long term due to the fact that this approach remain a long process and note everyone can generate the same emotions at the same type.
All those 4 model approaches changes in a different ways and have different outcomes Pettigrew and Whipp (1993) argue that there are no universal rules when it comes to leading and managing change. There are no best approach, but each approach fit different type of organization. All of those models come with their advantages and disadvantages. Dunphy and Stace (1993.
p.905) stated that companies should use a “situational model” that indicates how to achieve change that optimally fits well with the ever-changing environment in which they continually have to adapt. There for i will recommend company to use the model that best fit the kind of change they want to make and that match more with their organization culture.