In any scientific research, there are two basic research methodologies, qualitative and quantitative. According to Gunter (2000), because of the scholar’s worldview differences, the approaches to find reality and truth have two faces. “Quantitative research heading are subsumed methodologies theoretically framed by a positivist, empirical social scientific approach to measurement. While qualitative research embraces methodologies that are theoretically framed by critical or interpretivist social science paradigms that emphasize interpretation over measurement” (Gunter, 2000, p.23). To answer the questions mentioned in the first chapter qualitative approach will be used. Because qualitative approach helps to understand the world and construct meanings based on the social- cultural setting/situations. Mack, Woodsong, Macqueen, Guest, ; Namey (2005) argued that qualitative research enables the researcher to provide complex textual descriptions about the peoples experience towards an issue. They further discussed that “qualitative methods are also effective in identifying intangible factors, such as social norms, socioeconomic status, gender roles, ethnicity, and religion, whose role in the research overview issue may not be readily apparent” (p. 1-2). This type of research might have limitations for generalization rather it could contribute for meaning constructions. Therefore, speeches of the Prime Minister Dr. Abiy Ahimed will be collected and analyzed through qualitative techniques. The analysis will be done by using the neo-classical theory of rhetoric and generic and ideological critical rhetoric theory will employed as a theoretical framework. That used to evaluate the cannons and proofs used and its purpose, and the critical theory of ideology and generic rhetoric.
3.2. Population of the study
Dr. Abiy Ahimed has made many addresses, from Prime Minister Office to the grass root levels of a country and in different parts of the world. The speech that announced to the public, covers his first inauguration ceremony to the last 100 days are the total population of the study. Because the researcher believed that this season was marked by starting of attitude turning time and to answer the questions raised on this study, the amount of speech sufficient because the research uses qualitative procedures.
3.3. Sample Size
The samples of this study are speeches addressed by Dr. Abiy Ahimed of Ethiopian Prime Minster, in which speech broadcasted through mass media, from his first day inaugural speech to last 100 days. After 100 days, many things have changed and he has already started implementing what he was promising, meant that the audience might not be persuaded not only by his speeches but also by his acts. Moreover, act by itself has its own artifact that might have an angle for another study. Hence, the researcher does not want to go through this one; anybody who has interest could conduct it. As a result, from the speeches within 100 days, three of speeches will be selected and analyzed. Due to time and other resource limitation, it is hard to study all of his speeches.
3.4. Sampling Design
Agreeing to Kothari (2004), there are two types of sample design based on sample selection element and representational bias. As well in any research, there are two sampling techniques: random and nonrandom. According to Kumar (2011), random sampling is done to minimize the researcher’s bias, leads to generalization of a given phenomenon, whereas qualitative sampling techniques are made to minimize cost, and helps people to understand the world in an interpretative manner for meaning construction and understanding of multiple realities. As a final point, the samples are selected in non-random manner; purposive sampling technique will be employed, aiming that the selected samples will give enough amounts of data to examine rhetorically. “Rhetorical analysis focuses on how messages are delivered, and with what (intended or actual) effects. Researchers who take this approach rely on the identification of structural elements, tropes, styles of argumentation, speech acts, and the like; what works and what doesn’t, might be described as rhetorical analyses as well” (Krippendorff, 2004. p, 16).
3.5. Data Presentation and Analysis
The data collected from different media outlets, especially from newspapers for texts and online media in case of video will be presented descriptively in relation with the literature assessed in chapter two. By definition, rhetorical analysis requires the researcher to apply critical reading and understanding skill to breakdown the text or utterance, keeping in mind that speakers might use varying strategies in order to achieve their goals.