American Heart Association (AHA) estimated that there were 5.1 million of people with HF in the
United States in 2006 and 23 million people with HF worldwide (AHA,2013). Heart failure and
LV dysfunction has a correlation with age. The prevalence among men is 8 per 1,000 at age 50-
59 years, increasing to 66 per 1,000 at ages 80-89 years. Similar values (8 and 79 per 1000)
were noted in women. The prevalence in African-Americans is reported to be 25%higher than
in whites (Vasan & Wilson, 2018). It is estimated that by 2030, an additional 3 million people
will be diagnosed with heart failure (http://www.clinicalkey.com/nursing/).