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Abbe Brueil claimed his hypothesis that images of the earliest art are imaginary art

Abbe Brueil claimed his hypothesis that images of the earliest art are imaginary art. People did not paint images of animals for recording or documenting purpose. This is because some images of animals are standing, which means they did not try to paint animals realistically. Brueil said these arts are “Shamanic visions.” People painted animals not what they saw, but they painted what they dreamed.
I think the Brueil’s hypothesis is true because when I saw the paleolithic cave art, I felt the art is not recording or documenting. It looked like drawing. I think they painted for fun. When people realized they could paint on a wall, they painted what they wanted to draw. If they painted to leave a message to the next generation, I think these paintings should be more organized so that their descendants could understand. Some of the paintings look like just sketching. In addition, I think people tend to dream if they are in the place like a cave. In a cave, it is dark, and there is no distraction. Polep can easily dream and paint imaginal things.
Engels mentions the theory that in the past, people did not have about what belongs to who, so they shared all tools and goods, helped each other. At this time, since they could give a birth, women had more power than men which is called matriarchies. However, men began to think they wanted to dominate their own things instead of shoring with someone, and this phenomenon collapsed matriarchies. Their belongings became really important, so men wanted to pass down their staff to their own children since they share blood. Men also made a conquest of women. When men dominated all materials goods, women had a less power than men since they are biological strong. This also leads to developing the natural resources.
I agree with some part of her theory but not all of it. I agree that when men began to have personal things instead of sharing with others, they also dominated women. However, I disagree that in the beginning, society was matriarchies. I think men had power over women. This is because men are biologically stronger than women, so they could go hunting animals, and provide food to women. Women would say thank you to men. Men feel that women rely on them, and without them, women cannot live. This situation can raise men’s states. Therefore, I don’t think that women ruled society at first is true.

Collin ; Onians hypothesized playboy theory, which is Venus figurines were tools for masturbation, and it was used those who did not have women to sex. They mention that the size of these figurines are palm-sized, and a good size to hold in your hand. Moreover, they say some figurines are difficult to recognize as a female.
This hypothesis is really interesting and I agree with this. This is because of these figures from powerpoint shapes like a stick. People could make a stick like masturbation objects instead of making stick shapes like a woman. However, think about the old life. In the past, people did not have personal space as we have now, and they share many things with others since they needed to cooperate to survive. Therefore, it is really hard to hide these erotic tools, so if people made stick as masturbation objects, it is really obvious that they could not sex with real women, so they shaped it like women to hide the shame. If people just want to make a woman figures, they could make it. However, the image of figures from powerpoint shapes like a stick. if people wanted to make just, I don’t understand why they shaped like a stick.

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Ethos In our study guide, ethos means the way of seeing the world. Each group of people has a different ethos. They have own moral beliefs, so they regard right or wrong differently. In John Fire Lame Deer’s view, he deceived about white men culture. He compared how their world and white men world are different. He mentioned that when a living thing dies, we think it dead, but he thinks it is still alive. He also claimed that white men are doing a lot of immoral things. For instance, John said white men put chickens in low cages, and let them live just for producing eggs. As a result, chickens go crazy and they kill themselves. John claimed that we Native American were living in nature, and we could feel it and smell it, but white men didn’t understand what it was like. Moreover, he commented that when Native American killed animals, they apologized to them and pray for them. However, American eat animals that are ready to eat, they don’t have the courage to kill animals. These are the example of ethos in John Fire Lame Dee.
God White Buffalo woman is a God in Mary Crow Dog. The woman gave the pipe, the most important tool, to people, and explained how to use it and taught them how they should live.
It is said that after the White Buffalo woman completed her mission, she changed to a white buffalo calf. This is the story about the White Buffalo woman. This story seems like a holy story, so we can consider the White Buffalo woman as a God. In John Fire Lame Deer, God can be a vision, which means spiritual things. This is because when one man suggested John to eat peyote, he said to John ” Eat this you will see God” In this case, sprite like a voice from their inside will be a God.
Ritual Both John Fire Lame Deer and Mary Crow Dog mentions many rituals such as Sun dance, hanblechia, yuwipi ceremony. and peyote meeting. I will focus on the Sun Dance. It is also called Wi wanyang wacipi. John said for Sioux tribe this ritual is the important ceremony and also the oldest. The Sun Dance is one of the ways to see visions. During the Sun Dance, people pray and sacrifice to hear a voice of God. They do it to experience the great sprite. This ritual is not just seeking vision like hanblechia. The Sun Dance is the time people gather one place. Before the Sun Dance, each family sets their tipi and people visit other tipis, and they communicate, collect food and sing songs. This is also a good time for young men because they can find girls. Sioux people have many rules about marriage, so the Sun Dance is a good opportunity to get girls. This ritual is not only for seeking vision but also but for people to communicating and get to know each other. The Sun Dance is consist of three parts. The first four days is for preparing, and the next four days is like learning time from the medicine men. Last four days are for the dance. To start the ritual, they need a sacred tree called can-wakan. This is also mentioned in Mary Crow Dog. They cannot start the ceremony without a sacred tree. They also need Buffalo fat. They offer it to wish they can have enough food next season. They also do piercings and dancing. I will discuss both as a sacrifice in the next paragraph.
Sacrifice In the Sun Dance, Native American sacrifice themselves. Piercing is one example. people pierce their chest. The idea of this sacrifice is they offer their own flesh to help others as Jesus suffered for people. He said Christian and Native American share same idea of sacrifice because Christian celebrates Jesus who offered personal sacrifice. However, white men did understand what Native American was doing in the Sun Dance, in fact, they prohibited it. The motivation for the sacrifice is not negative. When Mary swears to sun dance, she said in the story ” I wanted to be part of this, I wanted to feel it.” Actually, when she offered her own flesh, she did not feel pain because she was in the power. Dancing is sacrifice as well. They dance all day without food and water to see the vision. Another example of sacrifice in John Fire Lame Deer is when John went to a hilltop for four days and nights, his grandmother cut her arm for him. This concept of sacrifice was his grandmother got pain instead of him so that when he was on the hilltop, he could not feel pain. This sacrifice encouraged to go though hanblechia.
Shaman In the story John Fire Lame Deer, Lame Deer is a shaman because he is a medicine man. The medicine man is not like a doctor who cures disease. They teach people how they should live and guide a ceremony to process smoothly. To be a medicine man, people need to get a vision and listen to the voice. John got a voice that ” You are sacrificing here to be a medicine man” He had a spiritual experience. In our textbooks, shaman defines they are spiritual techniques, so we can say that medicine man is a shaman. In Mary Crow Dog, Leonard is a shaman. He taught a lot of things to Mary.
Tabu In Mary Crow Dog story, people thought women were dirty during moontime, and they are too powerful, so it was believed that they can eliminate all powers. Therefore, women should stay away from the sacred ceremony.
(1) why each flood occurred
In the story of Gilgamesh, Gods had a meeting, and they discussed that people were overpopulated, and they were so noisy. Gods said that they could not sleep because of human noise. Therefore, the council decided to destroy all human by the flood. On the other hand, In Genesis, God wiped out mankind becomes human was evil. God said that the earth is filled with violence because of a human. God regretted that he made human on earth. Both stories eliminated human by the flood. However, the reason was different. Gilgamesh was because the human was noisy, and Genesis was because the human was evil.
(2) the features of the flood
Ea told to Utnapishtim that God will destroy human, and he ordered him to make a boat and put the seed of all living creatures in it. Ea saved all livings that were in the boat. Similarly, in Genesis, Noah order to put livings things, but God said specifically that put two of all living creatures, male and females. The purpose to bring living creatures was to restart human society. In Gilgamesh, the great flood was created by God’s tear, and the rain continued 6 days and 6 nights. In contrast, in Genesis, God caused the flood by his power, and the rain lasted forty days and forty nights. Seventh days, in the Gilgamesh story, Utnapishtim released a dove to find dry land, but the dove came back, then he released a swallow, and the swallow also could find dry land. After that, he released a raven, and the raven did not come back. he realized that the water level was dropped. He heard that the raven cawed. He was convinced that there was dry land. This is the story of how Utnapishtim found a land. In Genesis, there are some similarity and difference. Noah also used birds to find dry land. Noah sent a raven, and it could not find a land. He also sent a dove, and it came back. He found that the dove held the olive leaf, and he was convinced that there was dry land. There is a difference in how they made sure there was dry land. In Gilgamesh, Utnapishtim filed sheep as a sacrifice to gods, but Enlil was not part of it, so Enlil got angry. Ea explained that Utnapishtim survived by himself. Enlil understood that and gave immortality to him. In Genesis, Noah also sacrificed animals for offerings.
3) What each story says about the aftermath of the flood and the consequences for subsequent humanity.
In Gilgamesh, after Utnapishtim found land, he and his wife got a immortality, and the story was ended. In contrast, in Genesis, after the sacrifice, God promised that he will not destroy all livings creatures, and he set a rainbow in the clouds as a sign of a covenant.
(4) Explain too what each says about the nature of human life and our relationship with the gods.
In both story Gilgamesh and Genesis, Gods have the power to control human since Gods created them. In Genesis, the relationship between human and god changed after the flood. Before the flood, God said all human were evil, God did not want to live human anymore. God thought he had to destroy them. However, after the flood, God said he will never destroy all living creatures. It can say that God trust human. If God thought that a human could be evil again, he would not make a covenant. Therefore, God established a trust relationship between us. In Gilgamesh, the end of the flood story, one of the Gods Enlil let Utnapishtim and his wife become Gods. Before the flood, Gods said a human was too noisy. It is obvious the relationship between human and Gods were not good. However, these Gods changed human, Utnapishtim and his wife, to Gods. It can say that they accepted a human as part of their community.