1. Textbook • Uses specific words or phrase
• Correct Grammar
• Formal Vocabulary
• Related to the topic
• Important Ideas • Terms or Ideas that is related to the topic/subject
•Sentences, paragraphs, information that describe the topic
•Instruction, Procedures, Steps, Manual, problems and solutions.
• Photos, Bibliography, Citations
•Different Stories • Title
• Page number
• Table of Contents
• About the book
• Bibliography, index
2. Journal Article
3. Academic Essay • Formal words and language.
• Uses proper vocabularies, terms and tenses. • Includes topics in the field of academe.
• Contains opinions, statistics, and quotations
• Contains argumentative topics that may be in our daily lives or in environmental and political aspects. • Title, which is the main idea or argument in your essay. It should first catch the eyes and minds of the readers.
• Contains an introduction where it orientates the readers, identify the focus of the essay and states thesis statement.
• Thesis Statement, which is to say the particular approach or argument the essay will make
• A Body, where it contains supporting details and concluding statements
• A Conclusion where it restate thesis, summarizes argument, and synthesizes your own thoughts
• It sometimes contains bibliography at the end.
4. Thesis/ Dissertation • Always written in third person
• Use simpler words and phrases
• Grammar must be correct
• Avoid redundancy
• Use appropriate vocabulary
• Formal and can be scientific • A problem, an investigation, an experiment, methodology, related literatures and studies, references and summary
• • It contains chapters
• Title page, abstract, appendices, bibliography, table of contents, acknowledgement and approval sheets.
• Chapter I: Introduction
• Chapter II: Review of Related Literature and Studies
• Chapter III: Methodology
• Chapter IV: Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
• Chapter V: Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations
5. Case Study • Uses jargon, scientific terms, like those in thesis/research. • Intensive study about a person, a group of people or a unit, which is aimed to generalize over several units’
• Observational data, qualitative or quantitative datasets Interviews, Analysis and investigation to a problem/case, methodologies, etc. • Almost the same to thesis, but more likely it contains History, Test and Measurements, Discussion and Treatments.
6. Report • Typically deals with everyday problems and issues, business related terms, etc.
• May contain technical terms such as business terms, medical terms, scientific terms, etc. • Contains graphs, charts and data.
• Complex and used at an official level.
• Present and analyzes results, and draw conclusions based on those results so readers can understand a particular problem or situation.
• Examples of subject matter include new technologies, the advisability of launching a new project line, results of a study or experiment, an annual report, or a year old review of developments in the field. • It usually takes the form of a memo, letter or a document like a monthly financial report, monthly activities report, and research and development report.
• Written in sections with headings and sub-headings, which are usually numbered, body and summary.
• May be either narrative, chronological, or both It may not follow a single pattern due to the different case types and description.