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• (1899-1901) President: Emilio F. Aguinaldo
o He signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, which caused the the Spaniards and the Filipinos to call a truce, during the reign of the Spaniards.
o He was the leader of the Philippines during the Spanish-Philippine War and the American-Philippine War.
• (1935-1944) President Manuel L. Quezon
o Created the National Council of Education
o initiated women’s suffrage in the Philippines during the Commonwealth
• (1944-1946) President: Sergio S. Osmeña, Sr.
o organized KALIBAPI, a provisional government during Japanese occupation
o established the Lyceum of the Philippines
• (1943-1945) President: Jose P. Laurel
o Philippine National Bank was rehabilitated and the country joined the International Monetary Fund during his presidency
o joined with U.S. Gen. Douglas McArthur in Leyte on October 20, 1944 to begin restoration of Philippine freedom after Japanese occupation
• (1946-1948) President: Manuel L. Roxas (Died of a heart attack)
o reconstruction from war damage and life without foreign rule began during his presidency
o under his term, the Philippine Rehabilitation Act and Philippine Trade Act laws were accepted by Congress
• (1948-1953) President: Elpidio R. Quirino
o created Social Security Commission
o created Integrity Board to monitor graft and corruption
• (1953-1957) President: Ramon F. Magsaysay
o presidency referred to as the Philippines’ “Golden Years” for its lack of corruption
o Philippines was ranked second in Asia’s clean and well-governed countries during his presidency
• (1957-1961) President: Carlos P. Garcia (1961-1965) President: Diosdado P. Macapagal
o cultural arts was revived during his term
o was the first president to have his remains buried at the Libingan ng mga Bayani
• (1961-1965) Diosdado Macapagal
o declared June 12, 1898 to be Philippines’ Independence Day
o signed the Minimum Wage Law
• (1965-1986) President: Ferdinand E. Marcos
o increased the size of Philippine military and armed forces
o by 1980 the Philippine GNP was four times greater than 1972

• (1986-1992) President: Corazon Cojuangco-Aquino
o first woman to be president of the Philippines or any Asian country
o restored democracy
• (1992-1998) President Fidel V. Ramos
o hosted the fourth Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Leader’s Summit in the Philippines in 1996
o Philippine Stock Exchange became an international favorite during his presidency
• (1998-2001) President: Joseph Ejercito Estrada
o joined other leaders and politicians to try to amend the 1987 Constitution
o cited as one of the Three Outstanding Senators in 1989
• (2001-2010) President: Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
o peso became the best-performing currency of the year in Asia in 2007
o eVAT Law was implemented under her term
• (2010-2016) President: Benigno Simeon “Noynoy” Cojuangco Aquino III
o initiated K-12 education in the Philippines
o renamed the Office of the Press Secretary to Presidential Communications Operations Office and appointed new officers
• (2016-Present) President: Rodrigo “Rody” Roa Duterte a.k.a. Digong

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